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in his hand, and all covered with dust. " Well,
Resce," said Marshal de Noailles to him this was a
familiar expression used by the marshal " what
news do you bring us, and what is your opinion? "
" My news," says the duke de Richelieu, " is, that
the victory is ours, if we have a mind; and my
opinion is, that we immediately bring four pieces of
cannon to bear against the front of the column :
while this artillery throws it into disorder, the king's
household and his other troops will surround it. We
must fall upon them like foragers, and I'll lay my
life that the day is ours." " But, Fontenoy," said
they, " is pressed by the enemy." " I come thence,"
said the duke ; " it holds out still." " We must see,"
replied they, " whether the marshal has not designed
this cannon for some other use." He answered
them, " There is no other to make of it." He was
convinced himself, and he persuaded the rest. The
king was the first who approved of this important
proposal, and everybody else joined in the opinion.
He gave orders to bring up four pieces of cannon
immediately : twenty messengers rode away directly
on that errand ; when a captain of the regiment of
Touraine, whose name was Issards, aged twenty-
one, perceived four pieces of cannon which they
were carrying back ; he gave notice thereof directly,
and that very evening he had the cross of St. Louis.

The War of 1741. 253

The king ordered the duke de Pequigni, who has
now the title of duke de Chaulnes, to go and see
those four pieces pointed : " They were designed,"
they said, " to cover the retreat." " We shall make
no retreat," said the duke de Chaulnes ; " the king
commands that these four pieces shall give us the
victory." Upon which M. de Senneval, lieutenant of
artillery, plants them directly opposite to the column.
The duke de Richelieu gallops full speed in the
king's name to give orders to the king's household
to march: he communicates this news to M. de
Montesson, the commanding officer, who is trans-
ported with joy, and immediately puts himself at
their head. The prince de Soubise assembles his
gendarmes under his command ; the duke de Chaul-
nes does the same with his light horse ; they all
draw up in order, and march. The four squadrons
of gendarmes advancing at the right of the king's
household, the horse grenadiers at their head, under
their captain M. de Grille ; and the musketeers com-
manded by M. de Jumillac, rush boldly on. The
dauphin was advancing with sword in hand to put
himself at the head of the king's household ; but
they stopped him, telling him that his life was too
precious. " Mine is not precious," said he ; " it is
the general's life that is precious in the day of bat-

In this important moment, the count d'Eu and
the duke de Biron at the right, beheld with concern
the troops quitting their post at Antoin ; the count de

254 The War of 1741.

la Marck, their commander, with reluctance obeying.
"I will answer," said the duke de Biron, "for his dis-
obedience ; I am sure the king will approve of it now
that there is so great a change in our favor; I
answer that Marshal Saxe will think it right." The
marshal, coming up at that very time, was of the
duke de Biron's opinion. The general having been
informed of the king's resolution, and of the good
disposition of the troops, readily acquiesced. He
changed opinion when he was obliged to change it.
He made the regiment of Piedmont return to
Antoin, he moved, notwithstanding his weakness,
with great velocity to the right and to the left, and
toward the Irish brigade, strictly recommending to
all the troops he met on his way not to make any
more irregular charges, but to act in concert.

While he was with the Irish brigade, attended
by M. de Lowendahl and Lord Clare, the duke de
Biron, the count d'Estrees,and the marquis de Croissi
were together on the right, opposite the left flank of
the column upon a rising ground: they perceived
the Irish and the regiment of Normandy, who were
advancing toward the right flank. " Now is the
time," said they to one another, " for us to advance ;
the English are beaten." M. de Biron puts himself
at the head of the king's regiment ; those of Aube-
terre and Courten follow him; and all the rest
advance under Count d'Estrees. Five squadrons of
Penthievre's regiment follow M. de Croissi and his
sons; the squadrons of Fitz- James, Noailles, Cha-

