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six were dangerously wounded : among the latter
were Count d'Eu, Count d'Harcourt, Count de Beav-
ron, and Duke de Bouflers ; Count de la Mothe-Hou-
dancourt, gentleman-usher to the queen, had his
horse killed under him ; and, after being trampled
almost to death by the cavalry, was carried off the
field almost dead ; the arm of the marquis de Gon-
taud was broken; the duke de Rochechouart, first
lord of the bedchamber, having been twice wounded,

136 The War of 1741.

and continuing still to fight, was at length killed on
the spot ; as were also the marquises de Sabran,
Fleury, the count d'Estrades, and the count de Ros-
tiang. The death of a count de Bouflers, of the
branch of Ramiencourt, should not be overlooked
among the singularities of this unfortunate day : he
was only ten years and a half old; his leg being
broken by a cannon ball, he sustained the stroke, the
amputation of his leg, and even met death itself with
amazing intrepidity. So much youth, tempered with
such valor, melted into tears all who were witness of
his misfortune !

Nor was the loss among the English officers much
less considerable. The king of England fought
both on foot and on horseback, both at the head of
the cavalry and infantry. The duke of Cumberland
was wounded by his side, and the duke d'Aremberg
received a musket-ball in his breast: the English
lost several general officers. The unequal battle
lasted three hours. Courage alone was opposed to
valor, number, and discipline. At length Marshal de
Noailles ordered a retreat ; nor was it done without
some confusion. The king of England dined upon
the field of battle, and then retired, without giving
himself time to carry off the wounded, of whom he
left about six hundred behind him, who were recom-
mended by Lord Stair to M. de Noailles' generosity.
The French treated them like their countrymen :
they behaved to each other with civility and respect ;
while, on the other hand, during this whole war, the

The War of 1741. 137

Hungarians, less civilized indeed, showed nothing
but a spirit of rapine and barbarity.

The two generals wrote letters to each other, that
plainly show to what height politeness and humanity
may be carried amidst all the horrors of a war.
There are these words in a letter written by Lord
Stair to Marshal de Noailles from Hanau, and dated
June 30 : "I have sent back all the French prisoners
of whom I had any knowledge ; and I have given
orders for the release of all such as may have fallen
into the hands of the Hanoverians. You will, I hope,
permit me to thank you for the very generous
behavior you have shown, which is, indeed, entirely
conformable to the high opinion I always professed
to entertain for monsieur the duke de Noailles. I
am, sir, particularly obliged to you for the care you
have so benevolently taken of our wounded."

Nor was this greatness of soul peculiar to the
earl of Stair and the duke de Noailles. There was
an act of generosity of the duke of Cumberland,
that above all others ought to be handed down to
posterity. A musketeer, named Girardeau, being
dangerously wounded, was brought near his high-
ness' tent; surgeons were much wanting; those
they had were taken up elsewhere : they were now
going to dress the duke's leg, which had been
wounded in the calf by a musket-ball : " Begin," said
he nobly, " with the wound of that French officer ;
he is more dangerously hurt than I am, and stands
in need of more assistance; I shall as yet want

138 The War of 1741.

none." The loss of both armies was nearly the
same: there were two thousand two hundred and
thirty-one men of the allies killed and wounded.
This computation was taken from the account of the
English, who seldom diminish their own loss, and
never augment that of the enemy.

This battle was not unlike that of Czaslau in
Bohemia, or that of Campo Santo in Italy. Great
exploits were performed, much blood spilled, and
neither side reaped any advantage. The loss of the
French was considerable in blasting, by a precipitate
and disorderly warmth, the fruits that might have
been otherwise gathered from the finest disposition
imaginable: the battles of Crecy and Poitiers had
been lost by conduct of a similar nature. The king
of England, who here acquired great honor, reaped
no other benefit from the victory, than that of has-
tily retiring from the field of battle to seek subsist-
ence at Hanau. The author of this history, meet-
ing with Lord Stair some weeks after tTie battle, took
the liberty to ask him his opinion of it : " It is my
opinion," said that general, " that you have com-
mitted one fault, and we two : yours was passing the
hollow way, not having patience to wait: our two
were, exposing ourselves first to the danger of being
all destroyed ; and secondly, not having pursued our
victory, by making a proper use of it."

