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shelves of



PROPERTY OF
W. L HAEGBEAYES,



The WORKS of VOLTAIRE

EDITION DE LA PACIFICATION

Limited to one thousand sets
for America and Great Britain.



"Between two servants of Humanity, who appeared
eighteen hundred years apart, there is a mysterious relation.
* * Let us say it with a sentiment of
profound respect: JESUS WEPT: VOLTAIRE SMILED.
Of that divine tear and of that human smile is composed the
sweetness of the present civilization."

VICTOR HUGO.



RUINS OF 1 UI6BON



EDITION DE LA PACIFICATION



THE WORKS OF

VOLTAIRE



A CONTEMPORARY VERSION

WITH NOTES BY TOBIAS SMOLLETT, REVISED AND MODERNIZED

NEW TRANSLATIONS BY WILLIAM F. FLEMING, AND AN

INTRODUCTION BY OLIVER H. G, LEIGH



A CRITIQUE AND BIOGRAPHY
BY

THE RT. HON. JOHN MORLEY

FORTY-THREE VOLUMES

ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTY-EIGHT DESIGNS, COMPRISING REPRODUCTIONS

OF KAKB OLD ENGRAVINGS, STEEL PLATES, PHOTOGRAVURES,

AKU CURIOUS FAC-SIMILBS



VOLUME XXXVI



AKRON, OHIO

THE WERNER COMPANY
1906



COPTBIGHT 1901

BY E. R. DuMONT

OWNED BY

THE WEKNER COMPANY
AKRON. OHIO



UDE BY

THE WERNER COMPANV

AKRON, CHIO



Stack
Annex

PQ

2O75

E5S6

1906



VOLTAIRE



THE LISBON EARTHQUAKE
AND OTHER POEMS



CONTENTS



PAGE

AUTHOR'S PREFACE 5

THE LISBON EARTHQUAKE .... 8
THE LAW OF NATURE . . . . . 19
THE TEMPLE OF TASTE .... 40

THE TEMPLE OF FRIENDSHIP ... 70
THOUGHTS ON THE NEWTONIAN PHILOSOPHY . 74
THE DEATH OF ADRIENNE LECOUVREUR . 77
To THE KING OF PRUSSIA ON HIS ACCESSION 79
FROM LOVE TO FRIENDSHIP .... 82

THE WORLDLING 84

ON CALUMNY 89

LETTER FROM THE KING OF PRUSSIA TO M.

VOLTAIRE 96

THE REPLY 97

ON THE ENGLISH GENIUS .... 100
WHAT PLEASES THE LADIES . . . 101
THE EDUCATION OF A PRINCE . . . 117
THE EDUCATION OF A DAUGHTER . . .126
THE THREE MANNERS . . . . .131
THELEMA AND MACAREUS . . '. .146
AZOLAN * . .151



vi Co ntents.

