1694-1778 Voltaire.

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OPERTYOF



The WORKS of VOLTAIRE

EDITION DE LA PACIFICATION

Limited to one thousand sets
for America and Great Britain.



"Between two servants of Humanity, who appeared
eighteen hundred years apart, the re ' a mysterious relation.

* * * Let us j/rv /"/ with a sentiment of
profound respect: JESUS WEPT: VOLTAIRE SMILED.
Of that divine tear and of that human smile is composed the
sweetness of the present civilization."

VICTOR HUGO.









GREAT HENRY SHONE AMID THE l_A M

BENT FLAMES
ENOIROL.EO ROUND WITH <3 1_O R V'S

C3OL-DEN BEAMS"






EDITION DE LA PACIFICATION



THE WORKS OF



VO LTAI R E



A CONTEMPORARY VERSION

WITH NOTES BY TOBIAS SMOLLETT, REVISED AND MODERNIZED

NEW TRANSLATIONS BY WILLIAM F. FLEMING, AND AN

INTRODUCTION BY OLIVER H. G. LEIGH



A CRITIQUE AND BIOGRAPHY
BY

THE RT. HON. JOHN MORLEY

FORTY-THREE VOLUMES

ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTY-BIGHT DESIGNS, COMPRISING REPRODUCTIONS

OF RARE OLD ENGRAVINGS, STEEL PLATES, PHOTOGRAVURES,

AND CURIOUS FAG-SIMILES



VOLUME XXXVIII



AKRON, OHIO

THE WERNER COMPANY
1906



COPYRIGHT 1901
BY E. R. DUMONT

OWNED BY

THE WERNER COMPANY
AKRON, OHIO



fHE WERNER COMPANi
AKRON, OHO



StacM
Anns*

PQ




VOLTAIRE



THE HENRIADE:
LETTERS AND MISCELLANIES



CONTENT S

PACK

INTRODUCTION 5

CANTO I 9

CANTO II 23

CANTO III 38

CANTO IV ....... 53

CANTO V 70

CANTO VI 83

CANTO VII 96

CANTO VIII 115

CANTO IX 132

CANTO X 144

LETTERS 161

MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS . . . .231



LIST OF PLATES
VOL, XXXVIII

PAGE

"GREAT HENRY SHONE AMID THE LAMBENT
FLAMES " . . . . Frontispiece

ILLUSTRIOUS HARLEY ROSE .... 68
SAINTED Louis COMMANDS PEACE . . 158
FAC-SIMILE LETTER OF VOLTAIRE . . 230



INTRODUCTION.



"The Henriade," the only French epic, was begun when the
author was a prisoner in the Bastille. The second Canto,
describing the Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day, came
to Voltaire in a dream, so he told his friend Wagniere,
adding that he retained the lines until he had the chance to
write them and "he never found anything to change in it."
The poem was ten years in the making. It was ready for
printing in 1723, when he was in his thirtieth year. He
had received a number of subscriptions for it before he
realized that the tone of the Dedication and the poem
would bring it under the ban of the censors.

The Dedication is unique of its kind. The young king,
Louis XV., had just attained his majority.

"SiRE : Every work in which the great deeds of Henry
IV. are spoken of, ought to be offered to your majesty.
It is the blood of that hero which flows in your veins. You
are king only because he was a great man, and France,
that wishes you as much virtue as he possessed, and more
happiness, flatters itself that the life and the throne which
you owe to him will engage you to imitate him.

"Fortunate in having known adversity, he felt for the
miseries of men, and softened the rigors of a rule from
which he had suffered himself. Other kings have cour-
tiers; he had friends. His heart was full of tenderness
for his true servants.

"That king, who truly loved his subjects, never regarded
their complaints as sedition, nor the remonstrance of
magistrates as encroachment upon the sovereign authority.
Shall I say it, sire ? Yes ; truth commands me so to do.
It is a thing very shameful to kings, this astonishment we
experience when they sincerely love the happiness of their
people. May you one day accustom us to regard that
virtue as something appertaining to your crown! It was
the true love of Henry IV. for France which made him
adored by his subjects."

5



6 Introduction.

The poem was a brilliant protest against intolerance by
the powers of Church and State. How, then, could itself
be tolerated? The "privilege" of publication was denied.
By the help of friends it was secretly printed in Rouen
in 1724. It was smuggled into Paris and had an instant
success, as "a wonderful work, a masterpiece of the mind,
as beautiful as Virgil." It has had a lasting popularity in
seven languages. The English edition appeared in 1728 as
"the first edition published with the author's sanction."
This time the author dedicated "The Henriade" to Queen
Caroline, whose husband had been one year king of Eng-
land. She had been the friend of Sir Isaac Newton when
Princess of Wales.

