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The Vision : or, Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise, of Dante Alighieri online

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Nino's province in Sardinia. Hell, Canto XXII. 80. and Notes.

V. 115. Valdimagra.] See Hell, Canto XXIV. 144. and Notes.

V. 133. Sev'n times the tired sun.] " The sun shall not enter into the
constellation of Aries seven times more, before thou shalt have still
better cause for the good opinion thoii exjn'essest of Valdimagra, in the
kind receptit)!! tliou shalt tliere meet with." Dante was hospitably re-
ceived by the Marchese Marcello Malaspina, during his banishment,
A.D. 1307.



PURGATORY. 403



CANTO IX

T. 1. Now the fair consort of TUhonxis old.'\

La coiicubina di Titone antico.
So Tassoui, Sccchia Rapita, c. viii. st. 15.

La puttanella del canuto aiiiante.
V. 5. Of that chill animal.^ The scorpion.
» V. 14. Our minds.] Compare Hell, Canto XXVI. 7.

V. 18. A (/olden-feathered eac/le.] So Chaucer, in the House of Fame,
at the concln.siou of the lirst book and beginning of tlie .secoiid, repre-
sents himself carried up by the " grini pawes " of a golden eagle. Much,
of his description is closely imitated from Dante. j

V. 50. Lncia.] The enliglitening grace of heaven. Hell, Canto 11. 07. I
V. 85. T/ie loivest stair.] By the white step is meant the distinctness )
with which the conscience of the ])enitent reflects his offences ; by the j
burnt and cracked one, his contrition on their account ; and by that of '
porphyry, the fervour with which lie resolves on the fnture pursuit of |
piety and virtue. Hence, no doubt, Milton describing "the gate of j
heaven," P. L. b. iii. 51G.

Each stair mysteriously was meant. '

V. 100. Seven times.] Seven P's, to denote the seven sins (Peccata) of j

which he was to be cleansed in his i)assage through Purgatory. j

V. 115. One is more prccioiis.] Tb.e golden key denotes tlie divine I

authority by which the priest absolves the sinners : the silver expresses I

the learning and judgment requisite for the due discharge of that office. I

V. 127. Harsh was the grating.] ]

On a sudden open fly I

With impetuous recoil and jarring sonnd i

Til' infernal doors, and on their hinges grate ";

Harsh thunder. Milton, P. L. b. ii. 882. '■

T. 128. The Tarpeian.]

Protinus, abducto patuernnt templa Metello. >

Tunc rupes Tarpeia sonat r niagfioque reclusas
Testatur stridore fores : tunc conditus imo
Eruitur templo multis intactup at aunis
Bouiaui census popali, &c.

LucaTi.. Ph- 1, iii 187.



CANTO X.

T. 6. That wmmd.] Ventnri justly observes, that the Padre d'Aquioo
has misrepresented the sense of this passage in his transhitiou.
— dabat ascensum tendentibus ultra
Scissa tremensque silex, tenuique erratica motu.
The verb " inuover " is used in the same signification in the inferno.
Canto XVIIL 21.

Cos'i da imo della roccia scogli
Movcu.



404 NOTES.

— from tlio rock's low base
Tims Hint}' i)atlis advaiic'd.
Ill neither place is actual motion intendeil to be expressed.

V. 52. That from unbidikii ojjice awes mankind.] Sec 2 Sam. c. vL
6,7.

V. 58. Preccdinf/.] Ibid. 14, &c

V. 08. Grcf/on/.] St. Grofrory's prayers are said to have delivered
Trajan from' hell. See Paradise, Canto XX. 40.

V. ()'.). Trajan th' J'Jmpcror.] For this story, Laiidino refers to two
■writers, wliom he calls " Hennando," of France, by whom ho mcms
Elinaiid, a monk and chronicler, in the reign of Philip Aui^ustus, and
" Polycrato," of England, by whom is meant John of Salisbury, author
of the Polycraticus de Curialiiim Nugis, in the twelfth century. The
passage in the text I find to be nearly a translation from that work, 1. v.
c. 8. The original appears to be in Dio Cassiiis, where it is told of tho
Emperor Hadrian, lib. Ixix. a^cAet yucaDcbs, «• t. a. " when a woman ap-
peared to him with a suit, as he was on a journey, at first he answered
jier, 'I have no leisure ;' but she crying out to him, 'then reigu uo
longer,' he turned about, and heard her cause."

