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This general, finding that his army was weakened,
and he could have no recruits from Spain, incorpo-
rated Neapolitans into his old regiments, and these
new troops grew inured to discipline : at length, by
temporizing, he obliged Prince Lobkowitz, who per-
ceived his army also wasting away, to retire from
Abruzzo toward Rome.

This city had beheld, since the month of July, an
engagement in her neighborhood between the Aus-
trian and Neapolitan armies. The king of Naples
and the duke of Modena were at Velletri, anciently
the capital of the Volsci, and now the residence of
the dean of the sacred college. The king of the two

The War of 1741. 203

Sicilies was lodged in the palace of Ginetti, which is
considered a structure of magnificence and taste.
Prince Lobkowitz made the same attempt upon Vel-
letri, as Prince Eugene had done upon Cremona in
1702 ; for history is no more than a series of events
repeated with some variety. Six thousand Austrians
entered Velletri in the middle of the night : the main
guard were slain : those who resisted, were cut in
pieces ; and those who made no resistance, were
made prisoners : in short, terror and alarm were
spread everywhere. The king of Naples and the
duke of Modena were very near being taken ; the
marquis de L'Hopital, ambassador from France to
the court of Naples, awakes at the noise, runs to the
king, and saves him ; no sooner had the marquis
quitted his house, when it was plundered by the
enemy. The king, followed by the duke of Modena
and the ambassador, puts himself at the head of his
troops without the town ; the Austrians break into
the houses; General Novati enters the palace of
the duke of Modena, where he finds M. Sabatini,
that prince's minister, who had been formerly in the
same regiment with himself. " Is it not true," said
'this minister to him, " that you grant me my life,
and will content yourself with making me your
prisoner ? " While they were renewing their former
acquaintance, the very same thing happened as at
Cremona ; the Walloon guards, a regiment of Irish,
and another of Swiss, repulsed the Austrians,
strewed the streets with dead bodies, and retook the

2O4 The War of 1741.

town. M. Sabatini, seeing this revolution from his
window, said to the Austrian general ; " 'Tis I now
that grant you your life, and 'tis you that are my
prisoner." A few days after, Prince Lobkowitz was
obliged to retreat toward Rome, whither he was
pursued by the king of Naples. The former
marched toward one gate of the city, and the latter
toward the other : they both passed the Tiber within
sight of the people of Rome, who from the ramparts
enjoyed the spectacle of the two armies. The king
was received at Rome under the name of the count
of Puzzuolo: his guards stood with their drawn
swords in the streets, while their master was kissing
the pope's toe. The two armies continued the war
in the territory of Rome, whose inhabitants thanked
heaven that the ravage extended no farther than
their fields.

Upon the whole, we find that Italy was from the
beginning the chief aim of the court of Spain ; that
Germany was the main object of the conduct of the
court of France ; and that on both sides the success
was still extremely dubious.




IMMEDIATELY after the taking of Freiburg, the king
returned to Paris, where he was received as the
avenger of his country, and as a father whom they

The War of 1741. 205

had been afraid of losing. He remained three days
in his capital, to show himself to the inhabitants,
who wanted no other return for their zeal than the
pleasure of beholding him, and this was what he
could not in gratitude refuse : he dined in the Hotel
de Ville, whose square was adorned with those mag-
nificent decorations which make us wish for more
durable monuments : he was served at table, accord-
ing to custom, by the provost of the merchants, and
the dauphin by the first Echevin.

On this occasion, it was observed, that the inscrip-
tions of the Hotel de Ville, the triumphal arches, and
illuminated figures, with which the town was
adorned, were in Latin ; though, indeed, these inter-
preters of the people's joy ought to be such as they
can understand. In Germany, England, and the
North, they pride themselves on making inscriptions
and devices in French, which ought to be a hint to
our nation to show the same honor to our language
as is paid it by foreigners.