THE ORIGIN OF TRADES . . . .154
THE BATTLE OF FONTENOY . . . .156
THE MAN OF THE WORLD . , . .170

THE PADLOCK 176

IN CAMP BEFORE PHILIPPSBURG . . .178

ANSWER TO A LADY 180

ENVY 183

THE NATURE OF VIRTUE . . . .188

To THE KING OF PRUSSIA . . . . 193

IBID ........ 196

TO M. DE FONTENELLE . . . .199

To COUNT ALGAROTTI 202

To CARDINAL QUIRINI 205

To THE PRINCESS OF **** .... 207

TO M. DE ClDEVILLE ..... 209

To **** 2x0

EPISTLE XIII **** 212

To THE DUKE OF RICHELIEU . . . 215

To MADAME DE **** 218

To THE PRINCE OF VEND6ME . . .224
To MADAME DE GONDOIN . . . .227
To DUKE DE LA FEUILLADE . . . 231

To MARSHAL VILLARS 232

To M. GENONVILLE 234

To THE COUNTESS OF FONTAINE-MARTEL . 236

To M. PALLU 239

THE NATURE OF PLEASURE .... 242



Contents. vii

UTILITY OF SCIENCES TO PRINCES . . 247

ON THE ACCESSION OF THE KING OF PRUSSIA 251
TO THE KING FROM THE CAMP BEFORE

FREIBURG 253

ON THE DEATH OF THE EMPEROR CHARLES 255
To THE QUEEN OF HUNGARY . . .258

ON THE POLAR EXPEDITION . . . 260

To DR. GERVASI 264

THE REQUISITES TO HAPPINESS . . . 267

To A LADY , 268

FANATICISM ....... 270

ON THE PEACE OF 1736 . . 275
To ABBE" CHAULIEU <, . . . .279

THE ABBA'S REPLY , 282

To PRESIDENT HE"NAULT .... 284

CANTO OF AN EPIC POEM .... 287

ON THE NEWTONIAN PHILOSOPHY . . . 299



LIST OF PLATES
VOL. XXXVI



PACK



RUINS OF LISBON .... Frontispiece
ADRIENNE LECOUVREUR .... 78
FREDERICK THE GREAT .... 192
MADAME DU CHATELET .... 298



AUTHOR'S PREFACE TO THE LISBON
EARTHQUAKE.



If the question concerning physical evil ever deserves
the attention of men, it is in those melancholy events which
put us in mind of the weakness of our nature ; such as
plagues, which carry off a fourth of the inhabitants of the
known world ; the earthquake which swallowed up four
hundred thousand of the Chinese in 1699, that of Lima and
Callao, and, in the last place, that of Portugal and the king-
dom of Fez. The maxim, " whatever is, is right," appears
somewhat extraordinary to those who have been eye-wit-
nesses of such calamities. All things are doubtless arranged
and set in order by Providence, but it has long been too
evident, that its superintending power has not disposed
them in such a manner as to promote our temporal happi-
ness.

When the celebrated Pope published his " Essay on Man,"
and expounded in immortal verse the systems of Leibnitz,
Lord Shaftesbury and Lord Bolingbroke, his system was
attacked by a multitude of divines of a variety of different
communions. They were shocked at the novelty of the
propositions, " whatever is, is right " ; and that " man always
enjoys that measure of happiness which is suited to his
being." There are few writings that may not be con-
demned, if considered in one light, or approved of, if con-
sidered in another. It would be much more reasonable to
attend only to the beauties and improving parts of a work,
than to endeavor to put an odious construction on it ; but
it is one of the imperfections of our nature to put a bad
interpretation on whatever has a dubious sense, and to run
down whatever has been successful.

In a word, it was the opinion of many, that the axiom,
"whatever is, is right," was subversive of all our received
ideas. If it be true, said they, that whatever is, is right, it
follows that human nature is not degenerated. If the gen-
eral order requires that everything should be as it is,
human nature has not been corrupted, and consequently
could have had no occasion for a Redeemer. If this world,
such as it is, be the best of systems possible, we have no
room to hope for a happy future state. If the various evils

5



6 The Lisbon Earthquake.

by which man is overwhelmed, end in general good, all
civilized nations have been wrong in endeavoring to trace
out the origin of moral and physical evil. If a man devoured
by wild beasts, causes the well-being of those beasts, and
contributes to promote the orders of the universe; if the
misfortunes of individuals are only the consequence of this
general and necessary order, we are nothing more than
wheels which serve to keep the great machine in motion;
we are not more precious in the eyes of God, than the ani-
mals by whom we are devoured.

These are the inferences which were drawn from Mr.
Pope's poem; and these very conclusions increased the sale
and success of the work. But it should have been seen from
another point of view. Readers should have considered
the reverence for the Deity, the resignation to His supreme
will, the useful morality, and the spiric of toleration, which
breathe through this excellent poem. This the public has
done, and the work being translated by men equal to the
task, has completely triumphed over critics, though it
turned on matters of so delicate a nature.