V. 119. As to sup})ort.] Chillingworth, ch. vi. § 54, speaks of " those
crouching anticks, which seem in great buildings to labour under the
weight they bear." And Lord Shaftesbury has a similar illustration iu
his Essay ou V\' it and Humour, p. 4. s. 3.



CANTO XI.

' V. 1. thou Almif/?ity FatJier.'] The first four lines are borrowed by
Pulci, Jlorg. Magg. c. vi.

Dante, iu his ' Credo,' has again versified the Lord's prayer.

V. 58. I icas of Lativm.] Omberto, the son of Guglielmo Aldobran-
desco. Count of Santafiore, iu the territory of Sienna, llis arrogance
provoked his countrymen to such a pitch of fury against him, that he
was murdered by them at Campagnatico.

V. 79. Oderifji/] The illuminator, or miniature painter, a friend of
Giotto and Dante.

V. 83. lioloanian Franco."] Franco of Bologna, who is said to have
been a pupil of Oderigi's.

V. 93. Cimabiie.] Giovanni Cimabue, the restorer of painting, was
born at Florence, of a noble family, iu 1240, and died iu 1300. The paa-
eage iu the text is an illusion to his epitaph :

Credidit ut Cimabos picturze castra tenere,
Sic tenuit viveus : nunc teuet astra poll.

V. 95. The cry is Giotto^s.] In Gi(;tto we have a ])roof at how early a
period the fine arts were encouraged in Italy. His talents were discov-
ered by Cimabue, while he was tending sheep for his father in the
neighbinirhood of Florence, and he was afterwards patronized bv Po])e
Benedict XI. and Robert King of Naples, and enjoyed' the society and
friendship of Dante, whose likeness he has transmitted to posterity. He
died in 133G, at the age of GO.

V. 96. One Guidofrom the other.] Guido Cavalcanti, the friend of our
Poet, (see Hell, Canto X. 59.) had eclipsed the literary fame of Guido
Guiuieelli, of a noble family iu Bologna, whom we shall meet with iu



PURGATORY. 406

the twenty-sixth Canto, .and of whom iTeqnent mention is made by onr
Poet in liis Treatise do Vuls. Eloq. Giiinicelli died in 1276. Many of
Cuvalciinti's writings, hitherto in MS. are now pubUshing at Florence.
Esprit des Journaux, Jan. 1813.

V. 97. He perhaps is born.] Some imagine, with mnch probability,
tliat Dante liere augurs the greatness of his own poetical reputation.
Others have fancied that he prophesies the glory of Petrarch. lUit Pe-
trarch was not yet born.

V. 136. A suitor.] Provenzano Salvani liumbled himself so f.ar for the
pake of one of his friends, who was detained in captivity by Charles I. of
Sicily, as personally to supplicate the people of Sienna to contribute the
Bum required by the king for his ransom : and this act of self-abasement
atoned for his general ambition and pride.

V. 140. Thy ?iei{/hbors soo7i.] " Thou wilt know in the time of thy
banishment, which is near at hand, what it is to solicit favours of others,
and ' tremble through every vein,' lest they should be refused thee."



CANTO XII.

V. 26. The Thymbrcen god.] Apollo,

Si modo, quem perhibes, pater est Thymbrseus Apollo.

Virg. Oeorg. iv. 323.

V. 27. Mars.] "With snch a grace,

Tlie giants that attempted to scale heaven.
When they lay dead on the Phlegneu plain,
Mars did appear to Jove.

Beaumont and Fletcher, The Pro-
phetess, a. 2. s. 3.
T. 42. Rehoboam.] 1 Kings, c. xii. 18.

