1884 numbers of the Bay state monthlyBe the first and subjects of first 10 volumes and List of por.

The Granite monthly, a New Hampshire magazine, devoted to literature, history, and state progress (Volume 53) online

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experimental machines. This in- the two younger sons are still in

terest continued in spite of the fact the University of California,
that Benjamin Holt himself realiz-



SPRING

By Martha S. Baker.

A vanished joy, my garden, erstwhile gay,
The autumn frost had swept it ghost-like, sere,
No trace of perfume freighted blossoms near,
No dew drenched roses rare, naught but decay,
Where brigand bees sought sweets are dead stalks grey ;
The wailing winds' discordant dirge, a jeer;
Depressive, desolate the scene so drear;
Death's icy hand has had its way.

But hark ! The Spring's clear call, " 'Tis time to wake,"

Behold a bit of blue on flashing wing;

The captive streams released rush reckless on ;

The crocus starts its upward way to take ;

Triumphant paeans nature's voices sing,

For Life in conflict over death has won.



THE BEGINNINGS OF A GREAT
NEW HAMPSHIRE INDUSTRY

By George B. Up ham.

The Sullivan Machinery Company now has offices in Boston, New York, Pittsburgh, Knox-
ville, St. Louis. Cleveland, Duluth, Dallas, Joplin. Denver, Spokane, EI Paso, Salt Lake,
San Francisco; and agents in other industrial and mining centers in the United States; also in
Toronto, Vancouver. Mexico City, Santiago in Chile, and Lima in Peru. In the old world it
maintains headquarters at London and Paris and before the war had a flourishing branch in
Petrograd. A branch has been maintained for many years in Sydney, Australia, and the com-
pany's representatives are selling Sullivan mining machinery in Japan, India, The Federated
Malay States, and South Africa.

Sullivan machinery for excavating rock in mines, tunnels and quarries, for compressing
air, for prospecting for minerals, and for mining coal is found in every part of the world
where these industries are carried on. Tins article tells of the small, yet interesting, begin-
nings of this New Hampshire industry.

The establishment of the machine occupied by his descendants. Al-
business in Claremont, N. H., which though without mechanical train-
later became the Sullivan Machine- ing Air. Upham was always intense-
ry Company, was due to the enter- ly interested in machinery, es-
prise of James Phineas Upham, pecially in new and useful improve-
who made a beginning there short- ments.

ly after his graduation from Dart- A little machine shop with a small

mouth College in 1850. How he foundry was then in existence on a

crane to be born and to live in Clare- part of the present site of the Sul-

mont may be told in a few words, livan Machinery Co., in Claremont.

involving an interesting and little Mr. Upham bought it in 1851. It

realized fact in American history. was at first carried on in the name

In the later years of the eigh- of Mr. Upham's bookkeeper and
teenth century the Upper Connecti- known as "D. A. Clay & Co."
cut river valley was to the settled When additions to the buildings and
communities of Southern New Eng- machinery had been made, in 1854,
land what the middle west be- it was dignified by the name "Clare-
came to all New England half mont Machine Works." Among its
a century later. Enterprising products then advertised were "En-
people went there, "to grow up with gine lathes of 4 sizes and the latest
the country." Mr. Upham's father, patterns," "Iron Planers of a new
George Baxter Upham, after grad- and desirable style," "Paper Mill
uation at Harvard in 1789, saddled Machines' and Circular Saw Mills,
his horse, rode north from Brook- the best in use. These mills will
field, Mass., settled at Claremont saw 1,000 feet of boards per hour,
and there began the practice of the We are now filling orders for them
law, which he continued throughout for the great pine timber regions in
Western New Hampshire for forty Minnesota." The "Tuttle Water
years. He founded the first bank Wheel," was another product,
in Claremont, and was elected to which, however, was soon super-
Congress for several terms, riding to seded by the "Tyler Turbine W r ater
and from Washington on horse- Wheel," invented by John Tyler, a
back. He died in 1848. His son, resident of Claremont. The latter
after graduation from Dartmouth, wheel was extensively manufactur-
returned to Claremont and bought ed by the Claremont Machine
lands on the slopes of Barbers Works and its successors for a third
Mountain and bordering on the of a century.
Connecticut River which are still In 1856 this wheel was exhibited



142



THE GRANITE MONTHLY



at the Crystal Palace in New York
and received the highest prize medal
awarded to water wheels. More
than three thousand were manufac-
tured by the Claremont Machine
Works and its successors, some
made in sections to be carried up
into the Andes and other moun-
tainous districts on muleback.

