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The Vision : or, Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise, of Dante Alighieri online

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Ben puoi '1 Regno me tor tu che mo 'I destl.

And by Maffei, in the Merope:

Tu disciogleste
Quests misere membra e tu Is annodi.
V. 79. In that fair region.']

Del bel paese 1^, dove '1 si suona.
Italv, as exjilained by Dante liimself, in Ids treatise De Vulg. Eloq. 1. i.
c. 8. Qui autem Si dicunt a pr.'cdictis finibus. (Januensium) Orienta-
Ism (Meridionalis Europa3 partem) tenent; videlicet usque ad promon-
torium illud Italia", qua sinus Adriatic! maris incipit et Siciliam."

V. 82. Capraia and Oorgona.] Small islands near the mouth of the
Arno.
V. 94. There very weeping svffers not to weep. ]

Lo pianto stesso li pianger non lascia.
So Giusto de' Conti, Bella Mano. Son. "Quanto il ciel."

Che il troppo pianto a me pianger non lassa.
V. 116. The friar Alberigo.} Alberigo de' Manfredi, of P'aenza, one of
the Frati Godenti, Joyous Friars, who having quarrelled with some of his
brotherhood, under i)retenco of wishing to be reconciled, invited them to
a banquet, at the conclusion of which he called for the fruit, a signal for
tho assassins to rush in and dispatch those whom he had marked for de-
struction. Hence, adds Landino, it is said proverbially of one who has
been sbibbed, that he has had some of the friar Alberigo's fruit.
Thus Pulci, Morg. Magg. c. xxv.

Le f rutto amare di frate Alberico.
V. 123. Ptolomea.] This circle is named Ptolomea from Ptolemy, the
son of Abubus, by whom Simon and his sous were murdered, at a great
banquet he had made for them. See 1 Maccabees, ch. xvi.
T. 12G. TJie glazed tcai'-drops.]

— sorrow's sys, glazed Avith blinding tears.

Shak.y)eare, Rich. II. a 2. s. 2.

V. 13G. Branca Doria.} The family of Doria was possessed of great



HELL. 893

influence in Genoa. Branca is said to liave murdered liis fj^tliei-in-hut,
Micliel Zanclie, introduced in Canto XXII.
V. 152. Bomagtia's dai-kest spirit.] The friar Alljcrigo.

CANTO XXXIV.

V. 6. A wind-miU.] The author of the Caliph Vathek, in the notos to
that tale, justly observes, that it is more than proljaLle that Don
■Quixote's mistake of the wind-mills for giants was suggested to Cervan-
tes by this simile.

V. 37. Three faces.'] It can scarcely be doubted but that Milton derived
his description of Satan in those lines,

Each passion dimm'd his face
Thrice chang'd with pale, ire, envy, and despair.

P. L. h. iv. 114.
from this passage, coupled with the remark of Vellutello upon it: " Tlie
first of these sins is auger, which he signifies by the red face; the second,
represented by that between pale and yellow, is envy, and not, as others
have said, avarice; and the third, denoted by the black, is a melancholy
humour that causes a man's thoughts to be dark and evil, and averse
from all joy and tranquillity."
V. 44. Sails.]

— His sail-broad vans
He spreads for flight.

Milton, P. L. b. ii. 927.
Compare Spenser, F. Q. b. i. c. xi. st. 10; Ben Jonson's Every Man out
of his Humour, v. 7; and Fletcher's Prophetess, a. 2. s. 3.

V. 46. Like a hut.] The descrijitiou of an imaginary being, who is
called Typhurgo, in the Zodiaciis Vitm, has some touches very like this
of Dante's Lucifer.

Ingentem vldi regem, ingentique sedenteni
In solio, crines flammanti stemmate ciuctum,

utrinque pateutes

Alse hunieris magnre, quales vespertilionum

Membrauis coutexta' auijilis —

Nudus crat longis sed opeitns corpora villis.

M. Palitu/enii, Zod. Vit. 1. ix.
A mighty king I might discerne,

Plac'd hie on lofty chaire,
His haire with fyry garland deckt

Puft up in fiendisli wise.



