* ' '
STATE OF NEW-HAMPSHIRE,
BY CHARLES T, JACKSON,
CONCORD, N. H.
CYRUS BARTON, STATE PRINTER
OF THE LEGISLATURE AUTHORISING THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
OF THE STATE.
AN ACT to provide for the Geological and Miner alogi-
cal Survey of the State.
SECTION 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in Gen-
eral Court convened, That the Governor of this State is hereby authorized and re-
quired as soon as may be after the passage of this act to appoint a State Geologist,
who shall be a person of competent scientific and practical knowledge of the sci-
ences of Geology and Mineralogy ; and the said State Geologist shall by and with
the consent of the Governor and Council, appoint one suitable person to assist
him in the discharge of his duties, who shall be a skillful, analytical and experi-
SEC. 2. And be it further enacted, That it shall be the duty of the said State
Geologist and his said assistant as soon as may be practicable after their appoint-
ment, to commence and carry on, with as much expedition and despatch as may be
consistent with minuteness and accuracy, a thorough Geological and Mineral-
ogical survey of this State, with a view to determine the order, succession, ar-
rangement, relative position, dip or inclination, and comparative magnitude of the
several strata or geological formations within this State, and to discover and exam-
ine all beds or deposites of ore, coal, clay, marls, and such other mineral sub-
stances as may be useful or valuable, and to perform such other duties as may be
necessary to make a full and complete Geological and Mineralogical survey of the
SEC. 3. And be it further enacted, That it shall be the duty of the said assist-
ant to make full and complete examinations, assays, analyses of all such rocks, ores,
soils or other substances as may be submitted to him by the State Geologist for
that purpose 3 and to furnish him with a detailed and complete account of the re-
SEC. 4. And be it further enacted, That it shall be the duty of the said State
Geologist, on or before the first day of June in each and every year during the time
necessarily occupied by said survey, to make an annual report of the progress of
said survey, accompanied with such maps, drawings and specimens as may be ne-
cessary and proper to exemplify and elucidate the same to the Secretary of the
State who shall lay such report before the Legislature.
SEC. 5. And be it further enacted, That it shall be the duty of the said State
Geologist to cause to be represented on the map of the State by colors and other
appropriate means, the various areas occupied by the different geological forma.
tions in the State, and to mark thereon the localities of the respective beds or de-
posites of the various mineral substances discovered, and on the completion of the
survey to compile a memoir of the Geology and Mineralogy of the State, com-
prising a complete account of the leading subjects and discoveries, which have been
embraced in the survey.
SEC. 6. And be it further enacted, That it shall also be the duty of the said
State Geologist to forward to the Secretary of the State from time to time during
the progress of said survey such specimens of the rocks, ores, coals, soils, fossils
and other mineral substances, discovered and examined, as may be proper and ne-
cessary to form a complete cabinet collection of specimens of Geology and Min-
eralogy of the State 5 and the said Secretary shall cause the same to be deposited
in proper order in some convenient room in the State Capitol, there to be preserv-
ed for public inspection.
SEC. 7. And be it further enacted, That for the purpose of carrying into effect
the provisions of this act, the sum of two , thousand dollars is hereby annually ap-
propriated for the term of three years to be expended under the direction of the
Governor. Provided however, That the salaries of the said State Geologist and
his assistant shall not commence until they shall have entered upon the execution
of their duties ; and upon the completion of said survey and of the duties con-
nected therewith, they shall wholly cease and determine.
MOSES NORRIS, Jr., Speaker of the House of Representatives.
JAMES M'K. WILKINS, President of the Senate.
Approved June 24, 1839.
JOHN PAGE, Governor.
September, 10, 1839.
CHARLES T. JACKSON, was Appointed by the Governor, State Geologist.
December 7, 1840.
