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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES

GIFT OF

FREDERIC THOMAS BLANCHARD

FOR THE
ENGLISH READING ROOM






THK PVOTKY ?F BERTH




The WORKS of VOLTAIRE

EDITION DE LA PACIFICATION

Limited to one thousand sett
for America and Great Britain.



"Between two servants of Humanity, who appeared
eighteen hundred years apart, there is a mysterious relation.
* * Let us say it with a sentiment of
profound respect: JESUS WEPT: VOLTAIRE SMILED.
Of that divine tear and of that human smile is composed the
sweetness of the present civilization. ' '

VICTOR HUGO.



OR THE SACRED SPOT BECAME PO6-
8E68ED IN FORM OF SAINT"



EDITION DE LA PACIFICATION



THE WORKS OF



VO LTAI RE



A CONTEMPORARY VERSION

WITH NOTES BY TOBIAS SMOLLETT, REVISED AND MODERNIZED

NEW TRANSLATIONS BY WILLIAM F. FLEMING, AND AN

INTRODUCTION BY OLIVER H. Go LEIGH



A CRITIQUE AND BIOGRAPHY
BY

THE RT. HON. JOHN MORLEY



FORTY-THREE VOLUMES

ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTY-BIGHT DESIGNS, COMPRISING REPRODUCTIONS

OF RARE OLD ENGRAVINGS, STEBL PLATES, PHOTOGRAVURES,

AMD CURIOUS FAC-SIMILES



VOLUME XLI



E. R. DuMONT

PARIS : LONDON : NEW YORK : CHICAGO



COPYRIGHT 1901
BY E. R. DuMoNT

OWNED BY

THE WERNER COMPANY
AKRON, OHIO



WADC BY

THE WERNER COMPANY
AKRON, OHIO



VOLTAIRE



THE MAID OF ORLEANS

[LA PUCELLE D'ORLfiANS]



IN TWO VOLUMES

VOL. II



LIST OF PLATES
VOL. XLI



PAGE



MONROSE AS A SAINT . . Frontispiece

JOAN PROTECTS THE NUNS . . . .44

AGNES AND MONROSE . . ... .82

THE RELIEF OF THE CITY . . . .134

JOAN AND DUNOIS 232



PREFACE

or

THE EDITORS OF KEHL,

TO

THE EDITION OF THE PUCELLE D' ORLEANS,

or

MONSIEUR DE VOLTAIRE.



THIS poem is one of the productions of Monsieur
de Voltaire, which has at the same time excited
the greatest degree of enthusiasm, and also given
rise to the most virulent declamations on the part
of its opponents. Upon the coronation of Mon-
sieur de Voltaire at the French Theatre, the spec-
tators who accompanied him in multitudes to his
hotel, sent forth with an equal degree of enthusiasm,
the following exclamations : " Long live the ' Hen-
riade;' long live 'Mahomet; ' long live 'La Pucelle' "
We therefore conceive that it may not be deemed
irrelevant to enter upon some historical details
respecting this production.

"La Pucelle" was commenced about the year
1730,* and until the period when Monsieur de Vol-

* Voltaire was born at Paris in 1694, consequently he
began the present poem when thirty-six years of age.



6 Preface.

taire took up his residence in the environs of
Geneva, was only known to the intimate friends
of the author (who were in possession of manu-
script copies of some of the cantos), and to those
societies in which Thiriot was in the habit of recit-
ing detached pieces. Towards the end of the year
1755, an edition appeared in print, which Monsieur
de Voltaire immediately hastened to disavow, and
he was in every respect authorized so to do ; as this
impression was not only produced from a manu-
script purloined from the author or his friends, but
contained a great number of verses which were not
of his own production; and others he could not
suffer to remain, because they bore an allusion to
circumstances completely reversed.

This edition was attributed to La Beaumelle,*
and the Capuchin Maubert, who had sought refuge
in Holland, an enterprise which must have been
very productive to those individuals in a pecuni-
ary point of view, while it greatly exposed the rep-
utation of Monsieur de Voltaire. These literary
pirates, however, found

Leur bien premier ement et puis le mat d'autrui.

A bookseller named Grasset even had the effront-
ery to propose to Monsieur de Voltaire that he
should purchase one of the purloined copies of his
own production, at the same time holding forth
menaces respecting the danger to which he would

* See Note 19 to Canto VI., and Note n to Canto XVIIL,
Vol. 2.



Preface. 7

subject himself in case of a refusal to become the
possessor upon such terms, and it is singular that
the celebrated anatomical poet Haller, a most zealous
protestant, should have stood forth his patron
against Monsieur de Voltaire.

