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The Vision : or, Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise, of Dante Alighieri online

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V. 50. Feltro.] The Bishop of Feltro, having received a number of
fugitives from Ferrara, who were in opposition to the Pope, under a
promise of protection, afterwards gave them np ; so that they were re-
conducted to that city, and the greater part of them there jiut to death.

v. 53. Malta's.] A tower, eitlier in the citadel of Padua, which, under
the tyranny of Ezzolino, had been " with many a foul and midnight
murder fed ;" or (as some say) near a ri\er of the same name, that falls
into the lake of 15(>lsena, in which the Pojte was accustomed to imi)risoiJ
Buch as had been guilty of an irrcmissible siu.



PAllADISE. 481

V. 5f;. 'lids priest.] Tlie bisliop, wlio, to show liinisclf ;i zealous
pjirtizan of the Pope, had committed the above-mentioned act of
treachery.

V. 58. We descry.] " We behold the things tliat we predict, in tlio
mirrors of eternal truth."

V. 64. That other joyance.'] Folco.

V. 76. iSix ,<ihadoiving zvinrjs.] "Above it stood the seraidiiras : eacli
one liad six wings." I.«aiah, c. vi. 2.

V. 80. The valley of loaters.] Tlie Mediterranean sea.

V. 80. That.] The great ocean.

V. 82. Discordant shores.] Europe and Africa .

V. 8.3. Meridian.] Extending to the east, the Mcditerranciin at last
reaches the coa.st of Palestine, which is on its horizon when it enters tlio
Straits of Gibraltar. " Wherever a man is," says Vellutello, "there he
has, above his head, his own particular meridian circle."

V. 85 . — ' Twi7t Ebro's stream

And Macraes.]
Ebro, a river to the west, and Macra, to the east of Genoa, where Folco
was born.

V. 88. Bcf/ga.] A place in Africa, nearly opposite to Genoa.

V. 89. Whose haven.] Alluding to the terrible slaugliter of the Gen-
oese made by the Saracens in '.)36 ; for which event Vellutello refers to
the history of Augnstino Giustiniani.

V. 91. This ?ieav'n.] The ]ilanet Venus.

V. 9.3. Debts' daiu/hter.] Dido.

V. 96. <s7ie of Rhodope.] Phyllis.

V. 98. Jore''s son.] Hercules.

V. 112. Rahah.] Heta. c. xi. 31.

V. 120. With either palm.] " By the crucifixion of Christ."

V. 126. The cvrscd flower.] The coin of Florence, called the florcn.

V. 130. 77ie decretals.] Tlie canon law.

V. 134. The Vatican.] He alludes either to the deatli of Pojie Boniface
VIII. or, as Venturi supposes, to the coming of the Enii)eror Henry VII.
into Italy ; or else, according to the yet more probable conjecture of
Lombardi, to the transfer of the holy see from Rome to Avignon, which
took place in the pontificate of Clement V.



CANTO X.

v. 7. The point.] "To that part of heaven," as Venturi explains it,
" in which the equinoctial circle and tlie Zodiac intersect each other,
where the common motion of the heavens from east to west may be s;iid
to strike with greatest force against the motion ])roper to the planets ;
and this repercussion, as it were, is here the strongest, because tlie ve-
locity of each is increased to the utmost by their respective distance
from' the poles. Such at least is the system of Dante."

V. 11. Oblique.] The zodiac.

V. 25. The part .] The above-m.entioned intersection of the equinoctial
circle and the zodiac.

V. 26. Minister.] The sun.

V. 30. Where.] In which the sun rises every day earlier after th«
rernal equinox.

V. 45. Fourth family .] The inhabitants of the sun, the fourth planet.



432 NOTKS.

V. AC). Of hin uphit (Did of his ofspj-iin/.] Tlic procopsioii of the lliird,
and tlie f^eiicnitiou of the second person in tlie Trinity.