V. 46. Alcimeon.] Yirg. ^Eu. 1. vi. 445, and Homer, Od. xi. 325.
V. 48. Sennacherib.] 2 Kings, c. six. 37.
V. 58. What master of the pencil or the style.]

—inimitable on earth
By model, or by shading pencil drawn.

Milton, P. L. b. iii. 509.
V. 94. The chapel sta7ids.] The church of San Miniato in Florence,
eituated on a height that overlooks the Arno, where it is crossed by the
bridge Rubaconte, so called from Messer Rubaconte da Mandella, of
Milan, chief magistrate of Florence, by whom the bridge was founded
in 1237. See G. Villani, 1. vi. c. 27.
V. 96. 3%e icell-guided city.] This is said ironically of Florence.
V. 99. The registry.] In allusion to certain instances of fraud com-
mitted with respect to the public accounts and measures. See Paradise,
Canto XVI. 103.

CANTO xm.

V. 26. They have no loine.] John, ii. 3. These words of the Virgin
are referred to as an instance of charity.
V. 29. Ch-estcs.] Alluding to his friendship with Pylades.
V. 32. Love ye those have wrong'd you.] Matt. c. v. 44.



406 NOTES.

V. .•?.•?. The srovrfic'] "Tho chastisement of envy consists in lioaring

exain|iios of tlio ()p|)osite virtue, charity. As a curb and restraint on
this vice, you will presently liear very dill'erent soiuuls, those of tlireab-
enins and punishment."

V. 87. Citizens

Of one true city.']

•' For here we have no continuing city, but we seek to come." Heb.
c. xiii. 14.

V. 101. Sapia.'] A lady of Sienna, who, living in exile at CoUe, was so
overjoyed at a defeat which her countrymen sustained near tliat place,
that slic declared nothing more was wanting to make lier die contented.

V. 114. TIiP merlin.'] The story of tlie merlin is, that having been
induced by a gleam of fine weather in the winter to escape from his
master, he was soon oppressed by the rigour of the season.

V. 119. Tlie hermit Piero.] Piero Pettiuagno, a holy hermit ol
Florence.

V. 141. That vain mnltitmle.] Tlie Siennese. See ITell, Canto XXIX.
117. "Their acquisition of Telamone, a seaport on the confines of the
Maremma, has led them to conceive hojies of becoming a naval power :
but this scheme will prove as chimerical as their former plan for the
discovery of a subterraneous stream under their city." Why they gave
the appellation of Diana to the imagined stream, Veuturi says he leaves
it to the antiquaries of Sienna to conjecture.



CANTO XIV.

T. 34. Malm'd ofPelorus.'] Virg. JKn. 1. iii. 414.
—a hill
Torn from Pelorus.

Milton, P. L. b. i. 232.

V. 45. 'Midst brnte swine.] The people of Casentino.

V. 49. Curs.] The Arno leaves Arezzo about four miles to the left.

V. 53. 'Wolves.] The Florentines.

V. 55. Foxes.] The Pisans.

V. 61. TJiy grandson.] Fulcieri de' Calboli, grandson of Rinieri de'
Calboli, who is here spoken to. The atrocities predicted came to pass in
1302. See G. Villain, 1. viii. c. 59.

V. 95. ' Tiuixl Po, the mount, the Reno, and the shore.] The boundaries
of Romagna.

V. 99. Lizio.] Lizio da Valbona, introduced into Boccaccio's De-
cameron, G. V. N. 4.

V. 100. Manardl, Traversaro, and Carpigna.] Arrigo Manardi of
Faenza, or as some say, of Brettinoro ; Pier Traversaro, lord of Ra-
venna ; and Guido di Carpigna of Montefeltro.

v. 102. In Bologna the Imn artisan.] One who had been a mechanic,
named Lambertaccio, arrived at almost supreme power in Bologna.