It will be seen by the letter of our author,
addressed to the French Academy, inserted in the
first volume of the present translation, that the edi-
tion in question was published at Frankfort,
although purporting to be from Louvaine, and a
short time afterwards appeared two editions pre-
cisely the same, printed in Holland. The first edi-
tors, irritated at the disavowal of Monsieur de Vol-
taire, which appeared in the public papers, reprinted
"La Pucelle" in 1756, to which they subjoined his
renunciation, coupled with other satirical pieces,
in order to turn him into ridicule; however, by
thus openly avowing themselves, they in a great
measure obliterated the injury which had been
intended towards the author. In 1757 appeared a
London edition of this poem, conformable with the
foregoing and ornamented by engravings, executed
after the wretched taste of the versification intro-
duced by the editors. New impressions then
rapidly succeeded each other, and "La Pucelle " was
printed at Paris for the first time in 1759.

It was not until 1762 that Monsieur de Voltaire
published an edition of his work differing most
essentially from all those before enumerated, and
which was reprinted in 1774 in quarto, with consid-



8 Preface.

erable alterations and additions, after which latter
impressions, still revised and corrected from various
manuscripts, we now issue "La Pucelle" to the
public.

It now becomes our task to defend "La Pucelle"
against the attacks of those grave men who are even
slower to pardon Monsieur de Voltaire for having
laughed at the expense of Joan of Arc, than they
are to reprobate Peter Cauchon,* bishop of Beau-
vais, for having been chiefly instrumental in causing
her to be burned alive at the stake.

It appears to us that there are but two species of
productions which can be prejudicial to public
morals; first, those wherein it is endeavored to be
proved that men may without scruple or shame
commit crimes detrimental to morality, such as
rape, adultery, and seduction, or similar disgusting
actions, which, without coming under the denomi-
nation of crimes, dishonor those who commit them ;
and, secondly, productions that enter into the detail
of refinements in debauchery and scenes that can
only arise in the most libertinous imaginations.
Works of this nature may certainly be pernicious,



* Peter Cauchon, bishop of Beauvais, devoted to the
English party, proved one of the most implacable
enemies of Joan of Arc, and officiated as principal judge
upon that memorable trial. It was this ecclesiastic, together
with the bishops of Constance and Lisieux, the chapter
of Notre Dame, six licentiates in theology and eleven
advocates of Rouen, who affixed their signatures to the
infamous death warrant.



XV

Preface. 9

since it is to be feared that they may render young
persons who peruse them with avidity insensible to
virtuous gratifications, and that tender and refined
passion which has its unpolluted source in nature.
The "Pucelle," therefore, does not deserve any of
these reproaches ; the highly wrought pictures of
the passions of Agnes and Dorothy may amuse the
imagination, but never can corrupt the heart, while
the freer pleasantries scattered throughout the work
are by no means apologetic of the scenes which they
depict, nor a representation of such actions as may
conduce to mislead the imagination.

The present poem ought to be regarded in the
light of a work destined to inculcate lessons of wis-
dom and common sense, under the mask of folly and
voluptuousness. The author may in some instances
have wounded the taste, but has never injured the
cause of morality. We do not pretend to offer this
production as a catechism ; it ranks under the same
class with those epicurean songs, those ebullitions
composed for the table, which celebrate a laxity of
conduct, the gratifications of the voluptuary, and the
delights of free society, animated by the gaiety of
an entertainment. Have the authors of such compo-
sitions ever been arraigned for seeking to establish
as an axiom the necessity of neglecting every duty ;
the passing life in the fond embraces of a female;
or in sharing the refinements of the festive board?
Most undoubtedly not. They only endeavor to
inculcate that there is much more reason and hap-



io Preface.

piness derived in devoting existence to scenes of
soft voluptuousness, than in being eternally occupied
with the thoughts of cupidity, ambition, intrigue,
and hypocrisy. This species of exaggeration, which
has its source in enthusiasm, is essentially requisite
to poetry. Will that epoch ever arrive when noth-
ing shall be heard but the rigid language and sever-
ity of Reason ? Why then should it not be permitted
us to borrow other modes of expression, in order to
address those who do not comprehend such a style
of writing?

Besides this amalgam of devotion, libertinism, and
warlike ferocity, depicted in "La Pucelle," is the
precise image of the manners of those times.