Never had man greater reason to complain than
M. de Noailles, who saw himself by one precipitate
movement cut off from all the glories of a battle that

The War of 1741. 139

might have finished the war: yet he did not com-
plain; he recriminated upon nobody; his regard
for his nephew outdid the care of his own justifica-
tion. He satisfied himself with barely representing
to the king, his master, in a letter as wise and elo-
quent as it was instructive, the great necessity there
was for re-establishing a proper discipline.

Many French and English officers went, after
this action, to Frankfort, a town that always
remained neutral, where the emperor had then
retired, who saw one after another Lord Stair and
Marshal de Noailles, without manifesting to them
any other sentiments than those of patience in his
days of evil fortune.

Marshal Broglie's precipitate retreat from the
frontiers of Bavaria, which was made about the same
time, was attended with consequences still more
dreadful to the emperor than those of the battle of
Dettingen. Marshal Broglie, who had long been
dissatisfied with Marshal Seckendorff, the Bavarian
general, had always declared both by letter and word
of mouth, even before the campaign, that he could
not keep Bavaria. He departed from there about
the end of June, at nearly the same time that the
emperor, believing himself no longer safe at Augs-
burg, took shelter at Frankfort, where he arrived
June 27, at night, being the very day on which the
battle was fought.

Marshal de Noailles found the emperor infinitely
chagrined on account of Marshal Broglie's retreat;

140 The War of 1741.

and, to augment his misfortunes, he was without sub-
sistence for himself and his family, in an imperial
town, where nobody would advance him anything,
though the head of the empire. Marshal de Noailles
gave him forty thousand crowns on a letter of credit,
being certain that the king would not disapprove
such an action.

Marshal Broglie had, on his retreating, left the
emperor still possessed of Straubing, Ingolstadt
on the Danube, and Eger on the Eger, upon the con-
fines of the Upper Palatinate, and they were all
blockaded. There were, moreover, some Bavarian
troops still in Branaw, which place the Austrians
had long neglected to besiege in form ; but they being
masters of all the country round, it soon capitulated.
Straubing, in which were twelve hundred French,
immediately followed its example. These twelve
hundred men were conducted to the main body of the
army, which was then quitting Bavaria, and direct-
ing its march toward the Neckar. When at length
they arrived there, their number was dwindled away
at least twenty-five thousand, more of whom were
lost by desertion and sickness than by the sword of
the enemy.

The putting of the emperor Charles VII. in pos-
session of Vienna or Prague was now no longer
meditated. They were obliged to turn their views
to the defence of the French frontiers, threatened
by two victorious armies, that of Prince Charles and
the king of England. France had, in three cam-

The War of 1741. 141

paigns, sent to the emperor's assistance in Bavaria
and Bohemia, upward of a hundred and twenty-five
thousand fighting men; out of all which Marshal
Broglie brought back about thirty thousand. The
emperor, plunged in the deepest despair, demanded
of the king that Marshal Broglie should be sent into
exile: his majesty thought himself under the neces-
sity of giving his griefs that satisfaction ; of giving
that weak and ineffectual consolation to his mis-

One would be apt to think that there must have
been some radical defect in the conduct of this
grand enterprise, in which such repeated efforts had
proved futile and abortive. Perhaps the failure
arose from the fact that the Bavarian emperor had
neither strong towns, nor good troops in his domin-
ions; his authority over the French army was for-
eign and confined; and his bad state of health
rendered him incapable of pushing the war vig-
orously against an enemy which was daily acquiring
power ; all these points considered, they were cer-
tainly much to his disadvantage. A prince who
attempts to set on foot such vast enterprises should
be able to act upon his own foundation; for never
did any prince make a very important conquest
solely by the help of another person.