Largo wings on him did gnnv
Framde like the wings of fliudcr mice, <fec.

Goofje's Translation.
V. 61. Bridits.] Landiuo struggles, but I fear in vain, to extricate
Brutus from the unworthy lot wliicli is heie assigned him. He maintains,
that by Brutus and Cassius are not meant tlie iudixidnals known by
those names, but any who put a lawful monarcli to death. Ytt i| Caesar
was such, tlie conspirators might bo regarded as deserving of their
doom.



394 NOTES.

V. 89. Within one hour nntl half of noon.] Tlio Poet uses tlic HeLiow
niannor of compiitiiiR tho day, .'iccordinj; to which the third hour answers
to our twelve o'doclc at noon.

V. I'JO. By ichut of firm land on this side appears.] The mountain of
Purgatory.

V. 12:1 Tho vaulted tomb.] " La tomba." Tliis word is used to ex
weea tho whole depth of the infernal rej^iou.



-[



i^xji^o^^Toi^^sr.



CANTO I.

Verse 1. O'er better toaves.] So Bernl, Orl. Inn. 1. 2. c. 1.

Per correr magsior acqiia alza le velo,
debil navicella del niio iiigegno.
V. 11. Birds of chattering note.] For the fable of tlie daughter? of
Pierus, wlio challenged the muses to sing, and were by thcin chanyed
into magpies, see Ovid, Met. 1. v. fab. 5.
V. 19. Planet.] Venus.

V. 20. Made all the orient laugh.] Hence Chaucer, Knight's Talc:
And all the orisout laugheth of the sight.
It is sometimes read " orient."

V. 24. Fortr .stars.] Symbolical of the four cardinal virtues, Prndei ",o.
Justice, Fortitude, and Temperance. See Canto XXXI v. 105.
V. 30. The icai7i.] Charles's wain, or Bootes.
V. 31. Anoldma7i.] Cato.

V. 42. Venerable plumes.] The same metaphor has occurred hi IMl,
Canto XX. v. 41:

the plumes,

That mark'd the better sex.
It is used by Ford in the Lady's Trial, a. 4. s. 2.

Now the down
Of softness is exchang'd for i)lumes of age.
V. 58. The farthest gloom.] L' ultima sera. So Ariosto, 0. F. c. .xx v •
Bt, 59:

Che nou hau visto ancor 1' ultima sera.
And Filicaja, c. ix. Al Sonno.

L' ultima sera.
▼.79. Marcia.l

Da fojdera priscl
niibata tori : da tantum nomen inane
Connubii: liceat tumulo scripsisse, Catonia
Martia. Lncan, Phars. 1. ii. 344.

V. 116. Ispy'd the trembling of the ocean stream.]

Conobbi il tremolar della ni.-irina.
So Trissino, in the Sofonisba:

E resta in tremolar I'ond.a marin.T,.

395



390 NOTKS.

And Fortlgiiorm, Ricclnrdotto, c. ix. pt. 17.

visto il tromolar dolla marina.

V. 135. Another.] From Virf;. Mn. 1. vi. IKt.

Primo avuleo iion deficit alter.

CANTO II.

V. 1. Now had the mn.] Danto was now antipodal to Jenis.alem; so
that wliilo the nun was sottlii^ with rcHpect to that place, which ho sup-

] looses to ho the iiiiddlo of the inhabited earth, to him it waa rising.

j V. 6. The scales.] Tho constellation Libra.

I V. 35. Winnowinc; the air.]

\ Trattiindo I'aere con I'eterne peune.

1 SoFilicaja, canz. viii. st. 11.

\ Ma trattar I'aero coll' eterne plume.

\ V. 45. In eritu.] " When Israel camo out of Ef,'ypt." Ps. cxlv.

I V. 75. Thrice my hands.]

I Ter coiiatus ibi collo dare brachia circnm,

I Ter fniHtra comprensa manus effny:it imago,

! Par levibus ventis volucriquo eiuiillima Pomno.