In our judgment, such is the light in which
severe critics ought to regard the "Maid of Orleans,"
and we trust they will therefore prove less eager to
raise the voice in its condemnation. In short, had
this poem only been instrumental in preventing a
single libertine from becoming superstitious and
intolerant in his old age, it would have done more
real good than all its railleries will ever produce of
evil. When we behold, upon throwing an attentive
glance at human nature, that the rights of man and
the sacred duties of humanity are violated and
attacked with impunity; that human wisdom is
brutalized by error; that the rage of fanaticism,
conquest, or plunder, secretly actuates so many
potentates; that a thirst for. ambition and avarice
exerts its ravages with impunity in every direction ;



Preface. 1 1

while a preacher gravely thunders his anathemas
against the error of voluptuousness; it would be
just like a physician, when called upon to administer
to a man attacked with the plague, who should very
gravely begin by occupying himself with the cure of
a corn.

Perhaps it may not here be unnecessary to exam-
ine why so much importance is attached to an aus-
terity of morals. First, in a country where men
are ferocious, and bad laws exist, the love or taste
for pleasure produces great disorders, and it has
uniformly been found a much easier task to com-
pose fine declamatory harangues than to frame
wholesome edicts; secondly, old men, in whom is
naturally vested all authority, and who direct the
opinions, require nothing better than to declaim
against those faults which appertain to different
stages of life ; thirdly, a freedom of morals destroys
the ascendancy of women by preventing them from
extending it beyond the duration of their personal
attractions; and fourthly, men in general are not
assassins, robbers, nor calumniators. It is conse-
quently very natural that priests should prove desir-
ous of exaggerating the errors in morality: from
this there are few men exempt; nay, the majority
feel a pride in committing them, or at least wish it
to be supposed that they are desirous so to do. In
consequence, every man whose mind has imbibed
scruples upon this subject becomes the slave of
priestly power. Churchmen may leave the con-



12 Preface.

sciences of the great in repose as to their crimes;
and while inspiring them with remorse as to their
pleasures, become their masters and govern them,
thus converting a voluptuary into a determined and
barbarous persecutor.

Such is the only means they possess of maintain-
ing the predominance over women, who, for the
most part have only to reproach themselves with
crimes of this description. By such conduct they
cannot fail to insure the power of governing with
despotic sway those who have either feeble minds
or ardent imaginations; and, above all, the aged,
who, by way of expiating such past faults, which
they are no longer able to commit, desire no better
than to disinherit their survivors, in order to enrich
the priesthood.

We must also observe, that these very faults are
precisely the same for which we may become rigid
in performing the most trivial of sacrifices. There
is no virtue so easy to practise, or which we may
pretend to possess, as chastity; nor is there one
which is more compatible with the absence of all
real virtue and the reunion of every vice; where-
fore, the very moment it is agreed upon that a great
importance shall be attached thereto, every scoundrel
will be sure to obtain at little or no cost the esteem
of the public.



PREFACE

or

DON APULEIUS RISORIUS, THE BENEDICTINE.



LET us return thanks to that beneficent heart, to
which we are at length indebted for a Maid. This
heroic and moral poem was composed about the year
I73O> as is well known to the learned, and appears
obvious from several traits in the production. We
are given to understand by a letter of 1740, printed
in the small treatise of a great prince under the title
of "Le Philosophe sans Souci"* that a German
princess to whom the manuscript had been lent
merely for perusal, was so much edified by the cir-
cumspection that reigns throughout a subject so
difficult, that she passed a whole day and a night
in causing it to be copied, and in transcribing, her-
self, all the most moral parts. It is this identical
copy which has at length come to our hands.
Detached pieces of the "Pucelle" have been fre-
quently published, and the real amateurs of sterling
literature have been much scandalized on beholding
it so dreadfully disfigured. Some editors have given



* Alluding to a favorite palace called Sans Souci, built
by the king of Prussia for the purpose of enjoying the
society of our Voltaire, the Marquis d'Argens, Maupertuis,
and other philosophical friends.



14 Preface.

it in fifteen cantos, others in sixteen and eighteen,
while it has even been extended to twenty-four,
sometimes by dividing one canto into two, or in
making good deficiencies, by the insertion of verses,
which a drunken coachman quitting the public-
house would have disavowed.