The king, on his return from the campaign, had
no minister of foreign affairs, having been his own
minister in the army. To fill this place, he chose suc-
cessively two men who had no thoughts of it. The
first was M. de Villeneuve, who, during his embassy
to the Ottoman Porte, had negotiated a peace
between the Turks and the last emperor of the house
of Austria: he was old and infirm: he had been
always reckoned a wise man ; a character which he
still maintained by his sensibility of his present con-

206 The War of 1741.

dition : having no ambition to deceive himself, or to
imagine he had strength above his age, he refused
the employment. The second was the marquis
d'Argenson, the elder brother of the secretary of
war. By this favor the king surprised the two

The only inducement the king had for giving
away the place, which, according to the maxims of
common policy in most courts of Europe, seems to
require less virtue than cunning, was the character
the marquis had of being an honest man. These two
ministers were descended from one of the most
ancient houses of Touraine, in which the dignities
of the long robe have for some years been joined to
the ancient honors of the sword. Their father, who
had been keeper of the seals, and minister of the
finances, was a genius equal either to the command
of an army or directing the police of a state ; a
man of piercing wit, great intrepidity, and
unwearied assiduity; one who would unravel the
most knotty affairs; a declared enemy to trivial
forms, which little minds are so fond of ; in short, a
man superior to party, fear, or interest. At the time
the government wanted money, he paid back a hun-
dred thousand crowns into the royal treasury, which
were his right as minister of the finances ; and when
he acted thus, he was not rich, and had a numerous
family. This action, which the king was acquainted
with, contributed greatly to the promotion of his

The War of 174 1. 207

One of the first affairs that came before the minis-
ter of state, was an adventure in which there was
rather a violation of the law of nations, of the priv-
ileges of ambassadors, and of the constitutions of
the empire, than any exercise of the right of war.

The king, still true to his engagements with the
emperor, had sent Marshal Belle-Isle, with full
powers from himself and from the emperor, to
Munich, and thence to Cassel and Silesia. He was
coming from Munich, the imperial residence, with
his brother, the chevalier : they had been at Cassel,
and were continuing their journey, without any
distrust, through a country where the king of Prus-
sia has several post-houses, which, by agreement
among the princes of Germany, have been always
looked upon as neutral and inviolable. While the
marshal and his brother were changing horses at
one of those post-houses, in a borough called
Elbingrode, belonging to the elector of Hanover,
they were arrested and ill used by Hanoverian mes-
sengers, and soon after removed to England. The
duke de Belle-Isle was a prince of the empire, and
in this quality this arrest might have been con-
sidered as a violation of the privileges of the college
of princes. In former times, emperors would have
punished such an indignity; but any insult might
have been offered to Charles VII. ; all he could do,
was to complain.

The French ministers laid claim at the same time
to the privileges of ambassadors, and to every right

208 The War of 1741.

of war. If Marshal Belle-Isle was considered as a
prince of the empire, and as a minister of the court
of France, going to the imperial and Prussian
courts; as those two courts were not at war with
Hanover, his person was undoubtedly sacred; if,
on the other hand, he was looked upon as a general,
and as a marshal of France, the king offered to ran-
som him and his brother. Pursuant to the cartel
settled at Frankfort, June 18, 1743, between France
and England, the ransom of a marshal of France
was rated at fifty thousand livres. The minister of
King George II. eluded these pressing arguments
by an evasion, which was a new affront : he declared
that he looked upon Messrs.de Belle-Isle as prisoners
of state : they were treated with the greatest polite-
ness, according to the maxim of most of the Euro-
pean courts, who soften the iniquity of politics and
the cruelty of war by external appearances of hu-

The emperor Charles VII., despised and disre-
garded in the empire, having no other support but
the king of Prussia, pursued by Prince Charles, and
apprehensive lest the queen of Hungary should
again compel him to quit his capital, seeing him-
self the continual sport of fortune, and oppressed by
maladies which were increased by his vexations,
sank at length under the weight : he died at Munich
at the age of forty-seven and a half years, leaving
this lesson to the world, that the highest degree of
human grandeur may lead to the utmost pitch of

The War of 1741. 209

infelicity: he had not been unhappy till after his
elevation to the imperial throne; and nature from
that time proved even more unkind to him than
fortune : a complication of acute disorders filled his
days with bitterness, and brought him to the grave.
He had both gout and stone : upon opening his
body, they found his lungs, his liver, and his stom-
ach mortified, with stones in his kidneys, and a poly-
pus in his heart. It was concluded, that for some
time he must have lived in continual pain.