J. D. WHITNEY, was Appointed Assistant Geologist.
Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives in General Court con-
vened, That the Secretary of State be directed to procure ten hundred printed
copies of Dr. Jackson's first annual report upon the Geological and Mineralogical
survey of the State, and that said Secretary have the same in readiness for distri-
bution on the first Wednesday of June next.
MOSES NORRIS, Jr., Speaker of the House of Representatives.
JAMES B. CREIGHTON, President of the Senate.
Approved Dec. 10, 1840.
JOHN PAGE, Governor.
IT will not be thought improper, at the commencement
of a Geological Survey of the State, to make a few intro-
ductory remarks concerning the nature and objects of such
a Survey ; for there are many citizens of the State who
are not so fully acquainted with the subject as to be able
to form a just idea of the magnitude and importance of
the work. Those who are familiar with the science and
with the history of such operations, will therefore indulge
us in such elementary explanations as may be needed by
those to whom the Science of Geology is unknown.
A Geological Survey comprises, first, an examination of
the nature and extent of the different kinds of rocks which
form the solid basis of the State. Secondly, an account
of the nature, extent, and economical value of the useful
substances which occur in the earth or in the rocks.
Thirdly, it accounts, in a rational manner, for the phenom-
ena that present themselves in the structure of the rocks
and the associated minerals.
Under these general heads we shall proceed to examine
the different rock formations, their beds and veins of use-
ful minerals, and at the close of our remarks, shall inves-
tigate the nature and capability of soils, and the best
methods of preparing compost manures, which are required
for their most successful cultivation.
arising from, such a Survey being made by
the authority of the State.
Were Geological Surveys made at individual expense,
each person who needed such service employing a geolo-
gist and chemist, the expenditure would amount to an
enormous sum, and the information being of a partial
and local nature, would be very incomplete. When,
however, the cost of the work is defrayed from the pub-
lic treasury, and the surveys carried generally over the
State, the expense to each citizen is so trifling that it be-
comes of little importance, the amount per annum being
less than a cent to each citizen. At the same time a more
full and complete account is obtained of the natural re-
sources of the State, the localities being compared with
each other, so that all unreasonable expectations are check-
ed, and the most important places alone become objects of
economical exploration. Thus when a small deposit on
one farm is alone considered, it might be thought too val-
uable unless compared with one more extensive that
might supersede it and prevent profitable working or one
locality may be more favorably situated, so as to prevent
others from competing with it in the market.
In addition to the above-mentioned advantages, we may
remark that a State Survey is public property, the work
being done by command of the whole people, through
their Representatives, who bring back to them a report of
its results. Thus no one individual is enabled to take ad-
vantage of the ignorance of others, but all fare alike, so
that injurious speculations never result from such surveys,
their tendency being to equalize information so as to pre-
A survey made under the orders of Government is of
the highest authority, and is always considered good evi-
dence respecting the value of the localities which are ex-
plored. The Report is therefore a Document of no small
importance to the citizens of the State. Such Documents
are preserved in the public Archives, and will be referred
to hereafter by posterity, to ascertain the condition of sci-
entific and practical knowledge among their progenitors.
It becomes us, therefore, to carry on such a survey in a
manner commensurate with the magnitude and importance
of its object, so that it may be a faithful record of the
knowledge of the times.
Geological Surveys are called for by the general increase
of knowledge among men ; and that such a call is made,
let us adduce in testimony the fact that no less than twenty
among the twenty-six States of the Union have either made
such Surveys or have them now in progress.
This fact is a most striking commentary on the general
progress of intelligence throughout the country, and the
most decisive evidence of the general belief in the utility
of such explorations.
This state of things is highly creditable to the com-
munity ; and were the results only such as to contribute
to the general advancement of science, the researches
would be highly useful, and the spirit which prompted
them would be regarded as liberal, and as indicative of a
high state of civilization. When we look to the impetus
given to the intellectual powers which are brought to bear
upon so important a subject, the general cultivation of
Geological Science cannot fail to be a matter of congrat-
ulation. Considering these advantages as merely collate-
ral, we may look upon the practically useful results that
have arisen from such surveys as highly important. The
true resources of the country are brought forth and ren-
dered available to all. Not only useful minerals are dis-
covered, and the requisite instructions given for the best
methods of working them, but a vast waste in absurd re-
searches for ores of metals, and for coal, is prevented, by
timely notice of the fact that, in certain localities, such ex-
pectations are vain.