\ Virg. jEn. ii. 7i^.

Compare Homer, Od. XI. 205.

V. 88. My Casella.] A Florentine, celebrated for his skill in music,
" in whose company," says Landinc, " Dante often recreated his spirits,
wearied by severe studies.'' See Dr. Bnrney's History of Music, vol. ii.
c. iv. p. 322. Milton has a fine allusion to this meeting in his sonnet to

s Henry Lawes.

L V. 90. Hath so mvch time been lost.] Casella }iad been dead some

i; years, but was only just arrived.

1^ V. 91. He.] The conducting angel.

t V. 94. Thc.ie three months past.] Since the time of the Jubilee, during

i; which all spirits, not condemned to eternal punishment, were supposed
to pass over to Purgatory as soon as they pleased.

; V. 96. The shore.] Ostia.

j V. 170. " Love that discoiirses in my thxni(/hts."]

^ " Amor che nella mente mi ragiona."

I The first verse of a canzone, or song, in the Convito. of Dante, which

I he again cites in his Treatise de Vulg. Eloq. 1. ii. c. vL

CANTO in.

T. 9. Hoio doth a little/ailing wound thee sore.]

Ch'era al cor picciol fallo amaro niorso.

Tasso, L. c. x. st 69.

V. 11. Haste, that mars all decency of act.] Aristotle in his Pliv siog. c.
ill. reckons it among the avaihoi,<; arnxfla " the signs of an imi)ndent ni.an,"
that he is ev rai? Ktvija-etTiv clii?, " quiclc in his motions." Compare

S<)l>hocles, Eloctra, 878. To Koa/Jnov utOelaa,

2(i. 7() Xaplcs.] Virgil died at IJrundusium, from whence his bodj
is said to have lM'<^n removed to Naples.



PUROATORY.



3§7



V. 38. Desiriiif/ fruitlessli/.] See II. Cuiito IV. 39.

V. 49. 'Twixt Lerice and Tiirbia.] At that time tlie two extremities of
the Genoese republic, the former on tlio east, tlie latter on the west. A
very ingenious writer has had occasion, for a different purpose, to nion-
tiou one of these places as remarkably secluded by its mountainous
situation. " On an eminence among the mountains, between the two
little cities, Nice and Manoca, is the vilhige of Torbia, a name formed
from the Greek rponaia.," Mitford ou the Harmony of Language, sect.
XV. p. .351. 2d edit.

V. 78. As sheep.] The imitative nature of these animals supplies our
Poet with another comparison in his Convito, Opere, t. i. p. o4. Ediz.
Ven. 1793.

110. Manfredi. King of Naples and Sicily, and the natural son of
Frederick II. He was lively and agreeable in his manners, and delighted
in poetry music, and dancing. But he was luxurious and ambitious, void |
of religion, and in his philosophy an Epicurean. See (j. Villani, 1. vi. c. j
xlvii. and Mr. Matthias's Tirabosclii, v. i. p. 38. He fell in tlie battle
-with Charles of Anjou in 1265, alluded to in Danto XXVIII. of Hell, v.
13. " Dying excommunicated. King Charles did not allow of his being
buried iu sacred ground, but he was interred near the bridge of Bene-
vento, and on his grave there was cast a stone by every one of the arni3',
■whence there was formed a great mound of stones. But some have said,
that afterwards, by command of the Pope, the IMsliop of Cosenza took up
his body and sent it out of the kingdom, because it was the land of the
church, and that it was buried by the river Verde, ou the borders of the
kingdom and of Cauipagua. This, however, we do not affirm." G. Vil-
lani, Hist. 1. vii. c. 9.

V. 111. Costanza.'] See Paradise, Canto III. v. 121.

V. 112. My fair daughter.'] Costanza, the daughter of Manfredi, and
wife of Peter III. King of Arragon, by whom she was mother to Freder-
ick, King of Sicily, and James, King of Arragon. With the latter of these
she was at Rome 1296. See G. Vilhini, L viii. e. 18. and notes to Canto
VU.

v. 122. Clement.'] Pope Clement IV.

