being taken to Paris by Napoleon and there transferred to canvas, the picture was (after
Waterloo) brought back to Italy, and finally placed in the Vatican Gallery. The
conception is as original as it is noble. Our Lady appears, no longer throned under a
canopv, as in the traditional Umbrian or Florentine type, but floating on the clouds of
heaven, encircled by a golden halo of cherub-heads. On the flowery sward below, St.
Francis, kneeling at the Baptist's feet, fixes his ardent gaze on the celestial vision,
while on the other side St. Jerome commends the donor to the Virgin's protection.
Between these two groups, a boy-angel stands looking up at the Madonna, and forms,
as it were, a link between the saints on earth and the seraph host of heaven. ' It is not
possible to imagine,' writes Vasari, ' anything more graceful or more beautiful than this
child. ' In the background, on the heights above the Tiber, are the towers of Foligno.
The exquisite beauty of the Virgin's face, the playful charm of the joyous Child, above
all, the magnificent portrait of the kneeling chamberlain, lifting his worn, wrinkled face
to heaven, aroused the admiration of all the painter's contemporaries and have made
this work memorable among Raphael's Madonnas."
"The picture," writes Charles Clement, "besides its beauty, is of special impor-
tance in Raphael's work, in that it denotes a very manifest preoccupation as regards
the processes of execution, especially of color. In i 5 1 1 Sebastiano del Piombo arrived
in Rome. The exclusive studv of Michelanglo's works had not yet modified his man-
ner. He brought with him from Venice the brilliant coloring of his master Giorgione.
Raphael appears to have been much struck by the vivacity and brilliancy of his paint-
ing, and by the seductive qualities that distinguish the Venetian school, and from this
time his brush-work became more free and broad and his color more brilliant."
"THE SISTINE MADONNA" ROYAL GALLERY: DRESDEN
THIS world-renowned picture, called by Symonds "the sublimest lyric of the art
of Catholicity," is said to be the last Madonna that Raphael painted, and was
executed entirely by the master's hand for the monks of the monastery of San Sisto.
In 1753 it was purchased by the Elector Augustus III. of Saxony. It occupies to-day
a separate cabinet of the Royal Gallery of Dresden, where it is placed under glass on an
altar-like structure, the lower part of which bears an Italian inscription from Vasari
which, translated, reads: "For the Black Monks of San Sisto in Piacenza Raphael
painted a picture for the high altar showing Our Lady with St. Sixtus and St. Barbara
— truly a work most excellent and rare."
"In the 'Madonna of Foligno,' " writes Julia Cartwright, "the artist has repre-
sented the Virgin throned upon the clouds and the saints kneeling upon earth. Now he
went a step further and painted the holv Mother and Child descending out of highest
heaven, adored by saints in glory, and framed in by green altar hangings. The curtains
have been drawn back suddenly, and we see a vision that is for all time. On the left,
the venerable Pope Sixtus lifts his devout old face to heaven; on the right, a youthful St.
Barbara smiles down at the twin boys who have strayed from the angel band, and rest-
ing their elbows on the parapet below, look up with big wistful eyes."
"We are all familiar with that wonderful form," writes Liibke, "arrayed in glori-
ous raiment, borne upon clouds, — a heavenly apparition. She seems to be lost in pro-
found thought concerning the divine mystery; for a Child is throned within her arms,
whose lofty mission is foreshadowed in his childish features, while the depth and majesty
of his eyes express his destiny as the Saviour of the world. It may be said that in this
picture Raphael has united his deepest thought, his profoundest insight, his completest
loveliness. It is, and will continue to be, the apex of all religious art. His Madonnas,
and, in the highest sense, 'The Sistine Madonna,' belong to no especial epoch, to
no particular religious creed. Thev exist for all time and for all mankind, because they
present an immortal truth in a form that makes a universal appeal. ' '
Although a Russian scholar, Jelinek, has recently attempted to throw doubt upon the
authorship of this picture, his theory has up to now met with scant credence by the
most authoritative critics.