Agriculture also profits from Geological Surveys, by
the analytical reseaches which are made to determine the
nature and composition of soils ; for the Geologist indi-
cates the origin and distribution of the matters which form
their substance, while the Chemist ascertains their exact
Then having discovered the nature of barren and of fer-
tile soils, the best modes of improvement of the poorer
soils are ascertained, and it often happens that the Geolog-
ical Surveyor can point out deposits of natural substances
which are adapted to their amelioration. Thus the dis-
covery of Limestone, Marl, or of Peat and swamp Muck,
is hailed as an important event in the progress of the
By Chemical researches we are enabled to direct the far-
mer how to improve his soils in the most rapid and certain
manner, and how to form the cheapest and most powerful
composts ; for the theory of the management of these mat-
ters is exclusively within the domain of chemistry, and all
is uncertain in the business without a very exact knowl-
edge of that science,
By mutual exchanges of Reports, each State may pos-
sess itself of a knowledge of the condition of the others,
and the General Government may provide itself with a
very valuable mass of statistical information. Each State
as a partner of the Confederation gives an account of its
resources, and it will be seen what peculiar advantages
they possess, so that any person wishing to change his
residence may act understandingly, knowing what he
can enjoy at home or elsewhere.
To the capitalist such information is of inestimable val-
ue, since he may learn where he can make the most profit-
able investments, and the value of each section of country
will be properly appreciated.
Statistical information concerning the resources of each
State tends to increase its credit, both at home and abroad.
Geology has done much to remove ancient errors and
prejudices, and has substituted rational information in their
stead. Rarely do we hear of the magical divining rod by
which swindlers gulled the ignorant. Nor do we so fre-
quently hear of coal mines in Granite rocks, or that Iron
Pyrites or Yellow Mica are mistaken for Gold, Silver, or
All now understand that science and labor can alone re-
veal to us the existence of valuable minerals, and that the
rules of the art are founded on observation and experience,
guided by the light of science.
Annual Reports will be made, giving an account of the
progress of the work ; and when the Survey is completed,
or is in a sufficiently forward state to warrant the at-
tempt, a general or complete Report will be drawn up, il-
lustrated by an atlas containing a colored Geological Map,
with sectional profiles, shewing the situation of the rocks,
elevations and depressions of the surface of the country,
and a few lithographic drawings of remarkable and inter-
esting scenery. Where required, we shall also give plans
of mines, furnaces, lime kilns, and such other diagrams as
may be useful.
A vast amount of labor is yet to be performed before
these illustrations can be drawn up in a manner that would
be creditable to the State and to the Surveyor. Many sec-
tions are already drawn, but they would be incomprehen-
sible before the completion of the Geological Map, on
which the limits of the rocks are to be delineated.
In the Chemical department we have been most dili-
gently employed during the winter, and the present Re-
port will contain a mass of important information concer-
ning the composition of metalliferous ores, minerals, and
soils. No one, unless familiar with Analytical Chemistry r
can form a just idea of the difficulty of such work, and of
the amount of labor which has been performed.
During the survey a great number of Astronomical
measurements were made to determine the latitudes and
longitudes of places in the State. These observations
were required for the projection of a true map, and will be
reported when the map is completed. Barometrical ob-
servations have been made in various parts of the State,
along our lines of sections and by comparison with the
observations made at Portsmouth at the same hours, we
are enabled to calculate the heights of each place where
we had observed our instruments.