It is the nature of over violent censurers to give impor-
tance to the opinions whkh th~y attack. A book is railed
at on account of its success, and a thousand errors are
imputed to it. What is the consequence of this? Men, dis-
gusted with th^se invective^, take for truths the very errors
which these critics think they have discovered. Cavillers
raise phantoms on purpose to combat them, and indignant
readers embrace these \ ;ry phantoms.

Critics have declare'", that Pupe and Leibnitz maintain
the doctrine of fatality; the partisans of Leibnitz and Pope
have said on the other hand that, if Leibnitz and Pope have
taught the doctrine of fatality, they were in the right, and
all this invincible fatality we should believe.

Pope had advanced that " whatever is, is right," in a
sense that might very well be admitted, and his followers
maintain the same proposition in a sense that may very
well be contested.

The author of the poem, "The Lisbon Earthquake,"
does not write against the illustrious Pope, whom he always
loved and admired; he agrees with him in almost every
particular, but compassionating the misery of man; he de-
clares against the abuse of the new maxim, "whatever is, is
right." He maintains that ancient and sad truth acknowl-
edged by all men, that there is evil upon earth; he
acknowledges that the words "whatever is, is right," if
understood in a positive sense, and without any hopes of a
happy future state, only insult us in our present misery.

If, when Lisbon, Moquinxa, Tetuan, and other cities were
swallowed up with a great number of their inhabitants in



The Lisbon Earthquake. 7

the month of November, 1759, philosophers had cried put
to the wretches, who with difficulty escaped from the ruins,
"all this is productive of general good; the heirs of those
who have perished will increase their fortune; masons will
earn money by rebuilding the houses, beasts will feed on the
carcasses buried under the ruins; it is the necessary effect
of necessary causes; your particular misfortune is nothing,
it contributes to universal good," such a harangue would
doubtless have been as cruel as the earthquake was fatal,
and all that the author of the poem upon the destruction of
Lisbon has said amounts only to this.

He acknowledges with all mankind that there is evil as
well as good on the earth; he owns that no philosopher has
ever been able to explain the nature of moral and physical
evil. He asserts that Bayle, the greatest master of the art
of reasoning that ever wrote, has only taught to doubt, and
that he combats himself; he owns that man's understanding
is as weak as his life is miserable. He lays a concise
abstract of the several different systems before his readers.
He says that Revelation alone can untie the great knot
which philosophers have only rendered more puzzling; and
that nothing but the hope of our existence being continued
in a future state can console us under pur present misfor-
tunes; that the goodness of Providence is the only asylum
in which man can take refuge in the darkness of reason, and
in the calamities to which his weak and frail nature is ex-
posed.

P. S. Readers should always distinguish between the
objections which an author proposes to himself and his
answers to those objections, and should not mistake what he
refutes for what he adopts. ^



THE LISBON EARTHQUAKE.*



AN INQUIRY INTO THE MAXIM, WHATEVER IS, IS
RIGHT."

OH WRETCHED man, earth-fated to be cursed ;
Abyss of plagues, and miseries the worst !
Horrors on horrors, griefs on griefs must show,
That man's the victim of unceasing woe,
And lamentations which inspire my strain,
Prove that philosophy is false and vain.
Approach in crowds, and meditate awhile
Yon shattered walls, and view each ruined pile,
Women and children heaped up mountain high,
Limbs crushed which under ponderous marble lie ;
Wretches unnumbered in the pangs of death,
Who mangled, torn, and panting for their breath,
Buried beneath their sinking roofs expire,
And end their wretched lives in torments dire.
Say, when you hear their piteous, half-formed cries,
Or from their ashes see the smoke arise,
Say, will you then eternal laws maintain,
Which God to cruelties like these constrain?
Whilst you these facts replete with horror view,
Will you maintain death to their crimes was due ?