^AINTED in 1507, this picture may be said to mark the term of Raphael's first
X manner. It was bought by Francis I. from Filippo Sergardi of Siena, and is gener-
ally believed to be the work which Vasari says was entrusted to Ridolfo Ghirlandajo that
he might finish * ' an azure vestment which was still wanting when Raphael left Florence. ' '
"Perhaps the most perfect, and certainly the most famous of the Madonnas painted
at Florence," writes Eugene jMiinlZi "is the 'Belle Jardiniere' of the Louvre, in
which Raphael has given free expression to his love for the beauties of nature. He has -r
painted the tufts of grass, the plants and flowers of the foreground, with a freshness and
precision which the Van Eycks could scarcely have excelled, but, like a true Italian, he
does not damage the ensemble for the details." And again: "The composition is so !
perfect that one does not even think of the difficuldes overcome. The most beautiful
groups of antique statuary are not composed with greater suppleness or science."
• 'PORTRAIT OF BALDASSARE CASTIGLIONE" LOUVRE: PARIS
" A MONG the most illustrious of those who surrounded Pope Leo X.," writes
JTjL. Gruyer, "there was no more brilliant figure than Count Baldassare Castiglione.
Birth, honors, intellect, grace, fortune, all were his. Raphael was his intimate friend,
and painted this portrait about 15 15, when Castiglione was thirty-seven, though, per-
haps from the stress of a too acdve life, he looks older."
"He is clad," writes Springer, " in a black garment open over the chest, and a
gray mantle is carelesslv draped over his arm. A black cap with broad turned-up brim
covers his head. The colors are laid upon the canvas thinly and with a broad brush.
In the flesh a warm, yellow, transparent local color prevails, with fine gray half-tints.
Although apparently an impromptu work, painted, so to speak, at one stroke, this por-
trait shows the most finished modelling in each and every part, and is distinguished for
the perfection of its technique."
Mr. Berenson calls it "an exquisite study in gray," and ranks it as one of Raphael's
highest achievements in color.
in a)} t) a el 35
<'THE TRANSFIGURATION" VATICAN GALLERY: ROME
"TN the last work of his life," writes Miintz, " Raphael takes us back to the history
X of Christ. The origin of ♦ The Transfiguration ' is well known. Wishing to give
the town of Narbonne, of which Francis I. had made him bishop, a token of his piety
and munificence. Cardinal Giuliano de' Medici ordered, in 15 17, two altar-pieces for
the cathedral of that ancient Gallic city. One he intrusted to Raphael, the other to
Sebastiano del Piombo."
'* The picture," writes Knackfuss, " is one of the most powerful. It makes its effect
on the spectator bv strong contrasts. On the top of the mountain, at some distance,
brilliantly lighted in the bright cloud, hovers the transfigured form of the Saviour between
Moses and Elias, over the three disciples who have fallen to the ground, dazzled by the
brightness. Meanwhile a scene of human misery (based on a passage of St. Matthew,
xvii. 16) is being enacted below: the father of the lunatic boy, accompanied by a crowd
of people, has entered the presence of the nine remaining disciples. The unfortunate
man keeps a firm hold of the boy, who is convulsed with a spasm, and keeps his eyes
fixed with a last glimmering of hope on the disciples of Jesus, though he is affected
almost to despair by his son's sufTerings; two women have thrown themselves on their
knees before the apostles; one prays with gentle, mutely eloquent glances; the other, in
whom we suppose that we see the boy's mother, cries passionately, almost imperiously,
for help; their companions stretch out their hands in supplication. And the nine apostles
stand on the other side, deeply moved, seized with compassion, but powerless to help;
for He who might have helped has left them and is gone up on the mountain. The
contrast is carried through the externals of the picture, too; above there is a harmonious
blending of colors and lines, all floating in abundance of light; below there are lines
which cross one another roughlv, harsh and conflicting colors, and dark shadows. The
two persons at the side of the picture, witnesses of the transfiguration, who form an
addition meaningless except to the donor of the work, are the patron saints of the
Cardinal's father and uncle, Julian and Laurence. Raphael had just finished ' The
Transfiguranon' — perhaps the last transitions still remained to be added, which would
have softened down the overharsh juxtaposition of color in the lower half of the picture
— when death overtook him."