The War of 1741. 255

brillant, Brancas, and Brionne advanced with their
colonels, though they had received no orders ; and
it seemed as if there was a perfect harmony between
their movements, and all that had been done by M.
de Richelieu. Never was the king better served
than at that very instant: it was the quickest and
most unanimous movement. Lord Clare marches
up with the Irish ; the regiment of Normandy, the
French guards, and a battalion of Swiss advancing
higher up toward the redoubt of Eu. All these corps
move at the same time; the Irish commanded by
Lord Clare, against the front of the column, the
guards higher up, under the count de Chabannes,
their lieutenant-colonel. They were all separated
from the English column by a hollow way ; they
force through it firing almost muzzle to muzzle,
and then fall upon the English with their bayonets
fixed on their muskets. M. de Bonnasanse, at that
time first captain of the regiment of Normandy, who
was afterward the first that jumped upon the covert-
way of Tournay, was now the first of his regiment
that broke through the column : but the officers of
the French guards had already made an impression.
The carbineers between the Irish and the king's
household, were then piercing through the first
ranks ; they were seen to run about and to rally in
the midst of the enemy, when the crowd and their
impetuosity had disordered their ranks. Unluckily
they mistook the Irish, who have near the same uni-
form as the English, for English battalions; and

256 The War of 1741.

fell upon them with great fury. The Irish cried out
" Vive la France," but in the confusion they could
not be heard ; so that some Irish were killed through

The four cannon which the duke de Richelieu had
called for, and which the duke de Chaulnes had lev-
elled within one hundred paces of the column, had
already made two discharges which thinned the
ranks, and began, to shake the front of the enemy's
army. All the king's household advanced toward
the front of the column, and threw it into disorder.
The cavalry pressed it hard upon the left flank ;
Marshal Saxe had recommended to them particularly
to bear upon the enemy with the breasts of their
horses, and he was well obeyed. The count d'Est-
rees, the young prince de Brionne, killed some of
the enemy themselves in the foremost ranks: the
officers of the king's chamber charged pell-mell with
the guards and the musketeers. All the pages were
there with sword in hand; so that the marquis de
Tressau, who commanded the brigade of the king's
bodyguards, said to the king after the battle, " Sire,
you sent us pages whom we took for so many offi-

All this time, the duke de Biron held the Dutch
troops in play, with the king's regiment and the bri-
gade of Crillon. He had already sent M. de Bois-
seul, a first page of the great stable, to tell the king
that everything went well on his side, and that he
would undertake to give a good account of the

The War of 1741. 257

enemy. On the other side, the marquis d'Harcourt,
son of the duke of that name, came to acquaint the
king in his father's name, that the troops were ral-
lied on every side, and that the victory was sure.

At this very instant arrived the count de Castel-
lane, despatched by Marshal Saxe, to inform the
king that the field of battle was recovered. In seven
or eight minutes the whole English column was
dispersed; General Ponsonby, Lord Albemarle's
brother, five colonels, five captains of the guards, and
a prodigious number of officers were slain. The
English repassed the hollow way between Fontenoy
and the redoubt in the greatest disorder ; the ground
which had been taken up by their column, as well
as the hollow way, was strewed with dead and
wounded bodies.

We have entered into this long detail concerning
the battle of Fontenoy, because its importance
deserved it. This engagement determined the fate
of the war, paved the way for the conquest of the
Low Countries, and served as a counterpoise to all
disappointments. The presence of the king and his
son, and the danger to which these two princes and
France were exposed, greatly increased the impor-
tance of this ever memorable day.
Vol. 3317





1632 Meanwhile the king of Sweden repasses
the Rhine toward Franconia. Nuremberg opens
her gates to him. He marches to Donauworth, on
the Danube, restores that ancient town to its liberty,
and withdraws it from the Bavarian yoke. All the
lands in Suabia belonging to the houses of Austria
and Bavaria, he lays under contribution. He forces
the passage of the Lech, in spite of Tilly, who is
mortally wounded in the retreat. He enters Augs-
burg as a conqueror, and restores the Protestant
religion. It is scarcely possible to push the rights
of victory to a greater length. The magistrates of
Augsburg take an oath of fidelity to him. The duke
of Bavaria, who now remained neutral, and in arms
either for the emperor or himself, is obliged to quit
Munich, which surrenders to the conqueror on May
7, paying to him three hundred thousand rix-dollars,
to save it from being plundered. The palatine has
at least the comfort of entering with Gustavus the
palace of him who had dispossessed him.