V. 70. Such tvas (he sovy.] " Tlie sonj; of thc^e si)irits was ineffable."

V. 8(). No less conslruhiedA " Tlie riv<!rs nii<;ht as easily' cease to flow
towards the sea, as we could deny thoe thy request."

V. ill. I thoi.] " I was of tlic l)oniinic;in order."

V. 95. Albert of Colo(/}ic.] Albertiis Ma{;niis was lx)rn at Lanp;inKcn,
in Thurinjiia, in llii.S, and studied at Paris and at Padua, at the latter of
which places he entered into the Dominican order. lie then tauu'ht
theology in various parts of Germany, and jjarticnlarly at Cohii^iie.
Thomas Aquinas was Ids favouiite pupil. In ]2(X), lie reluctantly ac-
cepted the bishopric of Ratisbon, and in two years after resij^ned it,' and
X'eturncd to his cell in Cologne, where the remainder of his life was
passed in superintending the school, and in coni])Osing his voluminous
works on divinity and natural science. He died in 12^,0. The absurd
imputation of his having dealt in the magical art is well known ; and
his biographers take some i)ains to clear him of it. Scriptores Ordiiiis
Praedicatorum, by Quetif and Echard, Lut. Par. !l71!J. fol. t. 1. p. Kili.

V. 96. Of Aq\tmxim, llwmas.] Thomas Aquinas, of whom Bucer is
reported to have said, " Take but Thomas away, and I will overturn the
church of Rome," and whom Hooker terms ''the greates-t among the
school divines," (Eccl. Pol. b. 3. § 9), was born of noble paicnts, « ho
anxiously, but vainly, endeavoured to divert him from a life of celibacy
and study ; and died in 1274, at the age of forty-seven. Echard and
Quetif, ibid. p. 271. See also Purgatory, Canto XX. v. {17.

V. 101. Gratiaii.] "Gratian, a Benedictine monk belonging to the
con%'ent of St. Felix and Nabor, at Bologna, and by biith a Tuscan,
coniix)sed, about the year lloO, for the use of the schools, an abiidg-
Tuent or epitome of canon law, drawn from the letters of the iiontiffs,
the decrees of councils, and the writings of the ancient doctors." Mac-
laine's Mosheim, v. iii. cent. 12. part 2. c. i. § 6.

V. 101. To either foriim.] " By reconciling," as Venturi explains it,
"the civil with the ciinon law."

V. 104. Peter.] " Pietro Lombardo was of obscure origin, nor is the
place of his birth in Lombardy ascertained. With a recommendation
from the bishop of Lucca to St. Bernard, he went into France to con-
tinue his studies; and for that luirpose remained some time at Rheims,
whence he afterwards ]iroceedcd to Paris. Here his reputation was so
great, that Philip, brother of Loui.s VII., being chosen bishop of Paris,
resigned that dignity to Pietro, whose pupil he had been. He held his
bishopric oidy one year, and died in 11(50. His Liber Sentcntiarum is
highly esteemed. It contains a system of scholastic theology, so much
more complete than anj'wliich had been yet seen, that it may be deemed
an original work." Tirabo.schi, Storia della Lett. Ital. t. iii.l. 4. c. 2.

v. 104. Who vnth the ividow f/ot-p.] This alludes to the beginning of
the Liber Sentcntiarum, where Peter says: " Cupiens aliquid de i)eniuia
ac tenuitate nostra cum panpercula in gnzophylacium domiui mittere,"

V. 105. Thp Jifih lif/ht.'] Solomon

V. 112. That toper' s radiance.] St. Di.)nysius the Areopagite. "The
famous Grecian fanatic, who gave himself out for Dionysius the Areop.i-
gite, disciple of St. Paul, and who, under the protection of this venerable
name, gave laws and instructions to those that were desirous of raising
their souls above all human things, in order to unite them to their great
source by sublime coutemplatioii, lived most probably in this ceutury



PARADISE. 433

(the foiirlb); thoiiy;h some iil.ice liiin before, others after, tlie present
period." Maclaiiio's Mosheim, v. i. cent. iv. j). 2. c. .'?. § 12.