To the Queen :

"MADAM : It was the lot of Henry the Fourth to be
protected by an English queen. He was assisted by the
great Elizabeth, who was in her age the glory of her sex.
By whom can his memory be so well protected as by her
who resembles so much Elizabeth in her personal virtues?

"Your majesty will find in this book bold, impartial
truths ; morality unstained with superstition ; a spirit of
liberty, equally abhorrent of rebellion and of tyranny; the
rights of kings always asserted and those of mankind never
laid aside.

"The same spirit in which it was written gave me the
confidence to offer it to the virtuous consort of a king who,
among so many crowned heads, enjoys the almost ines-
timable honor of ruling a free nation : a king who makes
his power consist in being beloved, and his glory in being
just.

"Our Descartes, who was the greatest philosopher in
Europe before Sir Isaac Newton appeared, dedicated his
"Principles" to the celebrated Princess Palatine Elizabeth;
not, said he, because she was a princess (for true phi-
losophers respect princes, but never flatter them) ; but
because of all his readers she understood him the best, and
loved truth the most.

"I beg leave, madam (without comparing myself to
Descartes), to dedicate "The Henriade" to your majesty



Introduction. 7

upon the like account, not only as the protectress of all
arts and sciences, but as the best judge of them.

"I am, with that profound respect which is due to the
greatest virtue as well as the highest rank, may it please
your majesty, your majesty's most humble, most dutiful
and most obliged servant, VOLTAIRE.

The publication enriched its author, who was presented
with two thousand crowns by the king and received other
honors. "The Henriade" was at last "privileged" to be sold
in France, in 1731. Frederick of Prussia wrote a glowing
preface for a sumptuous edition he produced at lavish
expense, in which he pronounced "The Henriade" the great-
est of all epics, ancient or modern.



THE HENRIADE

LETTERS AND MISCELLANIES.



THE HENRIADE.



CANTO I.



THE ARGUMENT.

Henry III., joined by Henry de Bourbon, King of Navarre,
against the League, having blockaded Paris, sends
Henry de Bourbon privately into England, in hopes of
obtaining aid from Queen Elizabeth. A violent storm
overtaking him in his voyage, he is obliged to put into
an island, where an old hermit receives him, and fore-
tells his change of religion, and accession to the throne.
Description of England, and its government.

The chief renowned, 1 who ruled in France, I sing.
By right of conquest and of birth, a king ;
In various sufferings resolute and brave,
Faction he quelled : he conquered, and forgave.
Subdued the dangerous League, and factious

Mayenne, 2
And curbed the headstrong arrogance of Spain.



1 Henry IV., of France, son of Anthony, King of Navarre,
who descended in a direct line from Robert, Count de Cler-
mont, youngest son of Louis IX., or St. Louis of France.
The posterity of his eldest son, Philip the Bold, failing in
Henry III., three hundred years after the death of St. Louis,
Henry de Bourbon became heir to the crown, as descended
from the above-mentioned Count de Clermont, who married
Beatrix, daughter of Agnes de Bourbon, heir of Arehem-
band, Lord of Bourbon in the middle of the thirteenth
century.

2 Charles, Duke of Mayenne, brother of Henry, Duke of
Guise, who formed the League, a faction in France ; who,
under pretence of danger to the Church, made head against
Henry III. of France, and, after his death, against Henry
de Bourbon, who gained great advantage over the
Spaniards in confederacy with the League.



IO The Henriade.

He taught those realms he conquered to obey,
And made his subjects happy by his sway.

O heaven-born truth, descend, celestial muse,
Thy power, thy brightness in my verse infuse.
May kings attentive hear thy voice divine,
To teach the monarchs of mankind is thine.
'Tis thine to war-enkindling realms to show
What dire effects from cursed divisions flow.
Relate the troubles of preceding times;
The people's sufferings, and the princes' crimes.
And O ! if fable may her succors lend,
And with thy voice her softer accents blend ;
If on thy light her shades sweet graces shed,
If her fair hand e'er decked thy sacred head,
Let her with me through all thy limits rove,
Not to conceal thy beauties, but improve.

Valois 1 then governed the distracted land,
Loose flowed the reins of empire in his hand :
Rights were confounded, laws neglected bore
No force, alas ! for Valois reigned no more.
No more the prince for deeds of war renowned,
Whom as her son victorious conquest owned ;
Whose arms through Europe spread disordered fear,
Whose loyal subjects shed the pious tear,
When the bleak North proclaimed him truly great,
And laid her crowns and sceptres at his feet.
Those rays of glory, erst in battle won,
Sank into night, and vanished from the throne.
There sat the monarch in the lap of ease,
Reclining fondly in the arms of peace ;



1 Henry III., King of France, one of the principal heroes
of this poem, is always called Valois, the name of the royal
branch to which he belonged.