*The great earthquake occurred on November i, 1755.
The ruin was instantaneous. Between 30,000 and 40,000
lives were lost in the shock and in the fire.

8



The Lisbon Earthquake. 9

And can you then impute a sinful deed

To babes who on their mothers' bosoms bleed ?

Was then more vice in fallen Lisbon found,

Than Paris, where voluptuous joys abound?

Was less debauchery to London known,

Where opulence luxurious holds her throne ?

Earth Lisbon swallows ; the light sons of France

Protract the feast, or lead the sprightly dance.

Spectators who undaunted courage show,

While you behold your dying brethren's woe ;

With stoical tranquillity of mind

You seek the causes of these ills to find ;

But when like us Fate's rigors you have felt,

Become humane, like us you'll learn to melt.

When the earth gapes my body to entomb,

I justly may complain of such a doom.

Hemmed round on every side by cruel fate,

The snares of death, the wicked's furious hate,

Preyed on by pain and by corroding grief

Suffer me from complaint to find relief.

'Tis pride, you cry, seditious pride that still

Asserts mankind should be exempt from ill.

The awful truth on Tagus' banks explore,

Rummage the ruins on that bloody shore,

Wretches interred alive in direful grave

Ask if pride cries, "Good Heaven thy creatures

save."

If 'tis presumption that makes mortals cry,
"Heaven on our sufferings cast a pitying eye."
All's right, you answer, the eternal cause
Rules not by partial, but by general laws.



io The Lisbon Earthquake.

Say what advantage can result to all,
From wretched Lisbon's lamentable fall?
Are you then sure, the power which could create
The universe and fix the laws of fate,
Could not have found for man a proper place,
But earthquakes must destroy the human race?
Will you thus limit the eternal mind?
Should not our God to mercy be inclined ?
Cannot then God direct all nature's course ?
Can power almighty be without resource?
Humbly the great Creator I entreat,
This gulf with sulphur and with fire replete,
Might on the deserts spend its raging flame,
God my respect, my love weak mortals claim ;
When man groans under such a load of woe,
He is not proud, he only feels the blow.
Would words like these to peace of mind restore
The natives sad of that disastrous shore ?
Grieve not, that others' bliss may overflow,
Your sumptuous palaces are laid thus low ;
Your toppled towers shall other hands rebuild ;
With multitudes your walls one day be filled ;
Your ruin on the North shall wealth bestow,
For general good from partial ills must flow ;
You seem as abject to the sovereign power,
As worms which shall your carcasses devour.
No comfort could such shocking words impart,
But deeper wound the sad, afflicted heart.
When I lament my present wretched state,
Allege not the unchanging laws of fate ;
Urge not the links of the eternal chain,
'Tis false philosophy and wisdom vain.



The Lisbon Earthquake. n

The God who holds the chain can't be enchained ;*
By His blest will are all events ordained :

*The universal chain is not, as some have thought, a
regular gradation which connects all beings. There is, in
all probability, an immense distance between man and
beast, as well as between man and substances of a superior
nature; there is likewise an infinity between God and all
created beings whatever. There are none of these insen-
sible gradations in the globes which move round our sun in
their several periods, whether we consider their mass, their
distances, or their satellites.

If we may believe Pope, man is not capable of discover-
ing the reason why the satellites of Jove are less than Jove
himself; he is herein mistaken, such an error as this may
well be overlooked in so fine a genius. Every smatterer in
mathematics could have told Lord Bolingbroke and Mr.
Pope, that if the satellites of Jove had equalled him in mag-
nitude, they could not have moved round him; but no
mathematician is able to discover the regular gradation in
the bodies of the solar system.

It is not true, that the world could not exist if a single
atom was taken from it: This was justly observed by Mr.
Crousaz, a learned geometrician, in a tract which he wrote
against Pope. He seems to have been right in this point,
though he was fully refuted by Mr. Warburton and Mr.
Silhouette.