The body of this unfortunate prince was laid in
state, dressed after the old Spanish mode, according
to the regulation of Charles V., though there has
been never a Spanish emperor since that prince ;
and Charles VII. had no manner of relation to that
nation. He was buried according to the imperial
ceremonies ; and, with all that parade of vanity
and human misery, they carried the globe of the
world before him, who, during his short reign, was
not even possessed of a small unhappy province.
They gave him the title of " Invincible," in the
rescripts published by the young elector, his son, a
title by custom annexed to the imperial dignity, and
which only served to remind the world of the mis-
fortunes of him that possessed it.

His brother, the elector of Cologne, would never
defend his cause ; not but this elector, who was
bishop and prince of Munster, Paderborn, and Osna-
briick, might have raised an army ; but then to have
a good one required great preparations; he must
Vol. 33-14

2io The War of 1741.

have laid up money, have had officers regularly
trained, and soldiers properly disciplined ; but all
this he wanted. He had always foreseen that Aus-
tria would resume the superiority, which indeed
was the reason of his neutrality during this whole
war : this occasioned great complaints against him ;
but the event justified his conduct.

It was then believed that, as the cause of the war
no longer existed, peace would be restored to
Europe: they could not offer the empire to the son
of Charles VII. who was then only seventeen years
of age; they flattered themselves in Germany, that
the queen of Hungary would seek for peace, as the
surest means of, at length, placing her husband, the
grand duke, upon the imperial throne : but she
would obtain this throne, and also continue the war.
The English ministry, who gave the law to their
allies, because they gave them money, supplying, at
the same time, the queen of Hungary, the king of
Poland, and the king of Sardinia, thought they
should be losers by a treaty, and gainers by pro-
tracting the war : they had no difficulty in inspiring
Maria Theresa with the same confidence, so as to
flatter herself that she should be able to beat both
France and Prussia. The passage of the Rhine
and of the Elbe in one campaign had doubled her
courage. The king of France, on the other hand,
would not abandon either his son-in-law, the Infante
Don Philip, in Italy; or the young elector of

The War of 1741. 211

Bavaria, in Germany ; or the king of Prussia, who
had returned to his old alliance.

This general war continued, because it was
begun : the object of it was now no longer the same
as in the beginning; it was one of those maladies
whose symptoms alter when they grow inveterate.
Flanders had been respected as a neutral country
before the year 1744, but was now the principal
theatre of war; and Germany was considered by
France rather as a field of politics than of military
operations. The court of France cast an eye upon
the king of Poland, elector of Saxony, as a proper
person for the imperial crown. He was not only
qualified to aspire to this dignity, but he might like-
wise render it subservient to enriching his family
with a part of the Austrian inheritance, which he
had at first attempted to acquire by the sword. At
least, by detaching him from his new alliance with
Austria, there was a probability of giving a greater
superiority to the king of Prussia, and of compelling
the queen of Hungary to accept terms of peace. But
the Saxon minister chose rather to see his master an
ally than an enemy of the court of Vienna : the king
of Poland might have had the imperial crown, but
he would not accept it.

This refusal of the elector of Saxony, which
appeared so astonishing to Europe, did not at all
surprise those who were acquainted with his court,
and with the state of his affairs. They persuaded
him that he would find it very difficult to keep the

212 The War of 1741.

crown of Poland, if he accepted the empire, and
that the republic of Poland would be afraid of hav-
ing too powerful a chief. They represented to him
that he would run the risk of losing a throne, which
he might secure to his posterity : and that, after all,
he was not sure of carrying his point in competition
with the grand duke of Tuscany. The example of
the elector of Bavaria had convinced him how diffi-
cult it is for a prince who is not himself powerful,
to sustain the weight of the imperial crown ; and
that a grandeur, not founded on its own strength, is
oftentimes rather a humiliation. In short, this
prince, whether he was not strong enough, or
whether he was restrained by the treaties of Vienna,
Dresden, and Warsaw, which had connected him
with the queen of Hungary and with England,
instead of pretending to the empire, entered into a
more intimate union with the queen, in order to
place the imperial crown on her husband's head, and
to give everything to those to whom at first he would
have granted nothing.