V. 103. To)i Dernardin.] Bernardin di Fosco, a man of low origin,
but great talents, who governed at Faenza.

V. 107. Prata.] A place between Faenza and Ravenna.

V. 107. Of Azzo him.] Ugolino, of the Ubaldini family in Tuscany.
He is recouriced among the poets by Crescimbeni and Tiraboschi.

V. 108. Tignoso.] Federigo Tignoso of Rimini.



^-



PURGATORY. 407

V. 109. Traversaro's hoitxe and Anastctf/io's.] Two noble families of
Ravenna. She to whom Dryden has given the name of Honoria, in the
fable so admirably paraphrased from Boccaccio, was of the former : her
lover and tlie spectre were of the Anastagi family.

V. 111. The ladies, d:c.] These two lines express the true spirit of
chivalry. " Agi " is understood by the conmientators whom I have con-
sulted, to mean "the ease procurfd for others by the exertions of
knight-errantry." But surely it signifies the alternation of ease with
labour.

V. 114. Brettiiioro.] A beautifully situated castle in Romagua, the
hospitable residence of Guido del Duca, who is here speaking.

V. 118. Baynacavallo.] A castle between Imola and Ravenna.

V. 118. Castracaro ill

And Conio ivorsc] Both in Romagna.

V. 121. Pagani.'] The Pagani were lords of Faenza and Imola. One
of them, Machinardo, was nauied tlie Lemon, from his treachery. See
Hell, Canto XXVII. 47, and Note.

V. 124. Hufjolin.] Ugolino Ubaldini, a noble and virtuous person in
Faenza, who, on account of his age probably, was not likely to leave
any offspring behind him. He is enumerated among the poets by Cres-
cirnbeni, and Tiraboschi. Mr. Matthias's edit. vol. i. p. 143.

V. 136. Whosoever finds

Will slay 7>ie.]
The words of Cain, Gen. c. iv. 14.

V. 142. Aglaiiros.] Ovid, Met. 1, ii. fab. 12.

v. 145. There loas the galling hit.'] Referring to what had been before
Bald, Canto XIU. 35.

CANTO XV.

V. 1. As much.'] It wanted three hours of sunset.

V. 16. As ichen the ray.] Compare Virg. Mn. 1. viii. 22, and Apoll.
Rhod. 1. iii. 755.

v. 19. Ascending at a glance!] Lucretius, 1. iv. 215.

V. 20. Differs from the stone.] The motion of light being quicker than
that of a stone through an equal space.

V. 38. Blessed the mercifid.] Matt. c. v. 7.

V. 43. Romagna' s spirit.] Guido del Duca, of Brettinoro, whom we
have seen in the preceding Canto.

V. 87. A da7ne.] Luke, c. ii. 48

v. 101. Hoio shall we those req^(ite.] The answer of Pisistratus the
tyrant to his wife, when she urged him to inflict the punishment of
death on a young man, who, inflamed with love for his daughter, had
snatched from her a kiss in public. The story is told by Valerius Maxi-
mus, 1. v. 1.

V. 105. A stripling youth.] The protomartyr Stephen.

GANTO XVI.

V. 24. As thou.] " If thou wert still living."

V. 46. / was of Lombard)/, and Marco call'd.] A Venetian gentleman.
" Lombardo" both was his sirname and denoted the country to which



408 NOTES.

ho liclonKcd. 0. Villani, 1. vii. c. 120, lornis him " a wise and worthy
fiiintior."

V. M. Ehnrhcrc.'] He refers to wliiit rinido dol V>\\n Imd said in the
foiirtocnth Canto, concerning llic dc^^cnoracy of liis coiinlrvnien.

V. 70. If this were so.] Mr. Crowe in his Lewe.sdoii Hill has exi^ressed
eimilar Bentiments witli much energy.

Of this be sure,
Where freedom is not, there no virtue is, &c.

Compare Origen iu Genesim, Patrum Gra.'Corum, vol. xi. p. 14. Wirc©-
burgi, 1783. 8vo.