" 'The Transfiguration,' " write the editors of Vasari, "is not Raphael's master-
piece and is more than equalled by several other works. But it is not in arrangement
that it fails; here as alwavs Raphael proves himself a consummate master of composi-
tion. The picture suffers from its chronological place in the development of Raphael
and of Italian art. In rivalry with Sebasdano del Piomibo, the protege of Michelangelo,
Raphael, who could be nobly dramadc, here, in his effort to surpass Michelangelo, be-
comes declamatory and violent. He has not thought of characterization, but of com-
position, individual movements, and dramatic efi^ect. Only Raphael, however, could
have designed the picture, and it is full of beauties as well as of faults, and therefore is
intensely interesting as a study in the psychological development of a master. ' '
THE PRINCIPAL EASEL-PAINTINGS OF RAPHAEL
WITH THEIR PRESENT LOCATIONS
BERGAMO, LocHis Collection: St. Sebastian — Berlin Gallery : Solly Ma-
donna; Terranuova Madonna; Colonna Madonna; Madonna and Saints — Bologna
Gallery: St. Cecilia — Brescia, Tosi Gallery: Salvator Mundi — Buda-Pesth, Es-
TERHAZY Gallery: Esterhazy Madonna; Portrait of a Young Man — Chantilly, Conde
Museum: Three Graces; Orleans Madonna — Dresden, Royal Gallery: Sistine Ma-
a^a^terjBf in ^rt
donna (Plate vii) — Florence, Pitti Palace: Portrait of Pope Leo X. (Plate iv); Mad-
dalena Doni; Angelo Doni; Portrait of Pope Julius II.; Madonna of the Chair (Plate
111); Madonna del Baldacchino; Gran' Duca Madonna (Plate i); La Donna Gravida;
La Donna Velata; Vision of Ezelciel; Fedra Inghirami; Cardinal Bibbiena; Madonna dell'
Impannata — Florence, Uffizi Gallery: Portrait of Raphael (Page 20); St. John the
Baptist; Madonna del Cardellino; Portrait of Pope Julius II. (?) — London, National
Gallery: Ansidei Madonna; The Knight's Vision; St. Catherine; Aldobrandini Madonna
London Owned by Sir J. C. Robinson: Madonna de' Candelabri — London, Mond
Collection: Crucifixion — London, Bridgevvater House: Madonna with the Palm —
London, South Kensington Museum: Madonna di Sant' Antonio — Madrid, The
PradO: Madonna del Cordero (Lamb); Madonna del Pesce (Fish); Madonna della Perla;
The Visitation; Lo Spasimo di Sicilia; Portrait of Young Cardinal — Milan, Brera
Gallery: Marriage of the Virgin (Plate 11) — Munich Gallery: Madonna Tempi;
Madonna Canigiani; Portrait of Bindo Altoviti; Young Man of the Family of Riccio —
Panshanger, Eng., Earl Covvper's Collection: Two Pictures of the Madonna —
Paris, Louvre: "La Belle Jardiniere" (Plate viii); Madonna of Francis L; La Vierge
au Diademe; St. Michael; St. George; Archangel Michael Crushing Satan; Apollo and
Marsyas (?); Baldassare Castiglione (Plate ix); Joanna of Aragon; Portrait of a Young
Man Rome, Vatican Gallery: Coronation of the Virgin, and Predelle; Madonna of
Foligno (Plate vi); The Transfiguration (Plate x) — Rome, Borghese Gallery: En-
tombment; Portrait of Perugino — Rome, Doria Gallery: Portraits of Navagero and
Beazzano St. Petersburg, Hermitage: Madonna of the House of Alba (Plate v);
Connestabile Madonna; St. Petersburg Madonna; St. George and the Dragon — Vienna,
Imperial Gallery: Madonna in the Meadow (del Prato) — Volterra, Inghirami Pal-
ace: Portrait of Tommaso Inghirami.
THE literature upon Raphael is so extensive that it would be impossMe to list even
an adequate selection from it in the present space. An entirexolume has been
devoted to it by M. Eugene Miintz, " Les Historiens et les crjf^ues de Raphael,
1483-1883 " (Paris, 1883), and to this work those who desire an exhaustive bibliog-
raphy are referred. An excellent catalogue is also given by E. H. and E. W. Blashfield
and A. A. Hopkins in their admirably annotated edition of Vasari's "Lives of the
Painters ' ' (New York, i 897 ). The following list names only a few of the more notable
works upon Raphael.
BERENSON, B. Central Italian Painters. (New York, i 899) — Cartvvright, J. The
Early Works of Raphael; Raphael in Rome. [In " The Portfolio "] (London, 1895)
— Clement, C. Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, and Raphael: Trans, by L. Corkran.