In order to have these measurements made correctly,
Mr. Brewster of Portsmouth, kindly volunteered, to observe
a Barometer which had been compared with ours. His ta-
bles are herewith presented. Prof. Young of Dartmouth
College, also agreed to assist us by keeping a record of his
Barometer and Thermometer at stated times. He has
presented us with his results, which will be appended to
this report. If suitable care is taken Barometrical meas-
urements may be made with sufficient exactness for all
practical purposes in Geology for the extremes of error
would not be visible on a sectional profile, since the finest
hair line would cover them. We occasionally resort to
the Theodolite or to the Sextant and artificial horizon
in order to measure the height of a mountain, but after
long experience find that more dependence can be placed
on the Barometer, for atmospheric refraction varies so
much in a mountainous country, that the images of moun-
tains are constantly varying in height as seen through the
Telescope of any instrument for Trigonometrical meas-
Observations on the variation of the magnetic needle
have been made in several parts of the State, and they
will be continued as we find time to attend to the subject.
The dip of the magnetic needle will also be observed in
the valleys and on the summits of mountains, as well as in
each county of the State. These observations will prove
valuable to the land surveyors, who use the Circumfereri-
ter in their work.
During the past summer, I was assisted in the survey by
my pupils, Messrs. J. D. Whitney, Moses B. Williams and
E. Baker, who generously volunteered their services to
the State, and paid their own expenses while employed
in the work. Mr. Baker travelled with me, and his la-
bors are necessarily incorporated with mine. Messrs.
Williams and Whitney engaged to measure sectional pro-
files across the State in two diagonals, and have accom-
plished their work in a satisfactory mariner. Their report
on the routes which they pursued, will be herewith ap-
pended, and the sectional profiles will appear hereafter.
At the close of the field-work we arranged the speci-
mens of minerals that had been collected, in the State
House at Concord, where they will remain for the use ot
Three entire suits of specimens are put up in the Cabi-
net, and I would respectfully suggest that one set be sent
to the Portsmouth Athenaeum, and one to Dartmouth Col-
lege, the remaining portion being sufficient for the use of
When we had effected the arrangement of the minerals,
Mr. Whitney was appointed my assistant in the Labora-
tory. He has been assiduously engaged with me in the
analysis of the minerals and soils of New Hampshire. We
have also been aided by Mr. Williams, as a volunteer.
The latter gentleman is to aid us as Assistant Geologist in
the field during the next summer.
I am happy in saying that wherever we have travelled
in New Hampshire, we have been invariably received with
kindness, and every attention has been shewn us that could
have been desired. Not unfrequently the towns had, be-
fore our arrival, appointed committees to aid us in the work,
and sometimes a large number of citizens have gone forth
with us among the mountains, to assist in collecting spe-
cimens of minerals for examination.
ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF GEOLOGY.
SUPER-POSITION OF ROCKS.
The rocks which form the crust of the earth have been
examined by Geologists, who have classified them accord-
ing to their order of super-position and origin, or by their
mineral and fossil contents. Occasionally it has been
thought proper to designate certain groups of rocks by
names referring to localities, where it was supposed
their most characteristic features were presented. f
Some rocks have evidently been in a melted state, and
were erupted from the interior of the globe : others were
deposited by water, which held the particles of pre-exis-
tent rocks in suspension, or more rarely in solution. Some
of the rocks which were originally deposited by water,
subsequently underwent changes in structure and compo-
sition, by the influence of heat proceeding from the erup-
Hence we have rocks produced by fire which are desig-
nated as of igneous origin, Plutonic or erupted rocks, while
those which were deposited by water are styled rocks of
aqueous or Neptunian origin, and those deposited by water,
and subsequently changed in structure by fire, are named
Another method has also been proposed, namely, to di-
vide rocks into two great classes, without reference to any
14 ROCK FORMATIONS.
theory of their origin j and those two classes are the un-
stratified and the stratified rocks. The unstratified rocks
generally are those of igneous origin, while those which
are stratified were deposited by water.