Wherefore, beholding Joan in all her purity, we
are fearful of hazarding a bold judgment in giving
the name of the author to whom this epic flight is
attributed. It is sufficient that the reader may be
able to elicit some instruction concerning the moral-
ity concealed under the allegories of the poem; of
what avail is it to ascertain the author? There are
many works which the wise and the learned peruse
with delight, without knowing by whom they were
written. Instance the "Pervigilium Veneris," the
satire under the name of "Petronius" together with
so many others. What gives us infinite consola-
tion is, that there will be found in our "Pucelle"
fewer passages of a bold or free nature, than are
to be met with in all the great Italian writers who

have adopted a similar style.
**********

Neither will there be found in " Joan of Arc " the
same rash flights as are conspicuous in "Ariosto;"
you will not there meet with a Saint John who is
an inhabitant of the moon, and who is made to
say

Gli scrittori amo; e fo il debit o mio
Che at vostro inonjdo, fue scrittore anchio;



Preface. 1 5

E ben convenne al mio lodato Cristo
Render mi guiderdon d'un si gran sorte, etc.

This is jocose, and Saint John takes a liberty
which no Saint of "La Pucelle " would ever think
of hazarding. It should appear that the Saviour
was only indebted for his divinity to the first chapter
of Saint John, and that he was flattered by the
Evangelist ; this discourse savors somewhat of Soci-
nianism,* whereas our discreet author on the con-
trary takes very good care not to fall into a similar
excess.

It is equally a source of great edification for us,
that our modest poet has not imitated any of our
ancient romances, of which the learned Huet, bishop
of Avranches, and Abbe Lenglet, the compiler, have
produced a history. Let any one satisfy himself
with reading "Lancelot du Lac"\ selecting the chap-
ter entitled : " How Lancelot slept with the Queen,
and how Sir Lagant took her back again ; " and
then will appear the purity of our author, when
compared with those of antiquity.



*The Socinians were a sect so called from Selius
Socinus, their author, who was afterwards promoted by
Faustus Socinus at Sienna in 1555. He asserted that Christ
was merely a man, having never had an existence before
Mary. He denied the personality of the Holy Ghost,
Original Sin, Grace, Predestination, the Sacraments and
the immensity of God.

t One of the ancient romances, containing very facetious
matter, which was translated into English, forming one of
the earliest specimens of British typography.



1 6 Preface.

The same is to be said of " The Marvelous History
of Gargantua,"* dedicated to Cardinal Tournon. It
is well known that the chapter of Torche-culs is one
of the most modest contained in the whole work.

We do not here speak of the moderns; we shall
only remark, that all the ancient tales imagined in
Italy and rendered into verse by La Fontaine,f are



* Francis Rabelais, the author of "Pantagruel," was the
son of an apothecary at Chinon, in Touraine, and entered
into the Order of Cordeliers, but on account of an intrigue
was imprisoned in a monastery, from whence, having
effected his escape, he obtained permission of Pope Clement
the Seventh to quit his fraternity. He then studied medi-
cine at Montpellier, became professor in 1531, and was
appointed physician to Cardinal de Bellay, in whose suite
he went to Rome, and upon his return to France was
rewarded with an abbey and the benefice of Meudon.
About this period he published his "Pantagruel" wherein
figures the giant Gargantua, being a comic satire extremely
licentious and obscene. Rabelais died in 1553 at the age of
seventy. He was also the author of some medical works
and numerous letters printed in five volumes.

tjohn de la Fontaine was born at Chateau Thierry in
1621. Having been first educated at Rheims, he afterwards
received instruction under the fathers of the Oratory. He
was a man of singular simplicity of manners, credulous,
fearful, and absent-minded. For some time he resided with
the Intendant Foucquet, from whom he received a pension,
and was afterwards in the service of Princess Henrietta of
England, after which he lived with Madame de la Sabliere,
and died in 1695. La Fontaine's tales are very licentious,
but his fables are placed in the hands of youth, being
extremely natural, poetic and entertaining. He also wrote
a romance called "Les Amours de Psyche," some comedies,
letters, etc., which are printed in his " Miscellanies."



Preface. 17

still less moral than our "Pucelle." Be this, how-
ever, as it may, we most sincerely wish all our grave
critics the delicate sentiments of the lovely Mon-
rose ; to our prudes, if any such there be, the naivete
of Agnes and the tenderness of Dorothy; to our
warriors, the arm of the robust Joan ; to the Jesuits,
a character similar to that of the good Confessor
Bonifoux ; and to all such as keep an open house, the
attentions and savoir faire of Bonneau.

We moreover believe that this little book is an
excellent specific against those humors which at the
present time afflict several ladies and abbes; and
if we should only have rendered such service to the
public, we conceive that our time will not have been

misspent.

Vol. 412



HISTORICAL PROBLEM

RISPECTING

THE EXECUTION OF LA PUCELLE D' ORLEANS.