V. 7'.t. To inif/htier fvrce.] " Though ye are subject to a higher power
than that of tlie heavenly constellations, even to the power of the great
Creator himself, yet ye are titill left in the iiossession of liberty."

V. 88. Like a bcibc that icantons sportively.] This reminds one of the
Emperor Hadrian's verses to his departing soul:
Auimula vagula blandula, &c.

V. 99. The fortress.] Justice, the most necessary virtue in the chiel
magistrate, as the commentators explain it.

V. 103. Who.] He compares the Pope, on account of the union of the
temporal with the spiritual power in his person, to an unclean beast in
the levitical law. " The camel, because he clieweth the cud, but divideth
not the hoof ; he is unclean unto you." Levit. c. xi. 4.

V. 110. Tivo suns.] The Emperor and the Bishop of Rome.

V. 117. That landf] Lombardy.

V. 119. Ere the day.] Before the Emperor Frederick H. was defeated
before Parma, in 1248. G. Villaui, 1. vi. c. 35.

V. 126. The r/ood Gherardo.] Gherardo di Camino, of Trevigi. Ho is
honourably mentioned in our Poet's " Convito." Opere di Dante, t. i.
p. 173. Venez. 8vo. 1793. And Tiraboschi supposes him to have been the
same Gherardo with whom the Provencal poets were used to meet a
liospitable reception. See Mr. Matthias's edition, t. i. p. 137.

V. 127. Conrad.] Currado da Palazzo, a gentleman of Brescia.

V. 127. Guido of Castello.] Of Reggio. All the Italians were called
Lombards by the French.

V. 144. His davyhtcr Gain.] A lady equally admired for her modesty,
the beauty of her person, and the excellency of her talents. Gaia, says
Tiraboschi, may perhaps lay claim to the praise of having been the first
among the Italian ladies, by whom the vernacular poetry was cultivated.
Ibid. p. 137.

CANTO xvn.

V. 21. The bird, that most

Delights itself in song.]

I cannot think with Vellutello, that the swallow is here meant. Dante
probably alludes to the story of Philomela, as it is found in Homer's
Odyssey, b. xix. 518, rather than as later poets have told it. " She in-
tended to slay the son of her husband's brother Amphion, incited to it,
by the envy of his wife, who had six children, while herself had only two
liiit through mistake slew her own son Itylus, and for her punishment
was transformed by Jupiter into a nightingale." Cowper's note on the
passage.

In P]>ea)cing of the nightingale, let me observe, that while some have



PURGATORY. 409

considered its song .is n, molanclioly, and others ivs Ji cheerful one, Cliia-
brera apiicars to liave come nearest the truth, wlien he says, in the AI-
cippo, a. i. s. 1,

Non raai si stanca d' iterar le note,

O gioconde o dogliose,

Al scntir dilettose.

Unwearied still reiterates her lays,
Jocund or sad, delightful to the ear.
V. 2(). One crucified.'] Ilanian. See the book of Esther, c. vii.
V. 34. A damsel.] Lavinia, mourning for lier mother Ainata, who,
impelled by grief and indign.ation for the supposed death of Turims, de-
stroyed herself, ^n. 1. xii. 595.

V. 42. TTie broken slumber quivering ere it dies.] Venturi suggests
that this bold and unusual metaphor may have been formed on that in
VirgU :

Tempus erat quo prima quies mortalibus segris
Incipit, et dono divflm gratissima serpit

^n. 1. ii. 268.

V. G8. The peace-makers.] Matt. c. v. 9.

V. 81. Tfielove.] " A defect in our love towards God, or lukewarm-
ness in piety, is here removed."

V. 94. The primal blessinrjs.] Spiritual good.

V. 95. 77t' inferior.] Temporal good.

V. 102. Noiv.] " It is impossible for any being, either to hate itself, or
to hate the First Cause of all, by which it exists. We can therefore only
rejoice in the evil which befalls others."