At or near their junction, we find the altered or metam-
This method is a very good one for the general groups,
but more details are required for the full elucidation of the
characters of the subordinate divisions.
If we consider the rock called Gneiss as a point of de-
parture, we shall find above it all the stratified rocks ar-
ranged in their order of deposition ; and below it we have
the unstratified rocks, and the matter which produced
By upheaving force the matters forming the unstratified
rocks burst open the gneiss and many of the strata resting
upon it, and the molten rock pushed up from below, filled
the chasms, or flowed through them and spread on their
surface. It is easy, then, by ascertaining what strata were
burst open by veins or dykes, to determine with some de-
gree of accuracy their comparative age.
The term formation is applied in Geology to designate
groups of rocks, formed under certain conditions of the
globe, or their relative ages. Thus we have the primary
formation or rocks that, were first produced. They are
regarded as the oldest in the series, and were produced
anterior to the existence of animals or plants, no traces of
organized beings having ever been discovered in them.
It is supposed that the earth at the epoch of their forma-
tion was not in a suitable condition to allow of the exist-
ence of living beings on its surface.
ROCK FORMATIONS. 15
The rocks belonging to this group are generally of a
crystalline character, and bear the impress of igneous ac-
tion. Resting upon the primary group, is the next class
of rocks, originally named by Lehman, the secondary for-
mation, but subsequently Werner proposed to designate
the lower series by the name of transition, indicating that
they formed a gradation from the primary to the seconda-
ry, or that the world was undergoing a transition from an
uninhabitable to a habitable state, for in these rocks we find ,
the first remains of organized beings. There has been
much discussion as to the propriety of this term, and ma-
ny Geologists prefer to omit it and to return to the numer-
ical arrangement proposed by Lehman, calling the transi-
tion rocks the older secondary. This method has the ad-
vantage of keeping the numerical names of the upper
formations, as they now are, allowing the general introduc-
tion of such an arrangement is to be adopted.
The older secondary or transition rocks were deposited
by water, and were originally in the condition of fine
mud, sand and gravel at the bottom of the sea. This
must be evident from the fact that the perfect forms of
marine shells and crustaceous animals are preserved in its
mass. The fossils called Trilobites are characteristic of
This group of rocks extends as high as the coal meas-
ures, or the rocks which contain coal.
We then reach the upper secondary group, which ex-
tends to the top of the chalk deposits. The secondary
rocks are filled with an infinity of organic remains,
both of animals and vegetables. In this formation our vast
deposits of bituminous coals and anthracites occur, over-
laid and underlaid by shales containing impressions and
casts of numerous plants, analogous to the genera which
grow only within the tropics, but whose species, like all
those embedded in this and the older rocks are extinct.
16 ROCK FORMATIONS.
Over the coal formation, we find the new red sandstone,
lias limestone, oolite and wealden rocks and chalk. At
this point the secondary formation ceases, and another
class is formed, which consist of clay, calcareous sand and
marl, the strata of which are filled with myriads of ma-
rine and fresh water shells, and with the remains of plants
and of animals of the higher orders.
This deposit is called the tertiary formation. The ter-
tiary rests upon any kind of rock that happened to be up-
permost at the epoch of its deposition.
The primary formation appears to compose the principal
portion of the State, so far as the rocks of New-Hamp-
shire have been examined. In some limited districts,
we have found altered argillaceous slates belonging to the
Cambrian System of Prof. Sedgwick.
Intruded dykes of greenstone trap, also abound.
A few limited patches of tertiary, a deposit of clay con-
taining marine shells, also occur in the vinicity of Ports-
The primary rocks frequently contain veins and beds of
limestones and metalliferous ores. The stratified rocks of
this class, are always highly inclined to the horizon, the
angle of the dip being from 40 to 80 degrees.
Owing to this uptilted state of the strata, it is easy to
inspect the order of superposition, and to discover the dif-
ferent veins and beds which are included in the rock. This
position also aifords admirable facilities for measuring the
thickness of the strata.