V. 127. The stream of Ve^'de.] A river near Ascoli, that falls into the
Toronto. The "extinguished lights" formed part of the ceremony at
the interment of one excommunicated.

v. 130. Hope.]

Mentre che la eperanza ha fior del verde.
So Tasso, G. L. c. xix. st. 53.

infin che verde h fior di speme.

CANTO IV.

V. 1. When.] It must be owned the beginning of this Canto is some-
what obscure. Vellutello refers, for an elucidation of it, to the reason-
ing of Statins in the twenty-fifth Canto. Perhaps some illustration may
be derived from the following pass:ige in South's Sermons, in which I
have ventured to supply the words between crotchets that seemed to be
wanting to complete the sense. Now whether these three, judgment,
memory, and invention, are three distinct things, both in being distin-
guished from one another, and likewise from tlie substance of the soul
itself, considered without any such faculties; [or whether the soul be
one individual substance] but only receiving these several denomiua-



398 NOTES.

tions from tlie BOvcral respects iirisinii from the several actions exeifod
imnicili.'itcly bv itself upon scvoral olijcctrt, or several (iiialities of the
eanie object; I'say wlicthcr of these it is, is not easy to (Icctidc^, and it is
well that it is not necessary. Aquinas, and most witli hiin, allirm the
former, and Scotus witli his followers the latter." Vol. iv. Serin. 1.

V. 2."5. Sanlco.] A fortress on the summit of Montefeltro.

V. 24. Noli.] In the Cicnoese territory, between Finale and Savona.

V. 25. Jiismantua.] A steep mountain in the territory of Kej;;;io.

V. 55. From the left.] Vellutello observes an imitatiou of Lucan in
this passage :

Ignotum vobis, Arabes, venistia in orbera,
Umbras mirati uemorum uou ire sinistras.

Phars. 1. iii. 248.

V. 69. Thou wilt see.] " If yon consider tliat tliis monntain of I'urga-
tory and that of Sion are antipodal to each other, yon will perceive that
the sun nnist rise on opposite sides of the respective eminences."

V. 119. Bclacqua.] (Jouceruiug this man, the com meutators afford no

i information.
CANTO V.

■< V. 14. Be as a tower.] Sta come torre ferma.

I So Berni, Orl. Inn. 1. 1. c. x\\. st 48:

j In quei due piedi sta fermo il gigante

i Com' nna torre in mezzo d'un castello.

I And MUton P. L. b. i. 591.

\ Stood like a tower.

iv. 36. Ne'er saw I fiery vapours.] Imitated by Tasso, G. L. c. xix.
Bt 62:
Tal suol fendendo liquido sereno
Stella cader della gran uiadre in seno.

I And by Milton, P. L. b. iv. 558 :

I Swift as a shooting star

j In autumn thwarts the night, when vapours fir'd

i Impress the air,

S T. 67. That land.] The Marca d'Ancona, between Romagna and

E Apulia, the kingdom of Charles of Anjou.

; V. 73. From thence I came.] Giacopo del Cassero, a citizen of Fano,

■ who having spoken ill of Azzo da Este, Marquis of Ferrara, was by his

\ orders put to death. Giacopo was overtaken by the assassins at Oriaco,

i a place near the Brenta, from whence, if he had fled towards Mira,

! higher up on that river, instead of making for the marsh on the sear-
shore, he might have escaped.
Y. 75. Antenor's land.] The city of Padua, said to be founded by
S Antenor.

IV. 87. Of Montefeltro I.] Buonconte (son of Guido da Montefeltro,
whom we have had in the twenty-seventh Canto of Hell) fell in the
battle of Campaldino (1289), fij;liting on the side of the Aretini.
; V. 88. Giovanna.] Either the wife, or kinswoman, of Buonconte.

', V. 94. Tlie hermit's seat.] The hermitage of Canialdoli.