V. IIC). That pli-'ii'Jrr.] In the fifth century, Tanliis Orosius " acquireil
a considerable decree of reputation by the History lie wrote to refute
the cavils of the Pagans against Christianity, and by his books against
the Pelagians and Priscillianists." Ibid. v. ii. cent. v. p. 12. c. 2. § 11. A
similar train of argument was pursued by Augustine, in his book De
Civitate Dei.

Orosius is classed by Dante, in his treatise De Vnlg. Eloq. 1. ii. c. G. a.s
one of his favourit antiiors, among those "qui usi sunt altissimas i)rf>
sas," — " who have written prose with the greatest loftiness of style."

V. 110. The eir/hth.] Boetius, whose book De Consohitione Philoso-
phi;e excited so much attention during the middle ages, was born, as
Tiraboschi conjectures, about -ITO, " In 524 he was cruelly put to deat'i,
by command of Theodoric, either on real or pretended snsi)icion of his
being engaged in ,a conspiracy." Delia Lett. Ital. t. iii. 1. i. c. 4.

V. 124. Ckldauro.] Boetius was buried at Pavia, in the monastery of
S. Pictro in Ciel d'oro.

V. 12(!. l.sidore.] He was Archbishop of Seville daring forty years, and
died in (j.'?.'). See IMariana, Hist. 1. vi. c. 7.

Mosheim, whose critical oi^inions in general must be taken with somr
allowance, observes that "his grammatical, theological, and historical
productions, discover more learning and pedantry, than judgment and
taste."

v. 127. Bede.] Bede, whose virtues obtained him the appellation of
the Venerable, was born in ()72 at Wearmontli and Jarrow, in the bishop-
ric of Durham, and died in 735. Invited to Rome by Pope Sergius I., he
preferred passing almost the whole of his life in the seclusion of a
monastery. A catalogue of his numerous writings may be seen ii)
Kippis's Biographia Britannica, v. ii.

v. 127. Richard.] Richard of St. Victor, a native either of Scotland or
Ireland, was canon and prior of the monastery of that name at Paris;
and died in 1173. "He was at the head of the Mystics in this century;
and his treatise, entitled the Mystical Ark, which contains as it were the
marrow of this kind of theology, was received with the greatest avidity."
Maclaine's Mosheim, v. iii. cent. xii. p. 2. c. 2. § 2.3.

v. 1.32. Sif/ehert.] "A monlc of the abbey of Geniblonrs, who was
in high repute at the end of the eleventh, and beginning of the twelfth,
century." Diet, de Moreri.

V. 134. TJie straw-litter' d street.] The name of a street in Paris : the
"Rue du Fonarre."

V. 135. The spouse of God.] The church.

CANTO XI.

V. 1. fond anxiety of mortal men.] Lucretius, 1. ii. 14.

O miseras hominnm mentes ! O pectora ceca J
Qualibns in tenebris vitir, qnantisque periclia
Degitur hoc ievi quodcnnquc est !

V. 4. Aiihorit<i)i.\] The stiuly of medicuic.

V. 17. The liii^lir.] Tlie spirit of Thomas Aquinas.

V. 2<). ,S7;<'.] The church.



34. One] Saint Francis.



28






434 NOTK8.

v.Sfi. 'Ilie other.'] Suiiit Doiniiiic.

V. 40. Th])iii(j.] A rivulet near Assisi, or Ascesi, where Francis was \
born ill 11X2. [

V. 40. T/i.e ivave.] Chiascio, a strciun tliiit ri.ses in a mountain near
Agobbio, chosen by St. Ubaklo for tlie place of his rctireineiit. \

V. 42. Ileal and cold. \ Cold from the snow, and heat from t'.'e reflec- '

tion of the sun.