The affairs of the emperor and of Germany seem

160 Annals of the Empire.

desperate. Tilly, an excellent general, who had
never been unfortunate but against Gustavus, was
dead; the duke of Bavaria, discontented with the
emperor, was his victim, and saw himself driven out
of his capital. Wallenstein, duke of Friedland, still
more disgusted with the duke of Bavaria, his
declared enemy, had refused to march to his assist-
ance, and the emperor Ferdinand, whose inclin-
ations never led him to the field, waited his fate
from that Wallenstein whom he did not love, and
whom he had held at defiance. Wallenstein now em-
ploys himself in retaking Bohemia from the elector
of Saxony, and has as much advantage over the
Saxons as Gustavus had over the Imperialists.

With great difficulty Maxmilian, elector of Bava-
ria, at length effects a junction with Wallenstein.
The Bavarian army, partly levied at the elector's
expense, and partly at the expense of the Catholic
league, consists of about twenty-five thousand men.
That of Wallenstein amounted to thirty thousand old
soldiers. The king of Sweden had not now above
twenty thousand, but reinforcements were coming
in to him on every side. He is joined by the land-
grave of Hesse-Cassel, William and Bernard of
Saxe-Weimar, and the prince palatine of Birken-
feld. His general, Banier, always brings him
new troops. He marches to the neighborhood of
Nuremberg with above fifty thousand men,
approaching the dukes of Bavaria and Wallenstein
in their intrenched camp. They give him battle,

Ferdinand II. 261

but it is not all decisive. Gustavus carries the war
into Bavaria; Wallenstein carries it into Saxony;
provinces, the destruction of which is completed
by these different movements.

Gustavus, leaving twelve thousand men in Bava-
ria, hastens to Saxony. He soon arrives by forced
marches at Leipsic, at a time when Wallenstein did
not in the least expect him, and immediately prepares
to give battle.

They fight in the great plain of Liitzen on Novem-
ber 15. The victory is a long time doubtful, but
the Swedes at length obtain it with the loss of their
king, who is found among the dead, pierced by two
balls and two strokes of a sword. Duke Bernard of
Saxe- Weimar completes the victory. What has not
been invented about the death of this great man?
A prince of the empire, who served in his army,
is accused of having assassinated him ; nay, his
death is imputed to Cardinal de Richelieu, who had
business for his life. Is it not natural then for a
king who exposed himself like a soldier, to die like

The loss was fatal to the elector palatine, who
hoped to have been re-established by Gustavus. He
was then sick at Mentz, and the news of Gustavus's
death heightened his disorder in such a manner that
he died, November 19.

Wallenstein retires into Bohemia after the battle
of Liitzen. All Europe expected that the Swedes
would quit Germany, now that Gustavus was no

Annals of the Empire.

longer at their head, but General Banier marches
with them into Bohemia. He causes the body of the
king to be publicly shown in the army, in order to
excite the spirit of revenge.

1633 Gustavus left the throne of Sweden to a
daughter six years old, and consequently a govern-
ment divided, as was the Protestant league by the
death of him who had been its chief and support.
The fruits of so many victories were now near
being lost, yet nevertheless they were not. The true
reason perhaps of so extraordinary an event is, that
the emperor acted only in his closet, when he ought
to have exerted himself at the head of his army.
The senate of Sweden appoint their chancellor,
Oxenstiern, to follow exactly the designs of Gus-
tavus the Great in Germany. They also gave him
absolute power. Oxenstiern at this time certainly
enjoyed a more elevated rank than ever subject
in Europe had before. He was at the head of all
the Protestant princes of Germany.

These princes meet at Heilbronn, and among them
are the ambassadors of France and England, and
the states-general. Oxenstiern opens the confer-
ence in his own house, and immediately signalizes
himself by restoring the Upper and Lower Palatinate
to Charles Louis, son of the dispossessed elector.
This prince Charles Louis had appeared in one of
those assemblies as an elector, but this ceremony
had not restored him to his dominions.

Oxenstiern renews with Cardinal Richelieu the

Ferdinand II. 263

treaty that had been made with Gustavus Adolphus.
He is only allowed a million a year subsidy, instead
of one million two hundred thousand livres, which
had been allowed his master.