142 The War of 174 1.




THE emperor remained at Frankfort, to all appear-
ances without either allies or enemies, nay, indeed
without subjects. The queen of Hungary had
caused all the inhabitants of Bavaria and the Upper
Palatinate to take an oath of allegiance to her,
against which exacted oath the Bavarian emperor
in Frankfort protested. A printer in the town of
Stadamhof was condemned to be hanged in the
market-place for having printed this protest made
by his sovereign. Nor did they stop at these insults ;
for shortly after the council of Austria presented
to the imperial diet, even in the town of Frank-
fort, memorials, wherein the election of Charles VII.
was treated as null, and absolutely void. The new
elector of Mentz, high chancellor of the empire, to
which dignity he had been advanced against the
emperor's will, registered these in the Protocol of
the empire. Charles could only complain, which he
did by written remonstrances, while, to finish his
disgrace, the king of England, as elector of Hanover,

The War of 1741. 143

wrote him that the queen of Hungary and the elector
of Mentz were in the right. In fine, they talked of
forcing him to abdicate the imperial throne, and
to resign it in favor of the duke of Tuscany.

In the meantime, the emperor having declared
himself neutral, the allies were stripping him of his
dominions ; so that the king of France, who had
on his account engaged in the war, had more reason
than ever to proclaim that he would no longer med-
dle with the affairs of the empire ; and this was
pronounced as his resolution solemnly by his min-
ister at Ratisbon, July 6. Such a disposition might,
at any other time, have produced a separate peace;
but England and Austria wanted to improve their
advantage. These powers aimed at compelling the
emperor to request that his enemy, the grand duke
of Tuscany, should be advanced to the dignity of
king of the Romans ; and they also flattered them-
selves with hopes of being able to penetrate into
Alsace and Lorraine. Thus do we see an offensive
war begun at the gates of Vienna, turned into a
defensive one on the banks of the Rhine.

On August 4, Prince Charles made a lodgment
upon an island in that river near old Breisach : on the
other side, some Hungarian parties had advanced
beyond the Sarre, and committed some outrages on
the frontiers of Lorraine. The same Mentzel who
had been the first that took Munich, had the insolence
to issue a declaration or manifesto, dated August
20, and addressed to the inhabitants of Alsace, Bur-

144 The War of 1741.

gundy, Franche-Comte, and the three bishoprics,
inviting them to return, as he called it, to the
obedience to the house of Austria : he also threat-
ened to hang up all such of them as should take up
arms against him, but that he should first compel
them, with their own hands, to cut off their noses
and ears. Such brutal ferocity produced only con-
tempt : the frontiers were well guarded, and a
detachment from Prince Charles's army having
passed the Rhine, were cut in pieces, August 4, by
Count de Berenger.

About the end of July the army under Marshal
de Noailles encamped in the neighborhood of Spires.
Count Maurice of Saxony was in Upper Alsace,
at the head of a corps drawn from the remains of
Broglie's army, and some troops drafted from the
frontier towns. The duke d'Harcourt commanded
on the Moselle. The marquis de Montal defended
Lorraine. Nor was it sufficient to guard the fron-
tiers only ; an open war with England was foreseen,
and also with the king of Sardinia, who had not as
yet indeed concluded a definitive treaty with the
court of Vienna, but was not therefore the less
closely attached to its interest.

The king of France, now deserted by Prussia, was
in much the same situation as his great-grandfather
had been formerly, united with Spain, against the
forces of a new house of Austria, England, Hol-
land, and Savoy. He therefore caused several ships
of war to be built and fitted out forthwith at Brest ;

The War of 1741. 145

he augmented his land forces, and reinforced Don
Philip with twelve thousand men : how small an
assistance when compared to the numbers he had
lavished in the service of the Bavarian emperor!
but in effect more useful, because they seconded the
enterprises of a young prince who depended upon
the power of Spain to secure him an establishment.
The king, not content with succoring his allies, and
securing his frontiers, resolved also in person to head
his army in Alsace ; and to that end had caused his
field equipage to be got in readiness. He acquainted
Marshal de Noailles with his design, who answered
him in these words: "Your majesty's affairs are
neither so prosperous nor so declining as to require
your taking such a step at present." He advanced
other reasons, and the king admitted them, being
determined to make the next campaign afterward.

Out of the various conquests the French arms had
made for the emperor, there now remained to him
only Eger in Bohemia, and Ingolstadt in Bavaria,
on the banks of the Danube.