The concatenation of events was admitted and defended
with the utmost ingenuity by the celebrated philosopher
Leibnitz; it is worth explaining. All bodies and all events
depend upon other bodies and other events. That cannot
be denied; but all bodies are not essential to the support of
the universe, and the preservation of its order; neither are
all events necessary in the general series of events. A drop
of water, a grain of sand more or less, can cause no revolu-
tion in the general system. Nature is not confined to any
determinate quantity, or any determinate form. No planet
moves in a curve completely regular; there is nothing in
Nature of a figure exactly mathematical; no fixed quantity
is required for any operation: Nature is never very strict or
rigid in her method of proceeding. It is, therefore, absurd
to advance, that the removal of an atom from the earth
might be the cause of its destruction.

This holds, in like manner, with regard to events. The
cause of every event is contained in some precedent event;
this no philosopher has ever called in question. If Caesar's
mother had never gone through the Caesarian operation,
Caesar had never subverted the commonwealth; he could



12 The Lisbon Earthquake.

He's just, nor easily to wrath gives way,
Why suffer we beneath so mild a sway :*
This is the fatal knot you should untie,
Our evils do you cure when you deny ?

never have adopted Octayius, and Octavius could never
have chosen Tiberius for his successor in the empire. The
marriage of Maximilian with the heiress of Burgundy and
the Low Countries, gave rise to a war which lasted two hun-
dred years. But Caesar's spitting on the right or left side,
or the Duchess of Burgundy's dressing her head in this
manner or in that, could have altered nothing in the general
pl0n of Providence.

It follows, therefore, that there are some events which
have consequences and others which have none. Their
chain resembles a genealogical tree, some branches of
which disappear at the first generation, whilst the race is
continued by others. There are many events which pass
away without ever generating others. Thus in every
machine there ^are some effects indispensably necessary
towards producing motion, and others which are productive
of nothing at all. The wheels of a coach make it go; but
whether they raise more or less dust, the journey is finished
alike. Such is the general order of the world, that the links
of the chain would not be in the least discomposed by a
small increase or diminution of the quantity of matter, or by
an inconsiderable deviation from regularity.

The chain is not in an absolute plenum; it has been
demonstrated that the celestial bodies perform their revolu-
tions in an unresisting medium. Every space is not filled.
It follows then, that there is not a progression of bodies
from an atom to the most remote fixed star. There may of
consequence be immense intervals between beings imbued
with sensation, as well as between those that are not. We
cannot then be certain, that man must be placed in one of
these links joined to another by an uninterrupted connec-
tion. That all things are linked together means only that all
things are regularly disposed of in their proper order. God
is the cause and the regulator of that order. Homer's
Jupiter was the slave of destiny; but, according to more
rational philosophy, God is the master of destiny. (See
Clarke's Treatise "Upon the Existence of God.")

* Sub Deo justo nemo miser nisi mereatur. St. Augustine.
The meaning of this ipse dixit of the Saint is, no one is
miserable under the government of a just God, without
deserving to be so.



The Lisbon Earthquake. 13

Men ever strove into the source to pry,

Of evil, whose existence you deny.

If he whose hand the elements can wield,

To the winds' force makes rocky mountains yield ;

If thunder lays oaks level with the plain,

From the bolts' strokes they never suffer pain.

But I can feel, my heart oppressed demands

Aid of that God who formed me with His hands.

Sons of the God supreme to suffer all

Fated alike ; we on our Father call.

No vessel of the potter asks, we know,

Why it was made so brittle, vile, and low?

Vessels of speech as well as thought are void ;

The urn this moment formed and that destroyed,

The potter never could with sense inspire,

Devoid of thought it nothing can desire.

The moralist still obstinate replies,

Others' enjoyments from your woes arise,

To numerous insects shall my corpse give birth,

When once it mixes with its mother earth :

Small comfort 'tis that when Death's ruthless power

Closes my life, worms shall my flesh devour.