The Claremont Machine Works
at about the same time also receiv-
ed the highest premiums awarded
at the Crystal Palace in New York
for engine lathes and planers. The
Tyler water wheel was to be found
in almost every state and territory
of the Union. For many years in



At about this early p;eriod the
business was recorded as having an
invested capital of $15,000 and em-
ploying thirty men, probably an
understatement of both.

About 1860 Mr. Upham, contin-
uing to be the sole owner, changed
the name to J. P. Upham & Co.
During the sixties the manufacture
of the Tyler Water Wheel was con-
tinued in large numbers ; thousands
of water wheel regulators were
built, and lines of agricultural ma-
chinery were added, among which
were the "Clipper Mowing Ma-
chine;" the "Lufkin Side Hill
11 ugh," one of the early, improv-




The Sullivan Machine Company in 1869.



competitive tests at various places
these water wheels showed the high-
est percentage of efficiency for the
amount of water used.

As early as 1854 the "Works"
were fitted out with "A Large
Chucking Lathe having a swing of
6 ft. 9 in. and adapted to the heavi-
est work," with "Boring and Screw
Cutting Machines, and Gear Cutters
for all kinds of machinery." All
work sent out was warranted. Thus
early did the predecessors of the
Sullivan Machinery Company es-
tablish the principle of standing be-
hind its work.



ed reversible ploughs ; the "Colby
Cultivator and Harrow," a pre-
decessor of the disc harrow now in
common use ; and the "Hunt Sulky
Plough," believed to have been the
first of that type.

On an afternoon in May, 1868,
Mr. Upham was pruning apple
trees near the highway, leading up
the Connecticut River valley and
known in colonial days as the "Great
Road." (See Granite Monthly for
February, 1920.) Two strangers
driving in a light "buggy" stopped,
inquired where Mr. Upham lived
and on learning that Mr. Upham



A GREAT NEW HAMPSHIRE INDUSTRY



143



was speaking to them, hitched their
horse to a tree and talked with him
for an hour or more ; they on the
outside, he on the inside of the
moss grown stone wall, a broad
stone serving as a desk for the ex-
hibition of sketches and for mathe-
matical calculations. The writer,
then a boy, looked on with interest.
The strangers were Albert Ball and
Roger W. Love from Windsor, Ver-
mont, seven miles up the river.
They brought with them sketches



come well known throughout the
world, it seems worth while to re-
late the circumstances which
brought the three together.

The historic village of Windsor
for more than half a century had
been the scene of much interest-
ing mechanical development. Pro-
fessor Roe's able work on "English
and American Tool Builders" (Yale
University Press) begins with a
description of the tool made for
boring the cylinder of Watt's first




^HMimTigETiniD 1



Works of Sullivan Machinery Company, 1921.



of a newly invented and patented
diamond channeling machine for
quarrying stone, especially marble.
An agreement to build this machine
was made then and there, and this
interview over the old stone wall
may be truly said to have been the
inception of the Sullivan Machinery
Company as an organization devot-
ed especially to the construction of
rock cutting and mining machinery.
Since the meeting of these three
men resulted in the organization of
a corporation and the establishment
of a business which has since be-



steam engine, 1769, and continues
down to 1915. Of its 294 pages
about one-eighth are devoted to
mechanical developments at Wind-
sor, Vt. Had this book attempt-
ed to tell of all the inventions that
originated and were developed in
that little village every page of it
would have been required for the
purpose.