Ferdinand negotiates with each of the Protestant
princes, having a view of dividing them, but he does
not succeed. The war is still continued in plunder-
ing Germany, with undecisive success. Austria is
the only part which was free from it, as well before
as after the time of Gustavus. The Spanish branch
of Austria had hitherto but feebly supported the
imperial branch, however, it at last makes an effort,
sending the duke of Feria from Italy into Germany
with about twenty thousand men, the greatest part of
which army he lost in his marches and operations.
The elector of Trier, bishop of Spires, had built
and fortified Philippsburg, on which the imperial
troops had seized in spite of him. Oxenstiern, by
the force of the Swedish arms, obliges them to
restore it to the elector, notwithstanding the duke
of Feria vainly strove to force him to raise the
siege. This wise politician seemed inclined to con-
vince Europe, by his conduct, that he did not want
to subdue the Catholic religion, but that Sweden,
as victorious after as before the death of her king,
was equally inclined to protect the Protestants and
Catholics, a conduct that encouraged the pope
to refuse the men, money, and a crusade, which
the emperor had demanded.

1634 France as yet had only taken part pri-

264 Annals of the Empire.

vately in this dispute. It had hitherto cost her but
a very trifling subsidy to procure the throne of
Ferdinand to be shaken by the Swedish arms, but
Cardinal Richelieu began now to deliberate upon
making some use of their success. He vainly
endeavored the sequestration of Philippsburg, for
France had taken every fair opportunity of making
herself mistress of some towns in Alsace, as Hage-
nau and Saverne, which she had obliged the count
von Solms, governor of Strasburg, to part with
by treaty. Louis XIII., who had not declared war
against Austria, yet declares it against Charles, duke
of Lorraine, because he was a partisan of that house.
The ministry of France dared not as yet openly
attack the emperor or Spain, because they were
able to defend themselves, but turned their arms
upon the feeble Lorraine. Charles II., the deposed
duke, is commonly called Charles IV., a prince well
known for his extravagances, his marriages, and
his misfortunes.

The French have an army in Lorraine, and troops
in Alsace ready to act openly against the emperor,
at the first fair opportunity that may afford the least
justification for such a proceeding. The duke of
Feria, pursued by the Swedes into Bavaria, dies
there after the almost entire dispersion of his army.

In the midst of these troubles and misfortunes,
Duke Wallenstein is engrossed with a design of mak-
ing the army, which he commanded in Bohemia,
contribute to his own grandeur, and thereby render

Ferdinand II. 265

himself independent of an emperor who seemed
dilatory in assisting even himself, and was always
distrustful of his generals. It is pretended that
Wallenstein treated with the Protestant princes, and
even with Sweden and France. But those intrigues
of which he is accused were never clearly proved.
The conspiracy of Wallenstein is received as a his-
torical fact, and yet we are absolutely ignorant of
what kind it was. They guessed at his projects.
His real crime was that of making the army his
own, and endeavoring to become absolute master
of it. Time and opportunity had done the rest.
He had administered an oath to such of the princi-
pal officers of this army as were most in his inter-
est, the purport of which was, their binding them-
selves to defend his person and share his fortune.
Although he might justify himself in this step by
the ample power which the emperor had lodged
in his hands, yet the Council of Vienna are alarmed.
The Spanish and Bavarian parties at that court
were Wallenstein's professed enemies. Ferdinand
comes to a resolution of taking off Wallenstein and
his principal friends by assassination. One Butler,
an Irishman, to whom Wallenstein had given a com-
mand of dragoons, and two Scotchmen, named Les-
lie and Gordon, the former one of the captains of
his guard, are charged with this assassination. These
three strangers have received their commission in
Eger, where Wallenstein at that time resided, caused
four officers, who were the principal friends of the

266 Annals of the Empire.

duke, to be forthwith strangled at supper, after
which they assassinate himself in the castle, on Feb-
ruary 15. If Ferdinand was obliged to come to an
extremity so very odious, it ought to be reckoned
among his misfortunes.

All the effects of this assassination were to exas-
perate the inhabitants of Bohemia and Silesia. If
the Bohemians were quiet on this occasion, it was
because they were awed by an army, but the Siles-
ians openly revolt, and join the Swedes. The Swed-
ish arms still keep all Germany in awe, even as when
their king was alive. General Banier commands
the whole course of the Oder ; Marshal Horn gov-
erns on the Rhine ; Bernard, duke of Weimar, on
the Danube, and the elector of Saxony in Bohemia
and Lusatia. The emperor still continues at Vienna.
It was happy for him that the Turks did not attack
him at this melancholy juncture. Bethlen-Gabor
was dead, and Amurath IV. was employed against
the Persians.