The Henriade. II

Too weak to bear in each lethargic hour,
The regal diadem, and weight of power.
Voluptuous youths usurped the sole command,
And reigned, in truth, the sovereigns of the land.
Pleased in their soft luxurious prince to find
Corrupted morals, and a female mind.
Meantime the Guises rose at fortune's call ;
And built their schemes of greatness on his fall.
Thence sprang the League, which proved the fatal

source

Of numerous ills, and baffled all his force.
The servile crowd, with vain chimeras fed,
Too blindly followed where the tyrants led.
Now from the Louvre see the monarch fly,
No faithful friend, no kind protection nigh ;
All had been lost, but warlike Bourbon 1 came,
Whose generous soul was fraught with virtue's

flame.

'Twas his the royal sacrifice to save,
And teach once more the monarch to be brave.
The kings to Paris with their troops advance,
The eyes of Europe all are fixed on France.
Rome takes the alarm, her fears the Spaniards share,
And wait with dread the issue of the war.

High on the walls inhuman Discord stood,
Eager for slaughter, and athirst for blood ;
Through all the city raged, nor raged in vain,
But drove to arms the hostile League, and Mayenne :
Through Church and State, the deadly poison

spread,



1 Henry IV. is called indifferently throughout the poem
either Bourbon, or Henry. He was born at Pau in Beam,
December 13, 1553.



12 The Henriade. .

And called the proud Iberia to her aid.
This savage monster scenes of horror loves,
And plagues the votaries whom her soul approves.
She racks and galls the slaves her chains confined,
And riots in the torments of mankind.
Westward of Paris, where the winding Seine
Adorns each meadow with eternal green,
Where oft the Graces and the Muses play,
The troops of Valois shone in dread array.
There, whom religion swayed by different laws
Revenge united in their sovereign's cause.
A thousand chiefs stood forth at Bourbon's word,
Love joined their hearts, and valor drew the sword.
With joy they followed the bright paths of fame,
But one their leader, and their Church the same.

Immortal Louis 1 eyed him from above
With all the fondness of parental love :
Virtues he saw which Gallia's king might grace,
And future glories worthy of his race.
Charmed with his courage, yet he grieved to find
Such weak discernment in so brave a mind :
Would gladly guide him to the throne of truth,
And wished to check the errors of his youth.
But valiant Henry gained the regal crown,
And rose by measures to himself unknown.
Louis was present from his blest abode
To lead the youthful hero in his road.
Full oft unseen the kind assistance came,
That toils and dangers might augment his fame.

Oft had our walls beheld with martial rage



1 St. Louis, the ninth of that name, King of France, from
whom the Bourbon branch was descended.



The Henriade. 13

In doubtful war the embattled ranks engage.
The plains were desolate, and carnage spread
From shore to shore her mountains of the dead,
When Valois thus addressed the chief with sighs,
And tears of sorrow streaming from his eyes :

"See to what height thy monarch's ills are grown,
There read the faithful portrait of thy own.
With equal hate the factious Leaguers join
To strike at Bourbon's glory, and at mine.
Seditious Paris, with a proud disdain,
Rejects the present, and the future reign.
The ties of blood, the laws, each generous care
That fills thy soul, proclaims thee lawful heir.
Great are thy virtues, and, I blush to own,
For this would Paris drive thee from the throne.
Nay, more, to show that heaven approves the deed,
Religion heaps her curses on thy head.
Rome without armies distant nations awes,
Spain hurls her thunder, and asserts her cause.
Friends, subjects, kindred, in this evil day,
Or basely fly, or proudly disobey.
Rich is the harvest of Iberia's gains,
Who pours her legions on my desert plains.
Perchance, the succors of a foreign force
May stop the impending danger in its course.
Britannia's queen may lend the friendly aid,
And mutual terror may our foes invade.
What, though eternal jealousy and pride
Oppose our interest, and our hearts divide,
When life's severest ills have been endured,
My glory blasted, and my fame obscured,
When vile affronts have made my honor poor,
My subjects, and my country are no more,



14 The Henriade.

Who comes these proud insulters to control
Is most my friend, and dearest to my soul.
No common, listless agent will I trust,
Be thou my envoy in a cause so just.
On thee my fortune in the war depends,
Thy merit only can procure me friends."