V. 111. There is.] The proud.

V. 114. There is.] The envious.

V. 117. There is he.] The resentful.

V. 135. Along Three circles .] According to the allegorical commenti-
tors, as Venturi has observed, Reason is re|)resented under the ])erson of
Virgil, and Sense under that of Dante. The former leaves to the latter
to discover for itself the three carnal sins, avarice, gluttony, and libid-
iuousness ; having already declared the nature of the spiritual sins,
pride, envy, auger, and indifference, or lukewarmness in piety, which
the Italians caU accidia, from the Greek word a/cijSia.

CANTO xvm.

V. 1. The teacher ended.] Compare Plato, Protagoras, v. iii. p. 123.
Bip. edit. Upuirayopa^ iiev TOcrauTa, k. t. A. Apoll. Rliod. 1. 1. 513, and Miltoii,
p. L. b. viii. 1.

The angel ended, &c.

V. 23. Your apprehension.] It is literally, " Your apprehensive faculty
derives intension from a thing really existing, and displays the inten-
sion within yon, so that it makes the soul turn to it.'' The comment.a-
tors labour in explaining this; and whatever sense they have elicited
may, I think, be resolved into tlie words of the translation in the text.

V. 47. Spirit.] The huuKin sonl, which differs from tliat of brutes,
inasmuch as, though united with the body, it has a separate existence of
ita own.

V. G5. Those men.] The great moral philosophers among the heathens



410 NOTES.

V. 78. A craq.'] I have preforrod tlio roadins of Landino, nrhfifffp'on,
'I " cruij," c'oiicciviiij:: it to Ix^ iiioi'O ])ootic;il than srrrhion, " liiicl;('t.'' whicli
I is the {'oiiiiiioii i-cadiii;^. The sanie caiiso, the vapoius, which the C(jiii-
I incntators say iiri^ht ix'wa the ap]iearance of iufroased niasnitude to the
I 11)0011, iiiisht also make her Heeiii broken at her rise.
I V. 78. Up the vaidL] The luooii passed with a motion op])Osite to that

I of the lieavens, tiiroii^ili the ('oiistcllatiiiii of tlie scorpion, in whicli tlie
8 Bun is, when to those who are in lioiue he apiiears to set between the
\ isles of Corsica and Sardinia.

V. 84. Andes.] Andes, now Pietola, made more famous than Mantua,
il near which it is situated, bj^ having been the birthplace of Virgil,
I V. 92. I.^DK'niis (Did Asopus.] Rivers near Thebes.

I V. 98. Man/.] Luke, c. i. 3it, 40.

I V. it!). C'«!.s<;/c.] See Liican, Phars. 1. iii. and iv., and Caesar, de Bello

I Civili, 1. i. Ciesar left Brutus to comi)lete the seijre of Marseilkjs, and
1 hastened on to the attack of Afranius and Petreius,the generals of Pom-
■ pey, at Ileida (Lerida) in Spain.

' V. 118. Abbot.] Alberto, abbot of San Zeno in Verona, when Freder-

ick I. was emperor, by whom Milan was besieged and reduced to ashes,
in 1102.
; V. 121. There is he.] Alberto della Scala, lord of Veroua, who had

I made his natural son abbot of San Zeno.

? V. 133. First they died.] The Israelites, who, on account of their dis-

l obedience, died before reaching the promised laud.
; V. 135. A7id they.] Virg. .iEu. 1. v.

I

! CANTO XIX.

t

V. 1. The hour.] Near the dawn.

V. 4. The geomancer. The geomancers, says Landino, when they
divined, drew a figure consisting of sixteen marks, named from so many
stars which constitute the end of Aquarius and the beginning of Pisces.
One of these they called " the greater fortune."

V. 7. A ivoman's shcqye.] Worldly happiness. This allegory reminds
us of the " Choice of Hercules."
1 Y. li. Love's own hiie.]

\ A smile that glow'd

[ Celestial rosy red, love's projjcr hue.

I Milton, P. L. b. viii. 619.

I — fades pulcherrima tunc est,

j Qnura porphyriaco variatur Candida rubro.