V. 45. Yoke.] Vellutello understands this of the vicinity of llie jn,o(/u-
taiii to Noccra and Giialdo; and Veiitiiri(as I have taken it) of the heavy
iniliositions laid on those places by the rerugians. For <yw£/o, like the
Liitin./«f/w??i, will admit of either sense.

V. 50. The cast.]

This is the cast, and Juliet is the sun.

t^hakspeare.

V. 55. 'Gai7ist his father's ivill.] In opposition to the wishes of his
natural father.

V. 58. In hisfather^s fiight.'] The spiritual father, or bishop, in v/hose
presence he made a profession of poverty.

V. 60. Her first husband.] Christ.

V. 63 Amyclas.] Lucan makes Cffisar exclaim, on witnessing the secure
poverty of the fisherman Amyclas :

vitre tuta facultas

Pauperis, angustique lares ! O munera nondum
Intellecta deiim ! quibus hoc contiiigere templis,
Ant potuit muris, niillo trepidare tniiiultu,
Cajsarea pulsante manu?

rhars. 1. V. 5.31.

V. 72. Ber7iard.] One of the first followers of the saint.

V. 76. Ef/idivs.] The third of his disciples, wlio died in 1262. His
work, entitled Verba Aurea, was published in 1534, at Antwerp. See
Lucas Waddingus, Aunales Ordinis Minoris, p. 5.

V. 76. Sylvester.] Another of his earliest associates.

V. 83. Pietro Bernardone.] A man in an humble station of life at
Assisi.

V. 85. Innocent.'] Pope Innocent III.

V. 90. Honorms.] His successor Honorius III. who granted certain
privileges to the Franciscans.

V. 93. On the hard rock.] The mountain Alverna in the Apennine.

V. 100. The last sif/net.] Alluding to the stigmata, or marks resembling
the wounds of Christ, said to have been found on the saint's body.

V. 106. His dearest lady.] Poverty.

V. 113. Our Patriarch.] Saint Dominic.

V. 116. His flock.] The Dominicans.

V. 127. The planet from ivhence they split.'] " The rule of their order,
which the Dominicans neglect to observe." \

CANTO XII.

V. 1. The blessed flame.] Thomas Aquinas.

V. 12. That voice.] The nymph Echo, transformed into the repcrcug-
fsion of the voice.



PARADISE. 4C5

V. 25. Onp.] Saint Bnoiiavcntnra, _£;ciioral of the Fraiioiscan order, in
which he efrectcd some rct'ornialion, and one of the most iirofduiul di-
vines of liis ai;e. "lie rcltised the archlMslioprii; of Yorls, which una
offered him by Clement IV., but afterwards was prevaihnl on to accept
the bishojiric of Alliano and a cardinal's hat. lie was boi-n at I5a,i;n(ire-
gio or Ba.ynorea, in Tnscany, a.d. 1221, and died in 1274." Diet. Histor.
par Chaiidon et Dclandine. Kd. Lyon. 1814.

V. 28. T/te lore.] By an act of niutual conrtesy, IJuonaventnra, a
Franciscan, is made to iiroclaim the i)raises of St. Uoniinic, as Thonii^s
Aquinas, a Dominican, has celebrated those of St. Francis.
' V. 42. In that clime] Spain.

V. 48. Cnllarof/a.] Between Osuia and Aranda, in Old Castile, desig-
nated by the royal coal of arms.

\. 51. The loi'iiu/ winion of the Christian faith.] Dominic was born
Aprils, 1170, and' died Aiigiistfi, 1221. His "birth-place, Callaroga; his
father and mother's names, Felix and Joanna, liis mother's dream; his
name of Donunic, given him in consequence of a vision by a noble ma-
tron, who stood sponsor to him, are all told in an anonymous life of the
saint, said tt) be written in the thirteentli century, and published by
Quetif and ICcliard, Scriptores Ordinis Pradicatornm. Par. 1719. fol. t.
1. p. 25. These writers deny his having been an inquisitor, and iiuh cd
the establishment of the inquisition itself before the fourth Latcrau
council. Ibid. p. 88.