Thus Valois spoke, and Bourbon heard with grief
The new designs, and counsels of the chief.
His great and generous mind disdained to yield
Thus to divide the glory of the field.
There was a time when conquest met his arm,
And all those honors which the brave can charm :
When strong in power, unaided by intrigue,
Himself, with Conde, 1 quelled the trembling League.
Yet, in obedience to the king's command,
He left his laurels, and withdrew his hand.
The troops, amazed, with restless ardor burn,
Their fate, their fortune wait on his return.
The absent hero still preserved his fame,
The guilty city shuddered at his name :
Each moment thought the mighty warrior near,
With death and desolation in his rear.

He through the plains of Neustria bends his way,
Attended only by his friend Mornay, 2
Mornay, too good to flatter, or deceive,
The cause of error too averse to leave.
By zeal and prudence studious to advance

1 Henry, Prince of Conde. He was the hope of the
Protestant party: and died at Saint-Jean d'Angely, aged
thirty-five years, in 1685.

* Duplessis-Mornay ; the bravest, and most virtuous per-
son belonging to the Protestant party. When Henry IV.
changed his religion, Mornay reproached him in the severest
manner, and retired from court. He was called the pope
of the Huguenots.



The Henriade. 15

Alike the interest of his Church and France,
The courtier's censor, but at court beloved,
Rome's greatest foe, and yet by Rome approved.

Between two rocks, which hoary ocean laves
And beats with all the fury of his waves,
The port of Dieppe meets the hero's eyes,
And crowds of eager mariners supplies.
Their hands prepare the vessels for the main,
Those sovereign rulers of the azure plain.
The stormy Boreas, fast-enchained in air,
Leaves the smooth sea to softer Zephyr's care.
Their anchor weighed, they swiftly quit the strand,
And soon descry Britannia's happy land.

When lo ! the day's bright star is hid in clouds,
And gathering whirlwinds whistle through the

shrouds.

Heaven gives her thunder, waves on waves arise,
And floods of lightning burst from all the skies.
Death mounts the storm, and foaming billows show
The king of terrors to the sailors' view.
Nor death, nor dangers Bourbon's soul annoy;
His country's sorrows all his cares employ ;
For her he casts the longing look behind,
The storm accuses, and condemns the wind.
Less generous warmth the Roman's breast inspired,
By love of conquest, and ambition fired,
When, launching boldly from Epirus' coast,
By angry seas and furious surges tossed,
He dared his mightier fortune to oppose
To all the power of Neptune, and his foes :
Firm, and convinced that no impending doom
Could snatch its monarch from the world, and
Rome.



1 6 The Henriade.

'Twas then that Being, infinitely wise,
At whose high will all empires fall, or rise,
Who gave this world its fair and beauteous form,
Who calms the ocean, and directs the storm,
On Gallia's hero looked with pity down
From the bright radiance of His sapphire throne.
The waves, obedient to His dread command,
Conveyed the vessel to the neighboring land.
Guided by heaven, secure the hero stood
Where Jersey's isle emerges from the flood.

Near to the shore there lay a calm retreat,
By shades defended from the solar heat.
A rock, that hid the fury of the seas,
Forbade the entrance of each ruder breeze.
By nature's hand adorned, a mossy grot
Improved the beauties of this rural spot.
A holy hermit, trained in wisdom's ways,
There spent the quiet evening of his days.
Lost to the world, and all its trifling show,
His only study was himself to know.
O'er every fault his pensive mind would rove,
Which pleasure dictates, or which springs from love.
The flowery meadows, and the silver streams
Had raised his soul to more enlightened themes.
Each passion quelled in this retired abode,
His ardent wish was union with his God.
Wisdom before him spread her ample page,
And heaven protected his declining age.
She poured her purest blessings on his head,
And taught him Fate's mysterious book to read.
The hoary sage, who well our hero knew,
Whom God informed with science ever true,
Near a clear stream invites the prince to taste



The Henriade. 17

The simple diet of his rural feast.
He oft had fled from vanity and care,
To humble cottages, and simpler fare;
Had bid adieu to courts, and courtly pride,
And laid the pomp of majesty aside.

In plain and useful converse much was said
Of troubles through the Christian empire spread.
Mornay unmoved determined to protect
With zealous fervor Calvin and his sect.
Henry, in doubt what precepts to believe,
Petitioned heaven one ray of light to give.
"Error," he said, "in all preceding times,
Has truth concealed, and been the nurse of crimes.
Must I then wander, and mistake the road,
Whose only confidence is placed in God?
A God, so gracious, sure will lend His aid,
And teach mankind what worship should be paid."

