public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other
state. And the congress may, by penal laws, prescribe the
manner in which such acts, records, and proceeding shall be
proved, and the effect thereof.
I. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all the
privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states.
II. A person charged in any state with treason, felony or
other crime, who shall flee from justice and be found in
another state, shall, on demand of the executive authority of
the state from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed
to the state having jurisdiction of the crime.
III. No person, held to service or labour in one state un-
der the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in conse-
quence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from
such service or labour; but shall be delivered up on claim of
the party to whom such service or labour may be due.
I. New states may be admitted by the congress into this
union; but no new state shall be formed or erected within the
jurisdiction of any other state, nor any state be formed by
elseif (getClientWidth() > 430)
the junction of two or more states — without the consent of
the legislatures of the states concerned, as well as of the
II. The congress shall have power to dispose of, and make
all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or
other property belonging to the United States: and nothing
in this constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any
claims of the United States, or of any particular state.
The United States shall guarantee to every state in this
union, a republican form of government; and shall protect
each of them against invasion, and on application of the legis-
lature, or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be
convened) against domestic violence.
The congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall
deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this consti-
tution, or on the application of the legislatures of two-thirds
of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing
amendments; which, in either case, shall be valid to all in-
tents and purposes, as part of this constitution, when ratified
by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states, or
by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the
other mode of ratification may be proposed by the congress:
Ixxxvi Philadelphia Index.
Provided, that no amendment which may be made prior to
the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, shall in any
manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section
of the first article; and that no state, without its consent,
shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the senate.
T. All debts contracted, and engagements entered into, be-
fore the adoption of this constitution, shall be as valid against
the United States, under this constitution, as under the con-
II. This constitution, and the laws of the United States
which shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties
made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the
United y States, shall be the supreme law of the land, and the
judge* in every state shall be bound thereby, any thing in
the constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwith-
III. The senators and representatives before mentioned,
and the members of the several state legislatures, and all
executive arttl judicial officers, both of the United States and
of the several states, shall be bound, by oath or affirmation,
to support this constitution; but no religious test shall ever
be required as a qualification to any office or public trust un-
der the United States.
The ratification of the convention of nine states shall be
sufficient for the establishment of this constitution between
the states so ratifying the same.
Done in the convention by the unanimous consent of the states
present, the seventeenth day of September, in the year of
our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven,
and of the independence of the United Slates of America
the twelfth. In witness whereof we have subscribed our
names. GEORGE WASHINGTON, President,
and delegate from Virginia.
Xexv -Hampshire — John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman.
.Massachusetts— Nathaniel Gorham, Ilufus King.
Connecticut — William Samuel Johnson, Roger Sherman.
■-York — Alexander Hamilton.
■-. - Jersey — William Livingston, David Brearley, William
Pattersoti, Jonathan Dayton.
Pennsylvania — Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Mifflin. R
Morris, George Clymer, Thomas Fitzsimons, Jared Ingersoll,
James Wilson, Governeur Morris.
Delaware — George Reed, Gunning Bedford, jun. John Dick-
■n, Richard Basset, Jacob Broom.
Maryland— James M'Henry, Daniel of St. Thomas Jen
Daniel Carol 1.
i.iia — John Blair, James Madison, jun.
.Yo:th- Carolina— William Blount, Richard Dobbs Spa:
Philadelphia Index. Jxxxvii
South-Carolina — John Rutledge, Chas. C. Pinckney, Charles
Pinckney, Pierce Butler.
Georgia — William Few, Abraham Baldwin.
Attest, WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary.
The folio-wing articles in addition to, and amendment of, the con-
st! tution of the United States, having been ratified by the legis-
latures of nine states, are equally obligatory -with the constitu-
I. Congress shall make no law respecting an establish-
ment of religion, or prohibiting" the free exercise thereof, or
abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right
of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the
government for a redress of grievances.
II. A well regulated militia being necessary to the security
of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms
shall not be infringed.
III. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any
house, without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war,
but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
IV. The right of the people to be secure in their persons,
houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches
and seizures, shall not be violated; and no warrants shall
issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirma-
tion, and particularly describing the place to be searched,
and the persons or things to be seized.
V. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or other-
wise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment
of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval
forces or in the militia, when in actual service, in time of
war, or public danger: nor shall any person be subject, for
the same offence, to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb;
nor shall be compelled in any criminal case, to be witness
against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property,
without due process of law; nor shall private property be
taken for public use, without just compensation.
VI. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy
the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury,
of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been
committed; which district shall have been previously ascer-
tained by law; and to be informed of the nature and cause of
the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against
him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his
favour; and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence.
VII. In suits at common law, where the value in contro-
versy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury
shall be preserved; and no fact tried by jury shall be other-
wise re-examined in any court of the United States, than ac-
cording to the rules of the common law.
Ixxxviii Philadelphia Index.
VIII. Excessive bail shall not be required; nor excessive
fines imposed; nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted.
IX. The enumeration, in the constitution, of certain rights
shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained
by the people.
X. The powers not delegated to the United States by the
constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved
to the states respectively, or to the people.
XI. The judicial power of the United States shall not be
construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced
or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens
of another state, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.
XII. The electors shall meet in their respective states, and
vote by ballot for president and vice president, one of whom,
at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with
themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted
for as president, and in distinct ballots the person voted for
as vice-president; and they shall make distinct lists of all
persons voted for as president, and of all persons voted for as
vice-president, and of the number of votes for each, which
lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the
government of the United States, directed to the president
of the senate; the president of the senate shall, in the pre-
sence of the senate and house of representatives, open all
the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted: the per-
son having the greatest number of votes for president shall
be the president, if such number be a majority of the whole
number of electors appointed; and if no person have such
majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers
not exceeding three on the list of tbose voted for as presi-
dent, the house of representatives shall choose immediately,
by ballot, the president. But in choosing the president, the
votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each
state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall con-
sist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states,
and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice.
And if the house of representatives shall not choose a presi-
dent whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them,.,
before the fourth day of March next following, then the vice-
president shall act as president, as in the case of the death
or other constitutional disability of the president.
The person having the greatest number of votes as vice-
president, shall be vice-president, if such number be a ma-
jority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no
person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers
on the list, the senate shall choose the vice-president: a quo-
rum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole
number of senators, and a majority of the whole number shall
be necessary to a choice.
Bui no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of
president shall be eligible to that of vice-president of the
C0N.STIT1 TIOS OF l'E.N.\S\LVAMA,
ratified in Convention, the 2d day of September, IT 90.
We, the people of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, ordain
and establish this constitution for its government.
\ 1. The legislative power of this commonwealth shall be vested
in a general assembly, which shall consist of a senate and house of
2. The representatives shall be chosen annually, by the citizens
of the city of Philadelphia, and of each county respectively, on the
second Tuesday of October.
3 . Xo person shall be a representative who shall not have at-
tained the age of twenty-one years, and have been a citizen and in- .
habitant of the state three years next preceding his election, and
the last year thereof an inhabitant of the city or county in which he
shall be chosen j unless he shall have been absent on the public
business of the United States, or of this state. No person residing
within any city, town, or borough, which shall be entitled to a se-
parate representation, shall be elected a member for any county ,
nor shall any person residing without the limits of any such city,
town, or borough, be elected a member therefor.
Within three years after the first meeting of the general as-
ly, and within every subsequent term of seven years, an enu-
meration of the taxable inhabitants shall be made, in such manner as
shall be directed by law. The number of representatives shall, at
the several periods of making such enumeration, be fixed b\
legislature, and apportioned among the city of Philadelphia and
the several counties, according to the number of taxable inhabi-
s in each ; and shall never be k xty, nor greater than
one hundred. Each county shall have at least one representative ;
but no county, hereafter erected, shall be entitled to a separate re-
presentation, until a sufficient number of taxable inhabitants shall
be contained within it to entitle them to one representative, agreea-
ole to the ratio which shall then be established.
5. The senators shall be chosen for four years, by the citizen*
.iiladelphia and of the several counties at the same time, in the
same manner, and at the same places where they shall vote for re-
6. The number of senators shall, at the several periods of making-
the enumeration before mentioned, be fixed by the legislature and
apportioned among the districts formed as hereinafter directed, ac-
cording to the number of taxable inhabitants in each ; and shah
ver be less than one-fourth, nor greater than one-third, of the num-
ber of representatives.