V. 55. In the mother's ico77ib.] His mother, when pregnant with him,
is paid to have dreamt that she should bring forth a white and black dog,
witli a lighted torch in its mouth.

V. 59. The dajne.] His godmother's dream was, that he had one star
in his forehead, and another in the nape of his neck, from which he com-
municated light to the east and the west.

V. 73. Feliic.] Felix Gusman.

V. 75. As men interpret it.] Grace or gift of the Lord.

V. 77. Ostiense.] A cardinal, who explained the decretals.

V. 77. Taddeo.] A physician of Florence.

V. 82. The see.] " 'The apostolic see, which no longer continues its
wonted liberality towards the indigent and deserving; not indeed tlirougli
its own fault, as its doctrines are still the same, but through the fault of
the pontiff, who is seated in it."

V. 85. No dispensation.] Dominic did not ask licence to compound for
tlie use of unjust acquisitions, by dedicating a part of them to pious
purposes.

V. 89. Infavovrofthatseed.] "For that seed of the divine word,
from which have sprung up these four-and-twenty plants, that now
environ thee."

V. 104. Uut ihe track.] "But tlie rule of St. Francis is already de-
serted: ami the lees of the wine are turned into niouldiness."

V. 110. Tares.] He adverts to the parable of the taies and the wheat.

V. 111. I question not.] " Some indeed might be found, who still ob-
eerve the rule of the order; but such would come neither from Ca sale
nor Acquasparta : " of the former of whicli places was Uberto, one
master-general, by whom the disciiiline had been relaxed; and of the
latter, Matteo, another, who had enforced it with unnecessary rigour.

V. 121. Ilhnninato here,

And Agostino.]

Two among the earliest followers of St. Francis.



436 NOTES. '

V. 125. Ihif/vrs of St. Victor.'] A Saxon of tlio monastery of Saint Vic-
tor, .at I'aris, who clicil in 1142, at the atre of forty-four. " A mau distin- i
giiished by the fecundity of his genius, who treated in liis \vritin,i;s of all ]
tlie branches of sacred and profane erudition that were Ivnown in his time,
and who csomposcd sevenil dissertations that arc not destitute of merit."
Macl.aine's Mosheini, Eccl. Hist. v. iii cent. xii. p. 2. c. 2. § 23. I liavo
looived into his writings, and found some reason for tliis high eulogium. J

V. 125. PMro Bfaiif/iadore.] " Petrus Comestor, or the Eater, born at '
Troycs, was canon and dean of tliat chnrcli, and afterw.ards cliancellor '
of the clmrcli of I'aris. He relinquislied these benefices to become a
regular canon of St. Victor at Paris, where he died in 1198." Chaudon
et Delandine, Diet. Hist. Ed. Lyon. 1804.

The work by which he is best known, is his Historia Scolastica, which
I shall have occasion to cite in the Notes to Canto XXVI.

V. 120. Tie of Spain.] "To Pope Adrian V. succeeded .John XXI. a. '
native of Lisbon ; a man of great genius and extraordinary acquirements,
especially in logic and in medicine, as his books, written in the name of
Peter of Spain (by which he was Ivnown before lie became Pope), may
testify. His life was not much longer than that of his predecessors, for ;
lie was killed at Viterbo, by the falling in of tlie roof of his chamber,
after he had been pontiff only eight months and as many days," A.i>.
1277. Mariana, Hist, de Esp. 1. xiv. c. 2.