Remembrances of misery refrain

From consolation, you increase my pain :

Complaint, I see, you have with care repressed,

And proudly hid your sorrows in your breast.

But a small part I no importance claim

In this vast universe, this general frame ;

All other beings in this world below

Condemned like me to lead a life of woe,

Subject to laws as rigorous as I,

Like me in anguish live and like me die.



14 The Lisbon Earthquake.

The vulture urged by an insatiate maw,

Its trembling prey tears with relentless claw:

This it finds right, endowed with greater powers

The bird of Jove the vulture's self devours.

Man lifts his tube, he aims the fatal ball

And makes to earth the towering eagle fall ;

Man in the field with wounds all covered o'er,

Midst heaps of dead lies weltering in his gore,

While birds of prey the mangled limbs devour,

Of Nature's Lord who boasts his mighty power.

Thus the world's members equal ills sustain,

And perish by each other born to pain :

Yet in this direful chaos you'd compose

A general bliss from individuals' woes?

Oh worthless bliss ! in injured reason's sight,

With faltering voice you cry, "What is, is right" ?

The universe confutes your boasting vain,

Your heart retracts the error you maintain.

Men, beasts, and elements know no repose

From dire contention ; earth's the seat of woes :

We strive in vain its secret source to find.

Is ill the gift of our Creator kind ?

Do then fell Typhon's cursed laws ordain

Our ill, or Arimanius doom to pain ?

Shocked at such dire chimeras, I reject

Monsters which fear could into gods erect.

But how conceive a God, the source of love,

Who on man lavished blessings from above,

Then would the race with various plagues confound,

Can mortals penetrate His views profound ?

Ill could not from a perfect being spring,

Nor from another, since God's sovereign king ;



The Lisbon Earthquake. 15

And yet, sad truth ! in this our world 'tis found,
What contradictions here my soul confound !
A God once dwelt on earth amongst mankind,
Yet vices still lay waste the human mind ;
He could not do it, this proud sophist cries,
He could, but he declined it, that replies ;
He surely will, ere these disputes have end,
Lisbon's foundations hidden thunders rend,
And thirty cities' shattered remnants fly,
With ruin and combustion through the sky,
From dismal Tagus' ensanguined shore,
To where of Cadiz' sea the billows roar.
Or man's a sinful creature from his birth,
And God to woe condemns the sons of earth ;
Or else the God who being rules and space,
Untouched with pity for the human race,
Indifferent, both from love and anger free,
Still acts consistent to His first decree :
Or matter has defects which still oppose
God's will, and thence all human evil flows ;
Or else this transient world by mortals trod,
Is but a passage that conducts to God.
Our transient sufferings here shall soon be o'er,
And death will land us on a happier shore.
But when we rise from this accursed abyss,
Who by his merit can lay claim to bliss ?
Dangers and difficulties man surround,
Doubts and perplexities his mind confound.
To nature we apply for truth in vain,
God should His will to human kind explain.
He only can illume the human soul,
Instruct the wise man, and the weak console.



1 6 The Lisbon Earthquake.

Without Him man of error still the sport,

Thinks from each broken reed to find support.

Leibnitz can't tell me from what secret cause

In a world governed by the wisest laws,

Lasting disorders, woes that never end

With our vain pleasures real sufferings blend ;

Why ill the virtuous with the vicious shares ?

Why neither good nor bad misfortunes spares ?

I can't conceive that "what is, ought to be,"

In this each doctor knows as much as me.

We're told by Plato, that man, in times of yore,

Wings gorgeous to his glorious body wore,

That all attacks he could unhurt sustain,

By death ne'er conquered, ne'er approached by pain.

Alas, how changed from such a brilliant state !

He crawls 'twixt heaven and earth, then yields to fate.

Look round this sublunary world, you'll find

That nature to destruction is consigned.


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