V. 95. Where its 7iame is cancel'd.] That is, between Bibbiena and
• Poppi, where tlie Archiauo falls into the Anio.



rUKGATORY. 399

V. 115. From Pratomagito to the mountain range.'] From Pratomagno,
now called Prato Vecchio (which divides the Valdarno from Caseutiiio),
as far as to the Apeimiue.

V. 131. Pia.] She is said to have been a Sieiniese lady, of the family
of Tolommei, secretly made away with by her husband, Nello della
Pietra, of the same city, in Maremma, where he had some possessions.

CANTO VI.

V. 14. Of Arezzo him."] Benincasa of Arezzo, eminent for his skill in jiv
risprudence, who, having condemned to death Tiirrinoda Turrita, brotliei
of Ghino di Tacco, for his robberies in Maremma, was nnirdered by
Ghino, in an apartment of his own house, in the presence of many wit-
nesses. Ghino was not only suffered to escape in safety, but (as tlie
commentators inform us) obtained so high a rejmtation V)y the liberality
■with which he was accustomed to dispense tlie fruits of his plunder, and
treated those who fell into his hands with so much courtesy, that he was
afterwards invited to Rome, and knighted by Boniface VIU. A story is
told of him by Boccaccio, G. x. N. 2.

V. 15. Him. beside.'] Ciacco de' Tarlatti of Arezzo. He is said to have
been carried by his horse into the Arno, and there drowned, while he
"was in pursuit of certain of his enemies.

V. 17. Frederic Novello.] Son of the Coute Guido da Battifolle, and
elaiu by one of the family of Bostoli.

V. 18. Of Pisa he.] Farinata de* Scornigiani of Pisa. His father
Marzuco, who had entered the order of thePrati Minori, so entirely over-
came the feelings of resentment, that he even kissed tlie liands of tlie
slayer of his son, and, and as he was following the funeral, exhorted his
kinsmen to reconciliation.

V. 20. Count Oi'so.] Son of Napoleone da Cerbaia, slain by Alberto da
Mangona, his uncle.

V. 23. Peter de la Brosse.] Secretary of Philip III. of France. The
courtiers, envying the high place which he held in the king's favour, pre-
vailed on Mary of Brabant to charge him falsely with an attempt upon
her person ; for which supposed crime he suffered deatlu

So say the Italian commentators. Henault represents the matter very
differently: "Pierre de la Brosse, formerly barber to St. Louis, after-
wards the favourite of Philip, fearing the too great attachment of the
king for his wife Mary, accuses this princess of having poisoned Louis,
eldest son of Philip, by his first marriage. This calumny is discovered
by a nun of Nivelle in Flanders, La Brosse is hung." Abrege Chrou.
1275, &c

V. 30. In thy text.] He refers to Virgil, ^n. 1, vi. 376.

Desine fata deum flecti sperare precaudo.
T. 37. The sacred height

Of judgment.]
So Shakspeare, Measure for Measure, a. ii. s. 2.

If he, which is the top of judgment
V. 66. Eying us as a lion on his watch.]

A guisa di Leon quando si posa.
A line taken by Tasso, G. L. c. x. st. 56.

V. 75. Sordcllo.] The history of Sordello's life is Avrapt in the obscur-
ity of romance. That he distinguished himself by his skill in Provcu(;al



400 NOTES.

poetry is certain. It is iiroltablc that he was Iwrn towards tlie end of thi
twelftli, and died about tlio iiiiddli; of tlin succeed in, u% ceiitiirv. Tinihosclii
lias takcMi imuli pains to sift all the notices ho coid<l collect relatinj,' to
iiini. IlononiabU' mention of his name is niiide by our I'oct iu the Trea-
tise de Vnl^j. I'^bx]. 1. i. c 15.
V. 7(j. Thou inn of (jrief.]

Thou most beauteous inn.
Why gliould hard-favour'd Rrief l)e lod^'M in theeV

Shakspeare, lUduird II. a. 5. s. 1.