(London, 1880) — Crowe, J. A., and Cavalcaselle, G. B. Raphael: his Life and
Works. (London, 1882-85) — Grimm, H. Life of Raphael: Trans, by S. H. Adams.
(Boston, 1 888) — Gruyer, F. A. Raphael et I'antiquite (Paris, 1864); Les Vierges de
Raphael (Paris, 1869); Raphael, peintre de portraits. (Paris, 1 881) — Knackfuss, H.
Raphael: Trans, by Campbell Dodgson. (London, 1898) — Morelli, G. Italian Mas-
ters in German Galleries: Trans, by L. M. Richter (London, 1883); Italian Painters:
Trans, by C. J. Ffoulkes. (London, 1892) — MuN TZ, E. Raphael, his Life, Works, and
Times: Trans, by W. Armstrong. (London, 1882) — -Passavant, J. D. Raphael of
Urbino and his Father, Giovanni Santi. (London, 1872) — Springer, A. Raffael und
Michelangelo. (Leipsic, 1883) — Vasa^ri^G- Lives of the Painters. (New York, 1897.)
MASTERS IN ART
MASTERS IN ART
BACK NUMBERS AND BOUND VOLUMES
MASTERS IN ART was established in January, 1900. As will be
seen from the following list of painters and sculptors covered by
t le first eight years, the bound volumes form a fairly complete reference
library of Art. The subjects, in order of publication, are as follows :
VOLUME I (1900) treats of Van Dyck, Titian, Velasquez,
Holbein, Botticelli, Rembrandt, Reynolds, Millet, Giov. Bellini,
Murillo, Frans Hals, and Raphael.
VOLUME II (1901) treats of Rubens, Da Vinei, Durer,
Michelangelo (Sculpture), Michelangelo (Paintiruj), Corot,
Burne-Jones, Ter Borch, Delia Robbia, Del Sarto, Gains-
borough, and Correggio.
VOLUME III (1902) treats of Phidias, Perugino, Holbein's
Drawings, Tintoretto, Pieter de Hooch, Nattier, Paul Potter,
Giotto, Praxiteles, Hogarth, Turner, and Luini.
VOLUME IV (1903) treats of Romney, Fra AngeUco, Wat-
teau, Raphael's Frescos, Donatel-
lo, Gerard Dou, Carpaccio, Rosa
Bonheur, Guido Reni, Puvis de
Chavannes, Giorgione, Rossetti.
VOLUMF: V (1904) treats of
Fra Bartolorameo, Greuze, Dii-
rer's Engravings, Lotto, Land-
seer, Vermeer of Delft, Pintoric-
chio. The Van Eycks, Meissonier,
Barye, Veronese, and Copley.
VOLUME VI (1905) treats of
Watts, Palma Vecchio, Madame
Vigee le Brun, INIantegna, Char-
din, Benozzo Gozzoli, Jan Steen,
Memlinc, Claude Lorrain, Ver-
rocchio, Raeburn, and Fra Filip-
VOLUME VII (1906) treats of Stuart, David, Bocklin, Sodoma,
Constable, Metsu, Ingres, Wilkie, Ghirlandajo, Bouguereau, Goya, and
VOLUME VIII (1907) treats of Sir Thomas Lawrence, Ruisdael,
Filippino Lippi, La Tour, Signorelli, Masaccio, Teniers the Younger,
Tiepolo, Delacroix, Jules Breton, Rousseau, and Whistler.
THE CLOTH BINDING is a brown art buckram with heavy beveled boards,
side and back stamped in frosted and burnished gold, from desig^ns by Mr.
B. G. Goodhue, and gilt top.
THE HALF-MOROCCO BINDING is in green, with green and gold marbled
paper sides and end papers, gold tooled back, designed by Mr. B. G. Goodhue,
All single numbers, except those of the current calendar year, are 20 cents each, postpaid in the
United States; Canadian postage, 2 cents extra; Foreign postage, 5 cents extra. Single numbers of
the current calendar year, 15 cents each. No reduction for complete sets. Bound volumes are
$3.75 each for cloth; $4.25 each for half-morocco, express prepaid.
BATES & GUILD CO. '^ fttT'^ Boston, Mass.