France had therefore no other resource left than
that of arms, and patiently to expect her fate,
together with the decision of so many different inter-
ests, which had so often changed, and whose dif-
ferent mutations had kept Europe in continual

Maximilian Joseph, the young elector of Bavaria,
was the third from father to son whose rights had
been maintained by France: they had restored his

The War of 1741. 213

grandfather to his dominions, obtained the imperial
crown for his father, and now made a fresh effort
to support this young prince. Six thousand Hes-
sians in French pay, three thousand Palatines, and
thirteen battalions of German troops, which had
been a long time in the French service, had joined
the Bavarian forces which were still maintained by
the king. To render these aids effectual, the Bava-
rians should have done their best to defend them-
selves : but it was their fate to be always beaten by
the Austrians. They defended the entrance of their
country so very ill, that in the beginning of April,
the elector of Bavaria was obliged to quit that same
capital from which his father had been so often

This country had been ravaged to such a degree
that it was not able to supply forage to the French
troops who were coming to the elector's assistance.
The Hessians were mercenaries, who, though they
would accept of French money, did not care to fight.
On April 10, General Braun declared to Count
Segur, commander-in-chief of the French troops in
Bavaria, that he would not go to meet the enemy,
and that all he could do was to wait for them. M. de
Segur found himself deserted by the very people
he had come to assist ; and he could not rely on the
Hessians, who had shown such backwardness.

To complete the disgrace of the French, Count
Seckendorff, who still commanded the Bavarian
army, corresponded with Austria, and was negotiat-

214 The War of 1741.

ing a secret arrangement, whereby he surrendered
the house of Bavaria to the discretion of the queen
of Hungary, and defeated everything that had been
done by France. One of the motives of this gen-
eral's discontent, was that the French had lately
refused him twenty-four thousand German florins,
which he still demanded, notwithstanding the
immense sums the king had remitted him for the
payment of the Bavarian troops. He had even taken
the plate of the emperor Charles VII. in pledge, at
the time that he commanded his army ; and after he
returned it to the electoral family, he complained
that they did not pay him the remainder of a sum of
money which was still due. Everybody knows that
this man, after having been long in the service of
the house of Austria, was confined by the last
emperor of that family ; and that upon the death
of that prince he quitted the queen of Hungary for
the house of Bavaria; now human nature is so
constituted, that those who often change masters
are seldom heartily attached to any party. On
March 24, he wrote to Marshal Thoring, a Bavarian
general, these words : " The happy success with
which they flatter themselves upon the Rhine will
not save Bavaria ; this country must be doomed to
utter destruction, if means be not found of saving it
by some kind of accommodation, cost what it will."
The count de Segur and M. de Chavigny, the
king's plenipotentiaries in Bavaria, were but too
well informed of his secret designs ; they plainly

The War of 1741. 215

perceived from the motions of the Bavarian army,
that the king's troops were to be left exposed in a
country where the very inhabitants, whom they had
defended during the space of four years, had become

Things being thus unhappily situated, Count
Segur, who had only six thousand foot and twelve
hundred horse, French and Palatines, was attacked
by an army of twenty thousand Austrians, within a
few leagues of Donauworth, near a little town called
Pfaffenhofen. All he had to do in this situation
was to save the king's troops, and the military chest ;
for this end he posted his men so well, by covering
them in a wood, and gaining an eminence, that they
maintained a most unequal and most obstinate fight,
without being thrown into disorder. The French
alone lost about two thousand men, killed and
wounded : the Palatines, who were less exposed, had
very few killed, but one of their battalions were
made prisoners of war. The marquis de Rupel-
monde, major-general of the French forces, kept
the enemy in play a long time in the rear, but was
killed at length with a musket-ball on the field of
battle. He had only his aide-de-camp near him when
he received the wound. " Let me die," said he ;
" run and tell M. de Segur to take good care of the
rear." We cannot too much lament the death of
this young man, who, besides every military talent,
was possessed of a philosophic turn of mind, and of
other agreeable qualities which rendered his com-