V. 128. Chriisostom.] The eloquent patriarch of Constantinople.

V. 128. Anselmo.] " Ansel ni. Archbishop of Canterbury, was born at ;
Aosta, about 10;34, and studied under Lanfranc, at the monastery of Bee, \
in Normandy, where he afterwards devoted himself to a religious life,
in his twenty-seventh year. In three years he was made prior, and then '
abbot of that monastery; from whence he was taken, in 1093, to succeed -i
to the archl)ishopric, vacant by the death of Lanfranc. He enjoyed this
dignity till his deatli, in 1109, though it was disturbed by many dissen-
sions with William II. and Henry I. respecting the immunities and in- -
vestitiires. There is much depth and precision in his tlieological works." ?
Tiraboschi, Stor. della. Lett. Ital. t. iii. 1. iv. c. 2. " |

Ibid. c. V. " It is an observation made by many modern writers, that j
the demonstration of the existence of God, taken from the idea of a l
Supreme Being, of which Des Cartes is thought to be the author, was so '
many ages back discovered and brouglit to light by Anselm. Leibnitz ]
himself makes the remark, vol. v. Oper. p. 570. Edit. Genev. 17r)8." i

V. 129. Donatas.] .^lius Donatus, the grammarian, in the fourth ceu- s
tnry, one of the preceptors of St. Jerome. J

V. ISO. Rahan.] "Rabanus Maurus, Archbishop of Mentz, is deserv- I
edly placed at the head of the Lathi writers of this age." Mosheini, v. »
ii. cent. ix. p. 2. c. 2. § 14. |

V. lo\. Joachim.] Abbot of Flora in Calabria ; "whom the multitude |
revered as a person divinely inspired, and equal to the most illustrious \
proi)hets of ancient times." Ibid. v. iii. cent. xiii. p. 2. c. 2. § 33.

V. 134. A peer.] St. Dominic.

CANTO XIII. I

V. 1. TM him.] " Whoever wonld conceive the .sight that now prc-

Bented itself to me, must imagine to himself fifteen of the brightest stars •

in heaven, together with seven stars of Arctiirus Major and two of \

Arcturus Minor, ranged in two circles, one within the other, each re- ^



+



PARADISB. 437

sembling tlie crown of Ariarlne, and moving ronnd in opposite direc-
tions."
V. 21. The Cliiana.] See Hell, Cniito XXIX. 45.
V. 20. That Ivmiimn/.] Thomas A(iiiinas.
V. 31. One ear.] " Havin.i^r solved one of thy questions, I proceed to [

answer the other. Thou thinUest, then, that Adam and Christ were both |

endued with all the jierfection of which the human nature is capable, I

and therefore woiiderest at what has been said concerninjj Solomon." I

V. 48. TJiat.] " Things corruptible and incorruptible, are only emana- J

tions from the archetypal idea residing in tlie Divine mind." \

y. 52. His brightness.] The Word. -"the Sou of God. j

V. 53. His love triune loith them.] The Holy Ghost. {

V. 55. Neiv existences.] Angels and human souls. I

V. 57. The lowest poioers.] Irrational life and brute matter. j

V. 02. Tlieir loax and that lohich moulds it.] Matter, ;iud the virtue or f

energy, that acts on it. \

V. G'8. The heav'n.] The influence of the planetary bodies. if

V. 77. The clay.] Adam. |

V. 88. Who a.^k'd.] "He did not desire to know the number of the
stars, or to pry into the subtleties of metaphysical and mathematical
science: bat asked for that wisdom which might fit him for his kingly
office."

V. 120. Parmenides,

Melisszis Bryso.]
For the singular opinions entertained by the two former of these heathen
philosophers, see Diogenes Laertius, 1. ix. and Aristot. de Ca?lo, 1. iii.c. 1.
and Phys. 1. i. c. 2. Tlie last is also twice adduced by Aristotle (Anal.
Post. 1. i. c. 9. and Rhet. 1. iii. c. 2.) as affording instances of false
reasoning.
V. 123. tSdbellius, Aritis.] Well-known heretics.

V. 124. Scj/mitars.] A passage in the travels of Bertradon de la
Brocquiere, translated by Mr. Johnes, will explain this allusion, which
has given some tnnible to tlie connnentators. That traveller, who wrote
before Dante, informs us, p. 138, that the wandering Arabs used their
scymitars as mirrors.