The extremities to which the French in Eger were
reduced by far exceeded what they had so cruelly
suffered in Prague. For eight months they had
scarcely tasted any bread, and if any of the soldiers
ventured but ever so little into the country to gather
pulse they were killed by the pandours. They had
neither provisions, money, nor hope of being assisted.
The marquis de Herouville, who commanded in the

town with six battalions, caused some temporary
Vol. 33 10

146 The War of 1741.

money to be coined, as had been formerly done at the
siege of Pavia in the reign of Francis I. This of
Eger was a bit of pewter, valued at half a sou. It
stood, indeed, in the place of silver, but could not
remedy the want of provisions. The marquis Desa-
leurs sent them a convoy, but it was taken by the
besiegers. The garrison was at length obliged to sur-
render as prisoners of war : the officers and soldiers
were dispersed through Bohemia and Austria, where
they found many of their countrymen. There had
been more than nine thousand French taken in the
course of three years, who found themselves very
rigorously treated ; the spirit of revenge being
united to the severity of war, and sharpened by
national animosity.

The defenders of Ingolstadt were more fortunate.
M. de Grandeville, who commanded a garrison of
about three thousand men, obtained not only liberty
to retreat in safety, but even compelled General
Bernklau, who besieged him, to grant a free passage
to the French who were scattered in different towns
in Bavaria under his command. This is the first
instance of a garrison's capitulating for other troops
besides themselves. In the meantime neither the
king of England nor Prince Charles could make any
impression on the Rhine against the French ; and
the remainder of the campaign justified what Mar-
shal de Noailles had said to the king, that his affairs
were neither flourishing nor desperate. All the
belligerent powers were by turns agitated by fear and

The War of 1741. 147

hope ; each had its losses and misfortunes to repair.
Naples and Sicily were afflicted with the scourge
of pestilence, and prepared for that of war; not
without standing at the same time in fear of some
conspiracies in favor of the house of Austria.

The king of Naples, having augmented his army
to twenty-six thousand men, employed twelve thou-
sand of them in securing the frontiers of Calabria
against the progress of the pestilence, which was
done by forming a chain of vast extent: the rest
of his army remained on the borders of Abruzzo,
waiting a favorable opportunity to act in conjunction
with the Spanish army, then commanded by the duke
of Modena and Count de Gages. The city of Naples,
now put into a proper state of defence, no longer
feared the insults or orders of the English captains
of men of war. Don Philip, in Savoy, waited either
to come to an agreement with the king of Sardinia,
or to subdue him with the assistance of France. The
king of Sardinia, after having long cautiously
weighed the danger and advantage, imagined it now
more to his interest than ever to join with Austria
and England against France. Although he had
assisted the cause of the queen of Hungary for more
than a year, he had not as yet become her ally ; he at
length declared himself such, however, in a formal
and efficacious manner, at Worms, on Sept. 13, 1743 ;
a treaty of alliance which was founded entirely on
the bad success of the French arms in Germany.

This monarcl pained possession of the Tortonese,

148 The War of 1741.

the Valais, part of the Novarese, and the territorial
superiority of the fiefs of Langres, by taking arms
against the queen of Hungary's father ; and by
declaring on tl side of the daughter he acquired
Vigevan, with the remainder of the Novarese,
Parma, and Placentia. The English, who had here-
tofore allowed him a subsidy, gave him by this treaty
two hundred thousand pistoles a year, which is
upward of four hundred thousands of livres : he
was then at the head of thirty-six thousand men,
and the English fleet under Admiral Matthews was
stationed on the coast, and always at hand to second
his undertakings ; but he missed the fruits he might
have gathered from this advantage, and verified the
old maxim : " A half is sometimes better than a

By this treaty the queen of Hungary ceded to him
the marquisate of Finale, which belonged to neither
of them : it was the property of the Genoese, who
had purchased it of the late emperor for one mil-
lion two hundred thousand crowns, for which no care
was taken to reimburse them ; for, though the king
of Sardinia offered them that sum, it was only on
condition that they should rebuild the castle which
they had demolished, whereby they would have been
at a much more considerable expense. This liberal
disposal of other people's property gained France
one ally more. Genoa had long been secretly
attached to her service, and she now linked herself
to it more closely than ever. The harbor of Genoa

The War of 1741. 149

might be of great utility, and the English fleet could
not block it up always. Thus the king of Sardinia
reduced the Genoese to the necessity of becoming
his declared enemies, and opened the way to a dan-
gerous diversion against himself ; for Don Philip,
having now a second time made himself master
of Savoy, on Sept. 18, 1742, proposed to pass the
Alps; and that the Spanish and Neapolitan armies
should join in the Bolognese, or even in Lombardy.