216 The War of 1741.

pany infinitely valuable to his friends. He was the
only heir of a family long distinguished in Flanders ;
the hope and consolation of a mother, who for many
years had been the darling of the court of France,
and who now only lived for this son. The marquis
de Crussol, who was entrusted with the command
of the rear, and the chevalier de la Marck, behaved
with such prudence and intrepidity, that the enemy
could not refuse them their commendations, and
were rewarded by the prince. This little army
retired to Donauworth in good order, without being
ever broken ; and killed a great many more of the
enemy than they themselves had lost.

All this time the young elector of Bavaria was at
Augsburg. Had his council agreed to have joined
his troops to those which were only fighting his
battles, he might still have kept the balance even.
The king was defending his cause on all sides :
Marshal Maillebois, at the head of a hundred and
one battalions, and sixty-two squadrons, with ten
independent companies, was driving an Austrian
army, commanded by the duke of Aremberg, beyond
the River Lahn, and even menaced the electorate
of Hanover: the king of Prussia kept Prince
Charles employed ; in short, the king of France him-
self was upon the point of making a most powerful
diversion in Flanders. But all these considerations
were superseded by Count Seckendorff's party;
they prevailed on the young elector to sign pre-
liminaries, by which he made himself dependent on

The War of 1741. 217

Austria; while the queen of Hungary was left in
possession of his strongest towns, Ingolstadt,
Scharding, and Branau, till the conclusion of a
definitive treaty: he likewise promised his vote at
the first diet of election to the grand duke, and
thereby placed over his own head the very person
whom the present juncture had rendered the most
dangerous enemy of the house of Bavaria. The six
thousand Hessians who were in this army declared
themselves neutral ; but notwithstanding their neu-
trality, they were disarmed at Augsburg, after
which they passed from French into English pay.
The Palatines were soon obliged to embrace a neu-
trality. This revolution, so lucky to the queen of
Hungary, did this service at least to France, that it
saved her the men and the treasure of which she
had been so lavish in favor of the house of Bavaria,
and freed her from the burden of mercenary troops,
which generally cost a great deal more than their
service is worth. The young elector's council might
excuse this treaty by the experience of past, and the
apprehension of future, misfortunes ; but how could
they justify a secret article by which the elector
engaged to lend troops to the queen of Hungary,
and, like the rest, to receive English pay? Little did
the king of France expect, when he put the elector
Charles Albert on the imperial throne, that in two
years' time the Bavarians would serve among his
enemy's troops.

While the king lost one ally, who was only a

2i8 The War of 1741.

burden to him, he still preserved another, who was
of infinite use. The king of Prussia was the terror
of the Auctrians ; Prince Charles could hardly face
him in the field.

The resolution taken by Louis XV. was to act
on the defensive in Germany, and on the offensive
in Flanders and Italy : and thereby he answered
every purpose. His army on the Rhine employed
the Austrians, and prevented them from falling upon
his ally, the king of Prussia, with too great a superi-
ority of forces. He had already sent Marshal Mail-
lebois from Germany into Italy; and the prince of
Conti was entrusted with the management of the
war on the Rhine, a war of quite a different nature
from that which he had conducted in the Alps.

The king undertook to finish the conquests in per-
son, which he had interrupted the preceding year.
He had just married the dauphin to the second
infanta of Spain, in the month of February; and
this young prince, who had not yet completed his
sixteenth year, prepared to set out in the beginning
of May along with his father.

Before the king's departure, Marshal Saxe went
to take upon him the command of the army in Flan-
ders, which was to consist of a hundred and six
battalions and a hundred and seventy-two squadrons
complete, with seventeen independent companies.

l_0 U I S XV

The War of 1741. 219



MARSHAL SAXE having made several marches, which
kept the enemy in suspense, and seemed sometimes to
threaten Aeth, and sometimes Mons, all of a sudden
sat down before Tournay, and invested it on April
25 ; while the allied army of the English, Austrians,
Hanoverians, and Dutch was not able to prevent his

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