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i Kal elvai ovdtv diafapei, h rots



I 891

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First Edition 1885.
Second Edition 1891.


To understand Dante's conception of Paradise, we must
imagine the universe as consisting of nine spheres concentric
with the earth, which is fixed at the centre, and surrounded
by the spheres of air and fire. The sphere of fire is
immediately in contact with that of the Moon, beyond
which come in order those of Mercury, Venus, the Sun,
Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the fixed stars'. The last of all
is the sphere of the First Movement, or Primum Mobile,
which governs the general motion of the heavens from east
to west, and by which all place and time is ultimately
measured. Each of these is under the direction of one of
the angelic orders, 1 and exercises its special influence on
earthly affairs. The three lowest spheres are allotted to the
souls of those whose life on earth was marred by yielding to
the temptations of the world ; the next four to those whose
actions were wholly directed by virtuous motives. The last
two have no special tenants assigned to them, but appear to

] The medieval doctrine on this subject appears to have been
largely drawn from Jewish Cabalistic philosophy. See Ueberweg,
Hist, of Phil. vol. i. 97, especially as to the book called Zohar, com-
posed in the thirteenth century.


serve as common places of meeting, the one to saints, the
other to angels. Finally, outside of all, comes the Empy-
rean heaven, where is neither time nor place, but light only;
the special abode of Deity and resting-place of the saints.

The time occupied in the journey through the different
heavens is twenty-four hours.


Canto IV. line 42, for ' posci ' read i poscia. '
Canto V. line 24, for ( dontate ' read ' dotate. '
Canto VI. line 23, for l ci ' read ' d'.'
Canto VII. line ioo,for ' quando ' read * quanto.'
Canto VIII. line 28, for 'dietro' read f dentro.'
Canto XXII. line 47, for ' fuo ' read ( furo.'
Page 335, line 2, for l proved ' read. ' moved.'


THE transition from the ' Purgatory ' to the ' Paradise ' will
produce, it may be feared, on the minds of many readers
the deterrent effect which Dante himself seems to have
foreseen. Several of the reasons which, in the preface to
the second Cantica, I urged as justifying the claims of that
part of the Commedia to special attention no longer apply.
The mere fact that the doctrine of the Church respecting
the future state would preclude Dante from introducing
many of his own contemporaries as already glorified spirits l
is sufficient, in some measure, to account for a falling-off in
the human interest of the poem. Most of the personages
who are introduced are, as it were, the common property of
all mankind. They do not owe their very identity to their

1 Of his actual acquaintances, Carlo Martello and Piccarda are the
only two who appear ; Albert the Great, Aquinas, Bonaventura, Pope
John XXI (Petrus Hispanus), and possibly Cunizza, the only others
whose lifetime coincided at all with his. In placing Aquinas and
Bonaventura among the saints he only anticipated the Church, but
even in their cases he must have stretched a point, so to speak, in
order to include them. John XXI indeed (who is the only Pope seen
by Dante in Paradise) went very near to be condemned as a heretic.
Quinet's notion of ' the old Ghibelline from the height of heaven letting
fall his sentence of proscription on all the world ' is as ludicrous as
his statement that no one whom Dante had known appears in Paradise
is incorrect.



place in the great poem as do Francesca, Farinata, the two
Counts of Montefeltro, Forese, and a score of others whom
we meet in its first two divisions. Then again it must be
remembered that, while physical pain offers an endless
choice of possibilities, the only pleasure which is admitted
by the dignity of the Christian heaven is in its nature
incapable of much variation. From the lowest sphere to
the highest, it is in the contemplation of God, and the con-
forming of the will to His will, that the souls of the righteous
find their perfect consummation and bliss. The bodily
senses, which were all available as vehicles of torment,
whether for punishment or for chastening, are now reduced
to sight and hearing only. From the objects of these alone
can images be drawn ; and though Dante's genius is nowhere
more conspicuous than in the way he has made use of the
means at his disposal, till the reader himself seems almost
to hear the changing melodies of Heaven and see around
him its 'primal, essential, all-pervading light/ we must
admit that even his genius is at times overweighted, and, in
seeking to avoid monotony, is apt now and again to fall
into what verges on the grotesque.