As it is impossible that any man of common feel-
ing, or who advocates the cause of justice and
humanity, can recur to the untimely fate of Joan of
Arc, as recorded in our Chronicles, without being
impressed by horror and disgust ; inspired by those
sentiments which should lead every true patriot
to endeavor to wipe off an indelible stain that is
attached to the honor of his country, I have thought
it but just to introduce the following statements,
upon which the reader is left to draw his own con-
clusions.

In the year 1683 appeared in the French Mercure
Gallant for the month of November, a letter ad-
dressed to Monsieur de Grammont, which created a
considerable sensation; as the author therein
asserted that Joan of Arc, better known under the
title of La Pucelle d' Orleans, did not suffer death
at the stake in the city of Rouen, upon the 3Oth of
May, 1431, but that having escaped the power of
the English, she was married in 1436 to a gentle-
man of Lorraine, by whom she had children; and
in proof of this assertion he published the extract of

19



2O Historical Problem

a manuscript, which Pere Vignier of the Oratory
discovered at Metz, during a journey he performed
in Lorraine with Monsieur de Ricey, who repaired
thither in the character of Intendant. This manu-
script was subsequently printed under the title of
" The Chronicles of Metz," composed by the Curate
of Saint Thiebaut of the same city, coming down
to the year 1445. Father Calmet had inserted it
among the documents in his " History of Lorraine,"
and from thence it is extracted verbatim, taken
from columns CXXI. and CXXII. of the second
volume. (The French is omitted.)

[English translation. ]

" In the year 1436, Sire Phelepin Marcoulz, was
Prefect of Police of Metz, that same year on the 2Oth
day of May arrived Joan, the Pucelle of France at
la Grange aux Hormes, near Saint Privey, being
led there to speak to some of the noblemen of Metz,
where she assumed the name of Claude, and on the
same day came her two brothers, one of whom, a
chevalier, bore the name of Messire Peter, and the
other, Little John the Esquire, who believed that
she had been burned ; but as soon as they saw her,
they recognized her, as she did them. And upon
Monday, the 2ist of the said month, they conducted
their sister to Bacquillon, where Sir Nicholas Lowe,
Knight, presented her with a mule of the value of
thirty francs, together with its housings, and the
Lord Aubert Boulay gave her a cap, and Sir Nich-



Respecting Jeanne d'Arc. 21

olas Groignart a sword, and the said Pucelle went
forth very dexterously upon the said beast, and
communicated many things to the said Sir Nicholas
Lowe, by which he knew that she had been in
France, being further recognized from many other
circumstances, to be Joan the Maid of France, who
had led King Charles to be crowned at Rheims, and
whom many had stated to have been burned at Rouen
in Normandy, And upon her departure several per-
sons of Metz repaired to see her at the said Marie-
ulle, and presented her with many jewels, and ascer-
tained that she was truly, Joan the Maid of France:
and there was given her by Geoffrey Dex, a horse:
Item, when she was at Arelont, she was always at the
side of Madame de Luxembourg, and great cere-
monials took place until the son of the Count de

Warnenbourg accompanied her to Coullougne

And upon her return to Arelont, the marriage was
performed between Sir Robert de Hermoises,
Knight, and Joan la Pucelle; after which this said
Sieur des Hermoises, with his wife La Pucelle re-
sided in Metz, in the house of Sir Robert des Her-
moises, situated before Saint Segoleine, where they
continued during their pleasure."

This recital is corroborated by the contract of
marriage of Robert des Hermoises with La Pucelle,
which Father Vignier declares to have seen among
the title-deeds of the family of Des Hermoises, and
also in a contract of sale, made by Robert des Her-
moises, Lord of Trichiemont and Jeanne du Lis,



22 Historical Problem

La Pucelle de France, wife of the aforesaid Trichie-
mont, of certain possessions which he had at Har-
ancourt, which contract was dated the 7th of
November, 1436. In short, these circumstances are
further strengthened by the descendants of des Her-
moises boasting themselves in a legitimate line from
La Pucelle. Subsequent to this period, fresh proofs
have been discovered, according to Monsieur Pal-
luche,* in support of the opinion of Father Vignier ;
for, having had occasion to consult the ancient Reg-
isters of the Mansion House of Orleans, that gentle-
man fell by chance upon that of Jacques TArgentier
for the years 1435 and 1436, wherein he found under
the article of the expenditure of the latter, as
follows :

" To Renaud Brune, the twenty-fifth day of July ;
for giving drink to the messenger who brought let-
ters from Jehanne La Pucelle, who was on his way


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