The chance of war was therefore to decide whether
the two brothers, Don Carlos, king of Naples, and
the Infante, Don Philip, would penetrate into the
midst of Italy; or whether, on the other hand, the
king of Sardinia should, on one side, guard the pas-
sage of the Alps, while, on another, the queen of
Hungary should seize upon the kingdom of Naples,
although a manifest violation of the neutrality sub-
sisting between her and Don Carlos.

In the meantime England and Austria reckoned
that, in the approaching spring, they should be able
to attack France in Alsace and Flanders ; and the
.war was now about to be renewed on all sides with
greater violence, without there being any open rup-
ture, except -that between England and Spain on
account of the commerce in America; a rupture
which seemed to have no relation to the interests
which divided Europe: but yet it influenced them
in a most essential manner.

The emperor Charles VII. , stripped of everything,
had now no seeming resource left; yet the king of

150 The War of 174 1.

France prepared really to assist him ; and the king
of Prussia, notwithstanding the Treaty of Breslau,
and the defensive alliance subsisting between him
and the king of England, was yet more in the inter-
est of the emperor, as he had no longer any room
to doubt that the court of Vienna intended at the
first fair opportunity to attempt the recovery of
Silesia. The courts of France and Prussia were now
again on the point of joining in the common cause,
and for the interest of an emperor who seemed on
every hand abandoned or oppressed.

In the beginning of the year 1744, the king of
France determined to declare war against the king
of England and the queen of Hungary : he had no
longer any agreements to keep with the English, by
whom his ships were continually insulted ; nor with
Austria, who threatened to carry the war into
France, and would not give up a single prisoner,
though the terms had been stipulated by cartel in

The first effect of this change was a secret and
bold enterprise, which would have quickly given a
new face to one part of Europe had it been suc-

The house of the Stuarts, which, for the space
of fifty-four years, had pined in exile far distant
from the kingdoms of which it had been stripped,
had still many secret partisans in Scotland and Ire-
land; nor was it without some few in England.
Prince Charles Edward, grandson of James II., and

The War of 1741. 151

son of that prince who has been so long known to
all Europe by the title of " the Pretender," joined to
all the ardor of youth and resentment of his condi-
tion, the most enterprising and determined courage :
he had been often heard to say he would have either
a crown or a scaffold. France, which had long been
the asylum of that family, became now necessarily
its chief support; and there was a probability that
Louis XV. might, in his first campaign, have restored
the emperor to his dominions, and the heir of the
Stuarts to the throne of Great Britain. January 9
the young prince Edward left Rome, and set out
on his expedition with a spirit of secrecy and dili-
gence that marked him born for great enterprises:
he concealed his journey from a brother whom he
loved affectionately, and who would not have suf-
fered him to proceed then without accompanying
him. On January 13, he arrived at Genoa disguised
like a Spanish courier, and the day after he embarked
for Antibes, attended only by one servant, landed
safely, and soon reached Paris ; nor were the nec-
essary preparations made in France, for conducting
him to the British coast, carried on with less secrecy.
The efforts which France now made could hardly
have been expected by England, considering the
low state in which the French marine had been
for some years sunk. She fitted out twenty-six ships
of war at Rochefort and Brest, with incredible dili-
gence, and a report was spread that this squadron
was to join a Spanish fleet which had lain at Toulon

152 The War of 1741.

upward of two years, and where it was blockaded
by Admiral Matthews. Twenty ships of war set
sail from Brest, carrying four thousand land forces,
with arms and ammunition in proportion ; and they
were joined between Ushant and the Sicily Islands
by five sail from Rochefort, commanded by M. dc

This fleet having entered the British channel,
divided itself into three squadrons : the strongest,
consisting of fourteen vessels, cruised off the coast

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