Let no one, however, suppose that the c Paradise ' shows
any failure in the author's powers. It rather affords a
splendid testimony to the richness of their maturity.
Where, for example, has he equalled that noble summary
of Roman history put into the mouth of Justinian, in which
the reader almost hears the rush of the eagle down his
triumphant course ? Where has he drawn any picture with
clearer and yet with more delicate strokes than in Caccia-
guida's description of the old Florentine life, before pride,
envy, avarice, and the lusts of the flesh had marred its
tranquil purity ? Where, in Dante, or indeed in any other
poet, shall we find dignity pathetic as in the lines perhaps


the most often quoted of the whole poem in which his
exile is foretold ? or stern as in St. Peter's invective,
whereat all heaven grew red, against his unworthy succes-
sors ? For pure beauty of devotion what shall we compare
with St. Bernard's address to the Blessed Virgin ? Nor are
these and the like merely l purple patches/ as some may
deem, inserted in a dull tissue of metaphysics and theology.
For the philosophical student, to be sure, those parts will
possess the deepest interest over which one who reads
solely for literary enjoyment will be inclined to pass most
quickly : though even he, if he does not leave them wholly
unread, will appreciate the skill which has caused a spring
of tender emotion to flow in a desert of metaphysics, and
with a word here or an image there drawn the music of
Apollo's lute out of harsh and crabbed philosophy. But
those who care for such things will know that, dry and
futile as the disquisitions of the schoolmen may sometimes
appear, and erroneous as we now, with our improved means
of observation, can see that their conclusions often were,
they represent learning, acuteness, and industry combined
in a measure of which the world has rarely seen the like.
Between Aristotle and Bacon it would be hard to name any
thinker who, for knowledge of all that was knowable in his
day, and for force and clearness of reasoning upon the
premises that he had, has left such a mark upon human
thought as Aquinas had done, when he was cut off at the
age of forty-nine. Doubtless he and the rest of the great
band of philosophers whom the twelfth and thirteenth cen-
turies brought forth spent their time in efforts to solve the
insoluble ; but are we so very much nearer to success ?
Will Mr. Herbert Spencer's cast seem to the twenty-fifth
century very far beyond the mark of St. Thomas ? This is
not the place to consider how that may be; and I only


wish here to justify myself for having been at some pains
in my notes to consult the interests of those who care to
trace the history of metaphysical speculation. It has
seemed best to give Greek and Latin quotations in the
original. Those for whom they are intended will probably
prefer them in this form, while others would equally skip
them if they were translated. It must, of course, be under-
stood that both Dante and St. Thomas read their Aristotle
only through the medium of a Latin rendering ; but this
appears to have been sufficiently accurate to make it quite
possible for us to follow them in the original Greek.

The remarks made in the preface to the ( Purgatory ' in
regard to the commentators from whom I have derived
most assistance will apply equally to the present instalment.
I ought, however, to have spoken with more gratitude of
Dr. Scartazzini, though I still think that his work would
have been more useful if it were less copious. It is hardly
necessary, except perhaps where one is going to differ from
the best authorities, to review all the opinions of predeces-
sors upon disputed passages, still less to record interpreta-
tions which are obviously erroneous. The only edition of
importance that has been added to those which we then
possessed is Professor Lubin's ; 1 another comprehensive
work, consisting of nearly one thousand closely printed
pages. It contains elaborate studies and analyses of the
poem, discussions on allegorical points, plans, and tables ;
also, along with the text, an ' Ordo,' or rearrangement in a
prose form. I cannot profess to have mastered it ; but it
is evident that it contains much that will be of service to
students, more especially in regard to such matters as the
symbolism of certain passages, or the connexion of the
orders of the angelic hierarchy respectively with the various
1 Padova : Stabilimento della Ditta L. Penada. 1881.


spheres of which the heaven is composed, and so with the
influences which they exercise upon earthly affairs. He
also gives synoptical tables of the three Cantiche, showing
in a convenient form the general structure l of the poem.

Those who wish to study the ' Paradise ' with full com-
prehension will find it expedient not only to consult such
commentators as those to whom I have referred, but to
make themselves familiar with the authorities on whom
Dante chiefly relied. I have given in notes such extracts
as seemed more directly to illustrate passages under con-
sideration ; but extracts alone are not enough. The
student should read, either in the original or in Grote,
Aristotle, De Caelo, Books i. and ii. ; Metaphysica X. Ch. 6
to the end of the book ; and Plato, Timaeus, 27 E 42 D.
I pretermit any reference to Aquinas, both because it is
difficult to select any particular parts where the whole
system is important, and because, so far as selection is
possible, the notes of Philalethes and Scartazzini will be
found excellent guides. Of Dante's own works, Conv. ii.
2-6, 14, 15, iii. 5; De Mon. i. 11-13, n - 2 ; an d, perhaps
most of all, the Epistle to Can Grande, form a useful