V. 80. Jm^tinian's hand.] " Wliat avails it that Justinian delivered
tliee from the (Joths, and reformed thy laws, if tliou art no longer uiuler
the control of his successors in the empire? "

V. ;»4. Thai ivhich God comnumds.] He alludes to the j)recept — " Iten-
der unto Ca-sar the tilings which are C.'csar's.''

V. 98. German Albert .'] The Emperor Albert I. succeeded Adolplius
iu 1298, and was murdered in 1308. See Par. Canto XIX. 114.

V. 103. Thif successor.] The successor of Albert was Henry of Luxem-
burg, by whose interposition in the affairs of Italy our Poet hoped to have
been reinstated in his native city.

V. 104. Thi/ sire.] The Empereor Rodolph, too intent on increasiu";
his power in Germany to give much of his thoughts to Italy, "the garden
of the empire."

[ V. 107. Capnlets a7id Montagues.] Our ears are so familiarized to the

\ names of these rival families in the language of Shakspeare, that I have

used them inste,'id of the " Moutecchi " and "Cappelletti."
I V. 108. Philippeschi and Monaldi.] Two other rival families in

[ Orvieto.

V. 113. What safety Santafiore can svpply.] A place between Pisa and
Sienna. What he alludes to is so doubtful, that it is not certain whether
■we should not read "come si cura" — "How Santafiore is governed."
Perhaps the event related iu the note to v. 58, Canto XL may bo pointed
at.
V. 127. Marcellus.] Uu Marcel diventa

Ogni villan che parteggiaudo vieue.
Bepeated by Alamauni iu his Coltivazione, 1. i.

V. 51. A sick wretch.] Imitated by the Cardinal de Polignac in his
Anti-Lucretius, 1. i. 1052.

Ceu lectum peragrat membris langnentibns reger,
In latus alterne l.^evum dcxtrumque recumbens:
Nee jnvat: inde oculos toUit resupinus in altum :
Nusquam inventa quics; semper qutesita: quod illi
Primum in deliciis fuerat, niox torquet et augit;
Nee morbum sanat, uec fallit taidia morbi.

CANTO VIL

V. 14. Where one of mean estate might clasp his lord.] So Arioeto,
Ori. F. c. xxiv. St. 19.

E I'abbracciaro, ove ii maggior s'abbraccia,
Col capo nudo e col ginocchio chino.

V. 31. Tlie three holy virtues.] Faith, Hope and Charity.

V. 32. T?ierest.] Prudence, Justice, Fortitude, and Temperance.



PURGATORY. 401

V. 72. Fresh emeralds.]

Under foot the violet,
Crocus, and hyacinth with rich inliiy
Broider'd the ground, more colour'd tlian with stoue
Of costliest emblem.

Milion, P. L. b. iv. /03.

Compare Ariosto, Orl. F. c. xxxiv. st. 49.

V. 79. Salve Regina.] The beginning of a prayer to the Virgin. It is
sufficient here to observe, tliat in similar instances I shall either preserve
the original Latin words or translate them, as it may seem best to suit
the purf)ose of the verse.

V. 91. The Emperor Rodolph.] See the last Canto, v. 104. He died in
1291.

V. 95. That cotintry.] Bohemia.

V. 97. Ottocar.'] King of Bohemia, was killed in the battle of March-
field, fought with Rodolph, August 2G, 1278. Winceslaus II., his son,
who succeeded him iu the kiugdoni of Ijoliemia. died in 1305. He is
again taxed with luxury in the Paradi.se, Canto XIX. 123.

V. 101. That one ivith the nose deprest.] Pliilip III. of France, who died
iu 1285, at Perpignan, in his retreat from Arragon.

V. 102. Ilim 0/ gentle look.] Henry of Navarre, father of Jane married
to Philip IV. of France, whom Dante calls " lual di Francia "— " Gallia's
bane."

V. 110. He so robust of limb.] Peter III. called the Great. King of
Arragon, who died in 1285, leaving four sons, Alonzo, James, Frederick,
and Peter. Tlie two former succeeeded him iu the kingdom of Arragon,
and Frederick hi that of Sicily. See G.Villani, 1. vii. c. 102. and Mariiina,
I. xiv. c. 9.