7. The senators shall be chosen in districts, to be formed by the
legislature ; each district containing such a number of taxable inha-
,ts as shall be entitled to elect not more than four senators.
When a district shall be composed of two or more counties, they
xc append t. « ■
shall be adjoining. Neither the city of Philadelphia nor an
shall be divided, in forming a district.
8. No person shall he a senator who shall not have attained the
age of twenty-five years, and have been a citizen ami inhabitant <rf
the state four years next before his election, and the last year
thereof an inhabitant of the district for which he shall have been
chosen; unless he shall have been absent on the public businc-
the United States, or of this state.
9. Immediately after the senators shall be assembled, in conse-
quence of the hist election, subsequent to the first enumeration,
they shall be divided, by lot, as equally as may be, into four ck.
The seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the
expiration of the first year; of the second class, at the expiration Of
the second year ; of the third class, at the expiration of the third
year; and of the fourth class, at the expiration of the fourth year;
so that one-fourth may be chosen every year.
10. The general assembly shall meet on the first Tuesday of De-
cember in every year, unless sooner convened by the governor.
11. Each house shall choose its speaker and other officers; and
the senate shall also choose a speaker, pro tempore, when the speak-
er shall exercise the office of governor.
12. Eaeh house shall judge of the qualifications of its members.
Contested elections shall be determined by a committee, to be se-
lected, formed, and regulated in such manner as shall be directed
by law. A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do
business : but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and
may be authorized, by hue, to compel the attendance of absent
members, in such manner, and under such penalties, a"s ma;
13. Each house may determine the rules of its proceed'u
punish its members for disorderly behaviour ; and, with the con-
currence of two-thirds, expel a member; but not a second time
for the same cause, and shall have all other powers necessary for a
branch of the legislature of a free state.
14. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and pub-
lish them weekly, except such parts as may require secrecy. And
the yeas and nays of the members; on any question, shall, at the
desire of any two of them, be entered on the journals.
15. The doors of each bouse, and of committees of the whole,
shall be open, unless when the business shall be such as ought to be
16. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, ad-
journ for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in
which the two houses shall be sitting.
17. The senators and representatives shall receive a compensa-
tion for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the
treasury of the commonwealth. They shall, in all cases except
treason, felony, and breach or surety of the peace, be free from ar-
rest, during their attendance at the session of die respective privi-
leged houses, and in going to and returning from the same. And
for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be ques-
tioned in any other place.
18 >resen+a f during 1 the time fi
• '■ippendijc. xci
all have been elected, be appointed to any civil office, under
'hi-, commonwealth, which shall have b«_en created, or the emolu-
ments ot' which shall have been increased, during such time ; and
HO member of congress, or other person holding 1 any office, except
of attorney at law, and in the militia, under the United States or
tiiks commonweakh, shall be a member of either house, during his
continuance in congress, or in office.
19. When vacancies happen in either hon.se, the speaker shall
issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.
20. AH bills for raising revenue shall originate in the house of
representatives; but the senate may propose amendments, as in
21. «No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in conse-
quence of appropriations made by law.
22. Every bill, which shall have passed both houses, shall be
presented to the governor. If he approve, he shall sigMi it ; but if
he shall not approve, he shall return it, with his objections, to the
house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objec-
tions at large upon their journals, and proceed to reconsider it. l\\
after such reconsideration, two-thirds of that house shall agree to
pass the bill, it shall be sent, with the objections, to the other
house, by which, likew ise, it shall be reconsidered ; and if approved
by two-thirds of that house, it shall be a law. But, in such cases,
the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays; and
the names of the persons voting for or against the bill shall be en-
tered on the journals of each house respectively. If any bill shall
not be returned by the governor w ithin ten days (Sundays except-
ed) after it, shall be presented to him, it shall be 'a law, in like man-
ner "as if he had signed it, unless the general assembly, by their
adjournment, prevent its return; in which case, it shall be a law.
unless sent back within three days after their next meeting".
23. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence
of both houses may be necessary, (except on a question of adjourn-
ment,) shall be presented to the governor; and, before it shall take
effect, be approved by him ; or, being disapproved, shall be re-
passed by two-thirds of both houses, according to the rules and li-
mitations prescribed in case of a bill.