We still await the edition of Benvenuto's Commentary,
which has been promised from two quarters ; but, as I said
before, an unknown hand has copied a great deal of it in a
MS. belonging to the University of Cambridge, and of this
I have occasionally availed myself. 2 He appears to have

1 This will perhaps be the best point for drawing attention to the
most notable instance of symmetry in the ' Paradise. ' The three great
invectives against the Popes will be found to occur in the Qth, i8th, and
2;th Cantos.

2 Through the liberality of Mr. William Warren Vernon, the Com-
mentary of Benvenuto is now accessible to all students in its complete
form, and a great assistance it is. It will be found that in the present


been the most intelligent of the early commentators. Pietro
di Dante, as edited by Lord Vernon, is now and then help-
ful ; but, on the whole, one regrets that he did not see
more of his father in more senses than one. I must express
my thanks to Dr. Moore for information as to MS. readings,
and my hope that his labours in this line may soon bear
fruit for Dante students at large. 1 To thank Mr. Henry
Jackson for help is becoming a ' common form ' among
Cambridge men in all works where references to Greek
philosophy have to be made. In the present case his
assistance in tracing various passages to their Aristotelian
source has been of great service to me.

In editing the text, I have had constantly before me the
reprint of the Codex Cassinensis, the MS. I call 'Gg.,'
Lord Vernon's reprint of the four first editions, the two
Aldines, and Witte's large edition. I do not think that
there is any variant of importance which is not to be found
in one or other of these. The various readings given at the
foot of the pages are of course only a selection ; though I
have, as a rule, recorded any which materially affect the
sense, or are in some way typical. It must not, therefore,
be assumed that where no variant is specified the authori-
ties all agree; indeed, it may be taken for granted that
wherever, for example, chiaro occurs, somebody reads caro,
and vice versa ; so with affetto and effetto. Wherever it is a
question of the omission or insertion of the letter , MSS.
are practically indeterminate, this letter being usually de-
noted only by a line over the preceding vowel. To say
more on this point would be trespassing on Dr. Moore's

edition direct references to it have for the most part taken the place of
those to ' Comm. Gg.'

1 ' Contributions to the Textual Criticism of the Divina Commedia '
(Cambridge University Press) has now appeared. It will be seen that
this edition has more than once profited thereby.


province ; but I should like here to express my belief that
in many cases the difference of reading is due to the author
himself, and that as the work proceeded he distributed
copies among his friends, admitting modifications here and
there as they suggested themselves to him. If this be so,
it is clear not only that all search for an f archetype ' will be
fruitless, but that even if we found an undoubted copy in
Dante's own hand it would not necessarily embody the
readings on which he finally decided.

A few words may perhaps be added in reference to
certain forms peculiar to the last part of the Commedia.
First among them comes that remarkable series of reflexive
verbs compounded with in, which are usually quite untrans-
latable except by a periphrasis. Of these I have counted
twenty-six which occur only in this Cantica. That chiarezza,
chiarita^ chiarire, should be found here and not elsewhere,
is perhaps due to the special need of terms implying bright-
ness ; but this is not enough to account for farvente and
parvenza^ which occur pretty frequently, though entirely
absent from the former parts of the poem, nor for a large
proportion of the words given in the Glossary. I am
strongly inclined to suspect that an investigation of these
forms might give a clue to Dante's most frequent place of
residence during the time that he was engaged upon the
concluding portion of his work.

November I, 1885.

\2nd Edition, November 1890.]




6 4







1 68






CANTO XXIII ...... 298

CANTO XXIV. ...... 309


CANTO XXVI. . . . . .332

CANTO XXVII ... . 345

CANTO XXVIII . . . . . .358

CANTO XXIX ....... 370


CANTO XXXI .... -397



GLOSSARY . ..... 431




Dante, following the direction of Beatrice's eyes, gazes fixedly at the
sun, and presently finds that he is rising on high. He is aston-
ished thereat, and Beatrice expounds to him the cause of it.

THE glory of Him who moves all things penetrates through
the universe, and shines forth in one quarter more, and less
in another. In the heaven which receives most of His light
was I, and I beheld things which whoso descends thence
has neither knowledge nor power to tell again, seeing that

LA gloria di Colui che tutto muove,
Per F universo penetra, e risplende
In una parte piu, e meno altrove.