He is enumerated among the Provenc^al poets by Millot, Hist. Litt. des
Troubadours, t. iii. p. 150.

V. 111. Him of feature prominent] "Dal maschio naso" — with the
masculine nose." Charles I. King of Naples, Count of Anjou, and
brother of St. Louis. He died iu 1284.

The annalist of Florence remarks, that " there had been uo sovereign
of the house of France, since the time of Charlemagne, by whom Charles
was surpassed either in military renown, and prowess, or in the loftiness
of his understanding." G. Villaui, 1. vii. c. 94. We shall, however, find
many of his actions severely reprobated iii the twentieth Canto.

V. 113. That stripling.] Either (as the old commentators suiijiose)
Alonzo III. King of Arragon, the eldest son of Peter III. who died iu
1291, at the age of 27 ; or, according to Venturi, Peter the youngest son.
The former was a young prince of virtue sufficient to have justified tlie
eulogium and the hopes of Dante. See Mariana, 1. xiv. c. 14.
V. 119. Raraly.]

Full well can the wise poet of Florence,

That hight Dante, speaken iiithis sentence ;

Lo ! in such manner rime is Dantestale.

Full selde uprisetli by liis brandies smale

Prowesse of man, for God of his gooduesse

AVoll that we claim of him our geutleuesse :

For of our elders may we nothing claime

But temporal thing, that men may hurt and maime.

Chaucer, Wife of Bathe's Tale.
26



402 NOTES.

Compare Homer, Od. b. ii. v. 276 ; Pindar, Ncm. xi. 48 ; and r.ini- j
pides, l'".lectra, 'Mii. j

V. 1122. To Vhurles.] "Al Nasuto."—" Charles II. King of Naples, is 1
no le.'^s inferior to his father Charles I. than James and Fiederick to S
tlieirs, Peter III." ',

V. 127. C'o,s/a?(2;a.] Widow of Peter 111. She has been already men-
tioned in the third Canto, v. 112. By Beatrice and Margaret are prob-
ably meant two of the daughters of Raymond Herenger, Count of Pio-
vcnce ; the former married to St. Louis of France, the latter to his
liidther Charles of Anjon. See Paradise, Canto Yl. 135. Dante there-
fore c(jnsiders Peter as the most illustrious of the tliree monarclis.

V. 129. Harry of Eru/land.] Henry 111.

V. 130. Better issve.] Edward I. of whose glory our Poet was perhaps
a witness, in his visit to England.

V. 133. William, that brave Marquis.] "William, Marquis of Monfer-
rat, was treacherously seized by his own subjects, at Alessandria in
Lombardy, a.d. 12i)0, and ended his life in prison. See G. Villani, L vii.
c. 135. A war ensued between the people of Alessandria and those of
Mouferrat and the Canavese.



CANTO vm.

▼. 6. That seems to mourn for the erpiring day.']

The curfew tolls the knell of parting day.

G7-ay^s Elegy.
V. 13. Te Lucis Ante.] The beginning of one of the evening hymns.
V. 36. As faculty.]

My earthly by his heav'nly overpower'd

As with an object, that excels the sense,
Dazzled and spent.

Milton., P. L. b. viii. 457.

V. 53. Nino, thou courteoiis judge.] Nino di Gallura de' Visconti,
nephew to Count Ugolino de' Gherardeschi, and betrayed by him. See
Notes to Hell, Canto XXXIII.

V. 65. Conrad.] Currado Malaspina.

V. 71. My Giovanna.] The daughter of Nino, and wife of Riccardo da
Cammino of Trevigi.

V. 73. Her mother.] Beatrice, marchioness of Este, wife of Nino, and
after his death married to Galeazzo de' Visconti of Milan.

V. 74. The white and ivimpled folds.] The weeds of widowhood.

V. 80. The viper.] The arms of Galeazzo and the ensign of the Mi-
lanese.

V. 81. Shrill Galhira's bird.] The cock was the ensign of Gallura,



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