§ 1. The supreme executive power of this commomvealth shall
be vested in a governor.
2. The governor shall be chosen on the second Tuesday of Oc-
tober, by the citizens of the commonwealth, at the places where
they shall respectively vote for representatives. The returns of
every election for governor, shall be sealed up and transmitted to
the seat of government, directed to the speaker of the senate, who
shall open and publish them, in the presence of the members of
both houses of the legislature. The person having the highest
number of votes shall be governor. But, if two or more shall be
equal and highest in votes, one of them shall be chosen governor
by the joint vote of the members of both houses. Contested elec-
tions shall be determined by a committee, to be selected from both
houses of the legislature, and formed and regulated in such manner
is shall be directed by law.
3. The governor shall hold his office during three years I .
the third Tuesday of December next ensuing his election ; and
shall not be capable of holding it longer than nine in any term of
4. He shall be at least thirty years of age, and have been a citi-
zen and inhabitant of this state seven years next before his elec-
tion ; unless he shall have been absent on the public business of the
United States, or of this state.
5. No member of congress, or person holding any office under
the United States, or this state, shall exercise the office of gover-
6. The governor shall, at stated times, receive for his services a
compensation which shall be neither increased nor diminished
during the period fof which he shall have been elected.
7. He shall be commander in chief of the army and navy of this
commonwealth, and of the militia; except when they shall be called
into the actual service of the United States.
8. He shall appoint all officers, whose offices are established by
this constitution, or shall be established by law, and whose appoint-
ments are not herein otherwise provided for; but no person shall
be appointed to an office withia any county who shall not have
been a citizen and inhabitant therein one year next before Ins ap-
pointment, if the county shall have been so long erected; but, if it
shall not have been so long erected, then within the limits of the
county or counties out of which it shall have been taken. No mem-
ber of congress from tins state, or any person holding or exercising
any office of trust or profit under the United States, shall, at the
same time, hold or exercise the office of judge, secretary, trea-
surer, prothonotary, register of wills, recorder of deeds, sheriff,
or any office in this state, to which a salary is by law annexed, or
any other office which future legislatures shall declare incompati-
ble with offices or appointments under the United Slates.
9. He Sfoall have power to remit fines and forfeitures, and grant
s and pardons, except in cases of impeachment.
10. He may require information, in writing, from the officers in
executive department, upon any gubject relating to the duties
of their respective offices.
11. He shall, from time to time, give to the general assembly Ni-
dation of the state of the commonwealth, and recommend to
'heir consideration such measures as he shall judge expedient.
15. He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene the general
mbly : and, in case of disagreement between the two houses,
a ith respect to the time of adjournment, adjourn to such tin:
he shall think proper, not exceeding four months.
13. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed.
14. In case of the death or resignation of the governor, or of his
removal from office, the speaker of the senate shall exercise the
office of governor, until another governor shall be duly qualified.
And if the trial of a contested election shall continue longer than
until the third Tuesday in December next ensuing the election of
governor, the governor of the last year, or the speaker of the
senate, who may be in the exercis* of the executive authority, shall
';me therein until the determination of such contested m
ami until a governor shall be qualified dd.
15. A secretary shall he appointed and commissioned (hiring- the
mor's continuance in office, if he shall so long behave himself
well. lie shall keep a fair register of all the official acts and pro-
ceedings of the governor, "and shall, when required, lay the same,
and all papers, minutes, and vouchers relative thereto, before
• ither branch of the legislature j and shall perform such other du-
- as shall be enjoined him by law.
§ 1. In elections by the citizens, every freeman, of the age of
twenty -one years, having resided in the state two years next befove
the election, and within that time paid a state or county tax, which
shall have been assessed at least six months before the election,
shall enjoy the rights of an elector : Provided, that the sons of pcr-
quidrfied as aforesaid, between trie ages of twenty -one and
twenty-two years, shall be entitled to vote, although they shall not
have paid taxes.
2. All elections shall be by ballot, except tho.-e by persons in
their representative capacities, who shall vote viva voce.
3. Electors shall, in all eases, exc n, felony, and breach
or surety of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their at-
tendance on elections, and in going to and returning from them.
AHTII I.l. IV.
§ 1. The house of representatives shall have the sole power of