Nel ciel che piu della sua luce prende
Fu' io, e vidi cose che ridire
Ne sa nb pub qual di lassu discende ;

1 che tutto muove. S. T. ii. 2. Q. 104. A. 4: Deus est primus
motor omnium qui naturaliter moventur. It will be seen throughout
that God is identified with the KIVOVV ou KLVOTU^VOV of Aristotle, Metaph.
A. 7. See note to 1. 76, post.

5 - 6 Cf. 2 Cor. xii. 4.



as it draws near to its desire our understanding plunges so
deep, that the memory cannot go after it. Howbeit, so much
of the holy realm as I could treasure up within my mind
shall now be matter for my lay.

O good Apollo, at my latest labour make me a vessel of
thy power so fashioned as thou requirest for the gift of the
beloved laurel. Up to this point the one peak of Parnassus
has sufficed me, but now with both it is meet that I enter
on the remaining lists. Enter thou into my breast and

Perche appressando se al suo disire,
Nostro intelletto si profonda tanto,
Che retro la memoria non pub ire.

Veramente quant' io del regno santo 10

Nella mia mente potei far tesoro,
Sara ora materia del mio canto.

O buono Apollo, all' ultimo lavoro
Fammi del tuo valor si fatto vaso,
Come dimandi a dar T amato alloro.

Insino a qui 1' un giogo di Parnaso
Assai mi fu, ma or con ambedue
M' e uopo entrar nell' aringo rimaso.

Entra nel petto mio, e spira tue,

7 al SUO disire : that is to God, ro opeKrhv, KLVOVV ws epu/jLevov.
S. T. i. Q. 44. A. 3 : Omnia appetunt Deum ut finem. Cf. Conv.
iii. 2.

ie-18 There is some difficulty as to the two peaks of Parnassus. The
mountain was ' Bromio Phoeboque sacer,' but it is plain that Dante is
referring to his invocations of the Muses, Inf. ii. 7 and Pg. i. 8, and an
allusion to Bacchus, though some commentators have been satisfied with
it, would be out of place here. Probably, like Landino after him, he
confused the ' biceps Parnassus ' with Helicon and Cithaeron. giogo,
as Philalethes notes, probably suggested the other sense of the Lat.
jugum, and so the metaphor of the racecourse.


inspire, in such wise as when thou drewest forth Marsyas
from the sheath of his limbs. O power divine, if thou
impart thyself to me until I make manifest the image of the
blessed realm which is stamped within my head, thou wilt
see me come to the tree beloved by thee, and crown myself
then with those leaves whereof my matter and thou will
make me worthy. So seldom, Father, is aught plucked
thereof for the triumphing of either Caesar or poet (a fault

Si come quando Marsia traesti 20

Delia vagina delle membra sue.
O divina virtu, se mi ti presti

Tanto che P ombra del beato regno

Segnata nel mio capo io manifesti, a
Venir vedra' mi al tuo diletto legno, b

E coronarmi allor di quelle foglie, c

Che la materia e tu mi farai degno.
Si rade volte, Padre, se ne coglie,

Per trionfare o Cesare o poeta

a capo m. Gg. Aid. b Vedrami al pie del t. d. I. Gg.

c Venir ; e coronarmi delle f. Gg.

10 The reason for the introduction of Marsyas is not clear ; but it
may be meant as an indirect warning to those who would sing without
inspiration. Cf. the allusion to the Picae in Purg. i. n. The story of
Marsyas is told in Ov. Met. vi. 381 sqq. and Fasti vi. 703 sqq.

24 Some omit io, regarding manifest! as the second person, which
gives perhaps even a better sense: ' grant thyself to me until thou
bring to light what is now shadowed in my brain.'

27 che is a kind of general relative, standing for 'who,' ' whose,'
* where,' 'when,' etc., as the sense requires. See note to Purg. i. 3,
and Diez iii. 348 ; also Corticelli, s. v. French que is used even more
freely in a similar way. Diez considers that in this use both represent
the Lat. quam.


and a reproach of the wills of men) that the leaf of Peneus
ought to bring forth joy upon the joyous godhead of
Delphi whenever any is athirst for it. A mighty flame
follows a little spark ; haply after me will men pray with
better words, for Cirrha to make answer.