In answering advertisements, please mention Masters in Art
MASTERS IN ART
MASTERS IN MUSIC
(a companion work to masters in art)
Edited by DANIEL GREGORT MASON
EACH composer is taken up separately, a biography
with frontispiece portrait is given, followed by esti-
mates of his genius by the world's greatest musical
critics, and selections from his work, carefully edited
and accompanied by analytical notes by the editor. To
add to the value of the work for reference, a bibliog-
raphy of the more important books and magazine
articles referring to each composer, with a classified list
of his chief works, is included.
The principal value of ' Masters EST MusiC ' lies
in the selections chosen to illustrate each composer's
work. There are 1,152 pages of most carefully edited
music, printed from plates engraved for this work. The
analysis of these selections gives a clear understanding,
not only of the style and purpose of the composer, but
of the right way in which to play them. There are 576
pages of reading-matter and thirty-six insert plates
showing portraits and autograph music.
SIX VOLUMES, CLOTH, $15
Green cloth, beveled boards, gold lettering
and tops, $3.00 with order, and six monthly
payments of $2.00 each.
Part i, MOZART
Part 2, CHOPIN
Part 3, GOUNOD
Part 4, MENDELSSOHN
Part 5, GREIG
Part 6, RAFF
Part 13, WEBER
Part 14, FR.\NZ
Part 15, LISZT
Part 16, PURCELL
Part 17, STRAUSS
Part 18. The SCARLATTIS
Part 25, SCHUMANN*
Part 26, SCHUMANN g
Part 27, CESAR FRANCK
Part 28, MEYERBEER
Part 29, BRAHMS*
Part 30, BRAHMS §
* Piano t Orchestral
Part 7, VERDI
Part 8, HAYDN
Part 9, BIZET
Part 10, BEETHOVEN*
Part ii, BEETHOVEN t
Part 12, HANT>EL
Part 19, ROSSJNI
Part 20, DVORAK
Part 21, SCHUBERT t
Part 22, SCHUBERT §
Part 23, TSCHAJKOWSKY
Part 24, BACH
Part 31, RUBINSTEIN
Part 32, BELLINI —
P'iRTss, GLUCK ..
Part 34, SAINT-SAENS
Part 35, WAGNER
Part 36, WAGNER
SIX VOLUMES, HALF-MOROCCO, $21
Crimson, with green sides, gold lettering and
tops, $5.00 with order, and eight monthly pay-
ments of $2.00 each.
Any of the above parts, in paper covers, will be sent, postpaid, for 25 cents.
The complete set of 36 parts, in paper, express prepaid, $7.50.
BATES & GUILD COMPANY, Publishers
42 Chauncy St., Boston, Mass.
In answering advertisements, please mention Masters in Art
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA— BERKELEY
RETURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED
This book is due on the last date stamped below, or on the
date to which renewed.
Renewed books are subject to immediate recall.
APR 2 '65 -12 M
JUN 5 196973
)lf 2 1980
UNIVERSITY OF CAUFORNIA LIBRARY
"IT HAS TAUGHT MB ALL THAT A TEACHER COULD HAVK TAUGHT— HOW
TO BEGIN RIGHT, HOW TO AVOID DIFFICULTIES, AND THE
•TRICKS OP THE TRADE.'"
CHARLES D. MAGINNIS
|NLY practice will make an accomplished pen-
draughtsman; but this little treatise teaches
whatever can be taught of the art ; namely,
how to practise, what "style" is, and how to
attain it, what pens, inks, and papers have been found
most serviceable, how to use line and hatch, how to
produce textures and to represent various surfaces, val-
ues and colors, how to depict and treat details, — in a
word, imparts a knowledge of all the ways, means, and
processes that experience has proved useful. The key-
note of the book is practicality. Each of the 72 illus-
trations is a specific example of some important
method. It is written interestingly and clearly. With
this treatise at his elbow the draughtsman can make
most valuable use of his spare minutes.
Price, $1.00, Postpaid
THE BOOK MEASURES 7^x5 INCHES, CONTAINS 130 PAGES AND 73 ILLUS>
TRATION8, IS PRINTED ON HEAVY PAPER, AND BOUND IN GRAY CLOTH.
BATES & GUILD COMPANY, PUBLISHERS
42 CHAUNCY STREET, BOSTON, MASS.