Ferdinand, secure on that side, drew some assist-
ance from Austria, Carinthia, Carniola, and Tyrol.
The king of Spain supplied him with some money,
the Catholic league with troops, and the elector of
Bavaria, whom the Swedes had deprived of the
palatinate, found himself under a necessity of tak-
ing part with the emperor. The Austrians and
Bavarians united, support the fortune of Germany
on the Danube. Ferdinand Ernest, king of Hun-
gary, son of the emperor, encourages the Austrians

Ferdinand II. 267

by putting himself at their head. He takes Ratisbon
in sight of the duke of Saxe- Weimar. This prince
and Marshal Horn, who were joined, make a
stand upon the borders of Suabia, and on September
5 they give the Imperialists battle. This was the
memorable battle of Nordlingen. The king of Hun-
gary commanded the army, the elector of Bavaria
headed his own troops, the cardinal-infant, gov-
ernor of the Low Countries, led some Spanish reg-
iments. Charles IV., duke of Lorraine, who had
been stripped of his dominions by France, there
commanded his little army of ten or twelve thousand
men, which he had sometimes led to the service of
the emperor, sometimes to that of the Spaniards,
and subsisted at the cost of friends and enemies.
There were in this combined army several great
generals, such as Piccolomini and John von Worth.
It was one of the most bloody battles that ever was
fought, lasting above a day and a half. The army of
Weimar were almost totally destroyed, and Suabia
and Franconia submitted to the Imperialists, where
they quartered at discretion.

This misfortune, which was shared by the Swedes,
by France, and the Protestants of Germany, con-
tributed to the most Christian king's superiority,
and at length secured him the possession of Alsace.
It was not the chancellor Oxenstiern's intention
before this event, that France should have much
power in that country, but that the Swedes, who had
all the labor of the war, should reap the advantage

268 Annals of the Empire.

of it. Besides, Louis XIII. had never openly
declared against the emperor. But after the battle
of Nordlingen the Swedes were obliged to entreat
the ministry of France to take possession of Alsace,
under the name of protector, upon condition that
neither the Protestant princes nor states should
make peace or treat with the emperor without the
consent of France and Sweden. This treaty is
signed at Paris November i.

1635 In consequence of this, the king of France
sends an army into Alsace, and puts garrisons into
all the towns, Strasburg excepted, which appears
as a considerable ally. The elector of Trier, being
under the protection of France, is arrested by the
emperor. This elector is confined at Brussels under
care of the cardinal-infant, and furnishes also a
reason for going to war with the Spanish branch of

France had not joined her arms to those of
Sweden, until the latter became unfortunate, and
the battle of Nordlingen had recovered the spirits of
the Imperialists. Cardinal Richelieu already shared,
in imagination, the conquest of the Spanish Low
Countries with the Dutch. He fancied he should
soon have the chief command himself, and Frederick
Henry, a prince of Orange, be subservient to his
orders. In Germany he had in his pay Bernard of
Weimar on the Rhine. The army of Weimar,
which was distinguished by the name of the Wei-
marian troops, was now become like that of Charles

Ferdinand II. 269

IV. of Lorraine, or of Mansfieldt, an independent
detached army, belonging only to its leader. They
called this the army of the circles of Suabia and
Franconia, and the Upper and Lower Rhine,
although it was paid by France, and not in the least
supported by these circles.

This was the height of the Thirty Years War, in
which, on the one side we see the houses of Austria,
Bavaria, and the Catholic league engaged, and on
the other, France, Sweden, Holland, and the Prot-
estant league.

The emperor could not possibly neglect dividing
the Protestant league, after the victory of Nordlin-
gen. There is great likelihood that France had been
too late in her declaration of war ; had she made it
at the time that Gustavus himself was in Germany,
the French troops had entered without resistance
into a discontented country, harassed by the gov-
ernment of Ferdinand, but they came at a time when
Germany was wearied by the Swedish devastations,
after the death of Gustavus, and the battle of Nord-
lingen, when the superiority again appeared in favor
of the Imperialists.

At the same time that France declared herself,
the emperor did not neglect to make a very neces-
sary agreement with most of the Protestant princes.
The same elector of Saxony, who had been the first
that called in the Swedes, was the first to abandon
them by that treaty, which is known as the Treaty
of Prague. Few treaties more plainly show how

270 Annals of the Empire.

religion serves as a pretext for politics, how it is
laughed at, nay sacrificed to necessity.

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