; Quid color hie roseus sibi vult? designat amorem:

iQuii^De amor est igni sirailis; flammasque rubentes
Ignis habere solet.
Palingenii Zodiacus Vitce, 1. xii.
V. 26. A dame.] Philosophy.
I ▼. 49. Who mown.] Matt. c. v. 4.

f ▼. 72. My sotd.] Psalm cxix. 25.

f V. 97. The successor of Peter.] Ottobuono, of the family of Fieschi,

[J Counts of Lavagna, died thirty-nine days after he became Pope, with the

title of Adrian V. in 127G.
I] V. 98. That stremn.] The river Lavagna, in the Genoese territory.

V. 135. Nor shall be (jiv'n in marriage.] Matt, c xxii. 30. " Since in



PUnOATORY. 411

this state we neitlier marry nor are given in marriapje, I am no lonper
the spouse of the cliiircli, and tlieiefore no longer retain my former dig-
nity."

V. 140. A kinfico7van.'\ Alngia is said to have been the wife of tlie
Marchese Marcello Malaspina, one of the poet's protectors during his
exile. See Cauto VIII. 133.

CANTO XX.

V. 3. I dreiD the sponge.'] " I did not persevere in my inquiries from
the spirit, though still anxious to learn more.''

V. 11. Wolf.] Avarice.

V. 16. Of his appeariiifi.] He is thought to allude to Can Grande della
Scala. See Hell, Canto' I. 98.

V. 25. Fabrkius-I Compare Petrarch, Tr. della Fama, c. 1.
Uu Curio ed un Fabricio, &c.

V. 30. Nicholas.'] The story of Nicliolas is, that an angel having re-
vealed to him that the father of a family was so impoverished as to re-
solve on exposing the chastity of his three daughters to sale, he threw
in at the window of their liouse three bags of money, containing a suffi-
cient i)ortion for each of them.

V. 42. Root.] Hugh Capet, ancestor of Philip FV.

V. 46. Had Ghent and Douay, Lille and Bvvges poicer.] These cities
had lately been seized by Philip IV. The spirit is made to imitate the
approaching defeat of the French army by the Flemings, in the battle of
Courtrai, which happened in 1302.

V. 51. The slaughterer's trade.] Tliis reflection on the birth of his an-
cestor induced Francis I. to forbid the reading of Dante in his dominions.
Hugh Capet, who came to the throne of France in i)87, was however the
grandson of Robert, who was the brother of Eudes, King of France iu
888.

v. 52. All save one.] The posterity of Charlemagne, the second race
of French monarchs, had failed, with the exception of Charles of Lor-
raine, who is said, on account of the melancholy temper of his mind, to
have always clothed himself in black. Venturi suggests that Dante may
have confounded him with Childeric III. the last of the Merovingian, or
first, race, who was deposed and made a monk in 751.

V. 57. My son. — Hugh Capet caused his son Robert to be crowned at
Orleans.

V. 59. The Great dower of Provence.] Louis IX. and his brother,
Charles of Anjou, married two of the four daughters of Raymond Beren-
ger. Count of Provence. See Par. Canto VI. 135.

V. 63. For amend,<>.] This is ironical.

V. 64. Poitou it seiz'd, Navarre and Gaseony.] I venture to read —
Potti e Navarra prese e Guascogna,
instead of

Ponti e Normandia prese e Guascogna.
Seiz'd Ponthieu, Normandy and Gascogny.

Landino has "Potti," and he is probably right: for Poitou was an-
nexed to the French crown by Philip IV. See Renault, Abrege Chron.
A. D. 1283, &c. Normandy had been united to it long before by Philip
Augustus, a circumstance of which it is difficult to imagine that Dante



412 NOTKS.

Bboiild liavo ho.on isnomut; butriiilip IV., says Ilonniilt, il)i<l., took tlie
t-itlo of KiiiLj of Xiivarrc: and the siil)jii;,'atioii of Navarre is also alluded



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