Through divers passages arises to mortals the lamp of
the world ; but from that one which joins four circles with
three crosses, it issues with a better course and in conjunc-

(Colpa e vergogna dell' umane voglie), -30

Che partorir letizia in su la lieta
Delfica Deita dovria la fronda,
Peneia, quando alcun di se asseta. d
'Poca favilla gran fiamma seconda :

Forse diretro a me con miglior voci e
Si preghera, perche Cirra risponda.

Surge ai mortali per diverse foci

La lucerna del mondo ; ma da quella,
Che quattro cerchi giugne con tre croci,

d altrui Gg.
6 Dietro da seforse Cass. 14 ; da me 23. Forse retro d. m. W.

36 Cirrha, on the coast a few miles distant from Delphi, seems to
have been by the Latin poets confused with Crissa, the town more
immediately connected with the oracle. Pliny (iv. 4), however, dis-
tinguishes them. See on the whole subject, Grote, Hist. Gr. Part II.
ch. xxviii. Here, of course, Cirra is practically synonymous with

37 ' Dividitur ista pars, seu tertia cantica, quae Paradisus dicitur,
principaliter in duas partes, scilicet in prologum et partem executivam.
Pars secunda incipit ibi : Surgit mortalibus per diversas fauces. '
Epistle to Can Grande.

38, 39 The equator, the ecliptic, and the equinoctial colure, or great
circle through the equinoxes and the pole of the equator, intersect on
the first point of Aries. At sunrise about the spring equinox this
point is therefore on the horizon, which makes the fourth circle : the
three crosses being made by the others with it. Aristotle (De Gen. et


tion with a better constellation, and more to its own fashion
moulds and seals the wax of the world.

The morning on that side and the evening on this had
made that passage as it were, and there all that hemisphere
was white, and the other part dark, when I saw Beatrice
turned round upon the left flank, and gazing at the Sun :
never did eagle so fix himself on it. And as a second ray
is wont to issue from the first and mount upwards again,

Con miglior corso e con migliore Stella 40

Esce congiunta, e la mondana cera
Piu a suo modo tempera e suggella.

Fatto avea di la mane e di qua sera
Tal foce quasi, e tutto era la bianco f
Quello emisperio, e 1' altra parte nera,

Quando Beatrice in sul sinistro fianco
Vidi rivolta, e riguardar nel sole :
Aquila si non gli s' affisse unquanco.

E si come secondo raggio suole

Uscir del primo e risalire insuso, 50

f Tal foce e qtiasi Gg. Bi.

Corr. ii. 9) holds that the cause of creation and dissolution is the sun's
movement in the ecliptic : ou% TJ irpdorf] 0opa atria, earl yev&eus Kal
(fidopas, dXV T) /caret, rbv \obv KIJK\OV . . . op&juiev yap on 7rpo(TL6vTOS
fjL^v TOV 7j\tov ytveais ecmv' airibvTos 6 00t<m. So Met. X. 5> 6.

43-45 The time, as we know from Purg. xxxiii. 104, was just mid-day
(not, as Philalethes takes it, ' the moment of sunrise '), and accordingly
the hemisphere in which Dante was, was all illuminated, mane must
be understood as the space from sunrise to noon. For fatto, cf. Purg.
ix. 8. On this side of the earth the 'evening,' i.e. the time from
sunset to midnight, had l made ' the like ' passage ' on the other side.
It may be noted that Hell is entered at sunset, Purgatory at sunrise,
and Heaven at ' high noon. ' quasi, because the time was a few days
after the equinox, and therefore the sun's path did not pass exactly
through the point named. It seems better to take it thus than to read
with Bianchi, ' e quasi tutto. '


even like a pilgrim who wills to return ; so of her action,
poured through the eyes into my imagination, did mine
frame itself, and I fixed my eyes on the Sun beyond our

Much is lawful there which here is not lawful to our
powers, thanks to the place made for a property of the
human kind. I endured it not much, but not so little that
I did not see it sparkle all about, like iron which comes
forth seething from the fire. And of a sudden day seemed
to be added to day, as though He that has the power had
adorned the heaven with a second sun. Beatrice was
standing all fixed with her eyes upon the eternal wheels ;

Pur come peregrin che tornar vuole,

Cos! dell' atto suo, per gli occhi infuso
Nell' immagine mia, il mio si fece,
E fissi gli occhi al sole oltre a nostr' uso. g

Molto e licito la, che qui non lece

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