V. 12G. Let not.] " Let not short-sighted mortals presume to decide
on the future doom of any man, from a consideration of his present char-
acter and actions."



CANTO XIV.

V. 5. S^lch was the image.] The voice of Thomas Aquinas proceeding
from the circle to the centre, and that of Beatrice from the centre to the
circle.

V. 26. Him.] Literally translated by Chaueer, Troilus and Cresseide,
b. 5.

Thon one, two, and three eterne on live,
That raignest aie in three, two, and one,
Uncircnmscript, and all mai.st circonscrive.



v. 31. The goodliest light] Solomon.

V. 78. To more lofty bliss.] To the planet Mara.

V. 94. The venerable sign.] The cross.



438 NOTES.

ij

V. ILTi. TTr.'] " TTf^, wlio rnnsiilois tliat tlir> ryos of T.oiitrico 1)fcame j

more i:iili;iiit tlio liii^'licr wo ascimlcd, must not Wdiidcr tli;il I do not f;x- ;

(•opt ovon tlioni,!is 1 had imt jet behold thoiii since our ontiance into lliis

plaint."

CANTO XV.

V. 24. Our greater Mu^c.'\ Viigil, ^En. 1. vi. ('.84. [

V. 84. I onithif root.] Cacciaguida, fatlier to Alighieri, of whom our r

Poet was the f;ieat-yiaiid.«oii. j

\. S':). 'Fhc monxUiiv.] rnrsatory. I

V. !)2. Fl'irvnrc] See G. Villain, 1. iii. C. 2. :

V. !»;>. W/iich rails hvr still.] The public clock beiiig f^till within the ,
circuit of the aucioiit walls.

V. 98. When.] When the women were not married at too early an age, I

and did ntjt cxi)ect too large a portion. t

V. 101. Void.] Through the civil wars. i

V. 102. Sardanapdltts.] The luxurious monarch of A.ssyria. Juvenal .

is here imitated, who uses his name for an instance of effeminacy. Sat. '■

X. 302. i

V. 103. Monlemalo.] Either an elevated spot between Rome and •:

Viterbo ; or Monte Mario, the site of the villa Mellini, commanding a view \

of Rome. [

V. 104. Our aiilmrhan. turret.] Uccellato jo, near Florence, from whence j

that city was discovered. j

V. lOG. Bclliiiricn Ikrti.] Hell, Canto XVI. 38. and Notes. There ia

a curious descri])tion of the siniiile manner in which the earlier Floreii- \

tines dressed themselves in G. Villani, 1. vi. c. 71. \

V. 110.] Of Nerliandof Vecchio.] Two of the most opulent families 5

in Florence. •

v. 113. Each.] " None fearful either of dying in banishment, or of [

being deserted by her husband on a scheme of traffic in France. L

V.I20. A Salterello and Ciavf/hclla.] The latter a shameless woman !■

of the family of Tosa, married to Lito degli Alidosi of Imola : the former [

Lapo Salterello, a lawyer, witli whom Dante was at variance. }

V. 125. Mary.] The Virgin was invoked in the pains of child-biith. |

Purgatory, Canto XX. 21. f

V. ISO.' Valdipado.] Cacciaguida's wife, who.se family name was Al- •
dighieri, came from Ferrara, called Val di Pado, from its being watered

by the Po. I

V. 131. Conrad.] The Emperor Conrad III. who died in 1152. See G.
Villani, 1. iv. 34.

V. 130. Whose people.] The Mahometan.?, who were left in possession |
of the Holy Land, through the supineness of the Pope.

CANTO XVI.

;

V. 10. With f/reetinr/.] The Poet, who had addressed the spirit, not j

knowing him to be his ancestor, with a plain "Thou," now uses more ij

ceremony, and calls him "You," according to a cu.stom introduced |
among the Ronian.s in the latter times of the empire.



PARADISE. 439

V. 15. Giiinever.'] Be.atrice's smile cn('onr.'iG;ecl liim to proceed; just



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