"Let us," replied the venerable seer,
"God's secret counsels, and designs revere.
Nor rashly think that human errors bring
Their muddy currents from so pure a spring:
Well I remember, when these aged eyes
Beheld this sect in humble weakness rise,
When, as an exile dreading human sight,
It fled for refuge to the shades of night.
By slow degrees the phantom raised her head,
And all around her baleful influence shed.
Placed on the throne, no power her force confines,
She reigns our tyrant, and o'erturns our shrines.
Far from the court, in this obscure retreat,
With sighs and tears I weep Religion's fate.
One hope remains to cheer life's dreary vale ;
So strange a worship cannot long prevail :
Its new-born glory in our days shall cease,

Vol. 382



1 8 The Henriade.

First sprung from man, and founded in caprice.
Frail, like ourselves, all human works decay ;
God sweeps their glory and their pride away.
Safe and secure His holy city stands ;
Nor dreads the malice of our mortal hands.
In vain the fabric hell and time invade,
His own right arm the strong foundation laid.
On thee, great Bourbon, will He pour His light,
And chase the mists of error from thy sight.
On Valois' throne, with Providence thy shield,
Bright wilt thou shine, and all thy foes shall yield.
Through paths of glory conquest leads thy sword ;
'Tis heaven's decree ; the Highest gave His word.
Yet hope not rashly, in the pride of youth,
To enter Paris, uninformed by truth.
But most of love's bewitching draught beware,
The bravest hearts are conquered by the fair.
From that sweet poison guard thy manly soul ;
Though passion calls, and pleasure crowns the bowl.
And when, at length, this sage advice pursued,
The factious Leaguers, and thyself subdued,
In horrid siege thy bounteous hand shall give
Life to a nation, and its strength revive ;
Then all thy realms shall taste the sweets of peace,
All strife shall vanish, and all discord cease.
Then raise thine eyes to that almighty Lord
Whom erst our fathers honored and adored.
Who most preserves His image, most shall find
That virtue pleases, and that heaven is kind."
Thus spoke the seer, each word new warmth be-
stowed,

And Henry's soul with secret raptures glowed.
Those happy days were present to his eyes,



The Henriade. 19

When God to man descended from the skies;
When virtue opened all her sacred springs,
Pronounced her oracles, and governed kings.
With tears he clasped the hermit to his breast,
And parting sighs his honest grief expressed.
Far distant scenes creative fancy drew,
And rising glories dawned upon his view.
Marks of surprise were stamped on Mornay's face,
But heaven from him withheld her gifts of grace.
The world in vain bestows the name of wise,
Where virtue beams, but error's clouds arise.

While thus the sage, enlightened from above,
Spoke to the heart, and tried the prince to move,
Charmed with his voice the listening winds subside,
Phoebus breaks forth, and ocean smooths the tide.
By him conducted, Bourbon reached the shore,
And prosperous gales the chief to Albion bore.
Soon as he saw the sea-encircled isle,
Its change of fortune made the hero smile.
Where once the public evils owed their cause
To long abuses of the wisest laws,
Where many a warrior fell of high renown,
And kings descended from the tottering throne,
A virgin queen the regal sceptre swayed,
And fate itself her sovereign power obeyed.
The wise Eliza, whose directing hand
Had the great scale of Europe at command ;
And ruled a people that alike disdain
Or freedom's ease, or slavery's iron chain.
Of every loss her reign oblivion bred ;
There, flocks unnumbered graze each flowery mead.
Britannia's vessels rule the azure seas,
Corn fills her plains, and fruitage loads her trees.



2O The Henriade.

From pole to pole her gallant navies sweep

The waters of the tributary deep.

On Thames's banks each flower of genius thrives,

There sports the Muse, and Mars his thunder gives.

Three different powers at Westminster appear,

And all admire the ties which join them there.

Whom interest parts, the laws together bring,

The people's deputies, the peers, and king.

One whole they form, whose terror wide extends

To neighboring nations, and their rights defends.

Thrice happy times, when grateful subjects show

That loyal, warm affection which is due !

But happier still, when freedom's blessings spring

From the wise conduct of a prudent king.

"O when," cried Bourbon, ravished at the sight,

"In France shall peace and glory thus unite?"

A female hand has closed the gates of war,

Look on, ye monarchs, and adopt her care.

Your nations Discord's horrid tide o'erwhelms,

She lives, the blessing of adoring realms.

Now at that spacious city he arrives,
Where nursed by heaven-born freedom plenty lives.
Now, mighty William's tower before him stood,
Now, fair Eliza's more august abode.
Thither he speeds, attended by Mornay,
His friend and sole associate in the way.
True heroes that love pageantry and state,
Whose glittering honors captivate the great.
For France he supplicates with humble prayers,


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