In 1863 an enterprising New
Englander, Mr. E. G. Lamson, was
engaged in the manufacture of
machinery in Windsor. Mr. Lam-
son was a somewhat restless per-



144



THE GRANITE MONTHLY



son who travelled much and
was possessed of boundless energy.
Of a decidedly inquiring turn of
mind, he made acquaintances every-
where, under all circumstances.
Had he not possessed these charac-
teristics the Sullivan Machinery
Company might never have existed.
Among other products of Mr.
Lamson's establishments were sew-
ing machines and sewing machine
needles, for which he required a




Albert Ball,

Chief Mechanical Engineer of Sullivan
Machinery Co., for nearly 50 years.

small but extremely accurate engine
lathe. Albert Ball, born at Boyls-
ton, Mass., in 1835, and at the time
in question employed by L. W.
Pond in Worcester, had built such
a lathe for his own personal use.

Mr. Lamson, learning of this fact
from a fellow passenger, straight-
way repaired to Worcester, found
Mr. Ball and ordered two such
lathes. Mr. Ball had been making



fine screws for a fire-arm then
manufactured by his employers.
To see almost any piece of mechan-
ism was sufficient to suggest to his
mind an improvement. He con-
structed a combined repeating and
single loading gun. Mr. Lamson
saw it and then and there bought
the patent rights, at the same time
engaging Mr. Ball to go to Wind-
sor to further develop his inven-
tion and to superintend the manu-
facture.

In the spring of 1866, while riding
in a railway train north from New
York to Windsor, Mr. Lamson with
unerring eye selected a seat beside
a man who, it developed, was on his
way to St. Johnsbury, Vt., to make
arrangements for the manufacture
of an improved stone channeling
machine. Mr. Lamson soon con-
vinced his new acquaintance that
there was no need to travel so far
north, and that the place for which
he was really destined was Windsor.
The negotiations with him fell
through, but Mr. Lamson, his mind
started in that direction, was de-
termined to build a stone channeler.
He directed Mr. Ball to make the
working drawings upon the princi-
ple used in a certain trip-hammer.
After investigation the latter re-
ported that if so built it would in-
fringe upon the patents of the
friend of the railway car, whereup-
on Mr. Lamson said, somewhat
sharply, "You attend to the work-
ing drawings, I'll attend to patents."

On another railway journey a
few months later Mr. Lamson seat-
ed himself beside a clergyman, a
Mr. Love, who had recently in-
herited $40,000. Mr. Lamson soon
discovered that fact with the con-
sequence that this money was in-
vested in his stone channeler. The
United States Circuit Court was
unkind to Mr. Lamson in this ad-
venture. The clergyman's invest-
ment proved a permanent one.



A GREAT NEW HAMPSHIRE INDUSTRY



145



Fearing that not all was as he had
hoped, the Rev. Mr. Love sent his
son, Roger, graduate of Brown
University, a recently discharged
soldier who had been present fight-
ing throughout the siege of Charles-
ton, to Windsor to investigate. Mr.
Lamson generously offered the
young man a position as accountant
in his office.

Roger Love saw the stone chan-
neled then under the cloud of an




James Phineas Upham,

Predecessor and Founder of the

Sullivan Machinery Company.

injunction for patent interference,
and conceived the idea of channeling
stone by boring intersecting holes
with diamond drills operated in
gangs. Mr. Love was not a me-
chanic, so Mr. Ball, outside of
working hours, draughted a machine
developing the idea. Mr. Lamson
heard of this and sharply repri-
manded him. The resignation of
both and the interview with Mr.
Upham over the stone wall prompt-



ly followed. Thus were these three
men brought} together, and thus
came into existence the Sullivan
Machine Company.

It is of interest to note the con-
sequences of Mr. Ball's improve-
ment in rifles. The U. S. Govern-
ment contracted for two thousand
of them, but about the time they
were completed the Civil War end-
ed. The Windsor Company then
had five hundred rifles on hand. A
wide awake German saw one of
them in New York, bought the
entire lot and shipped them to
Prussia. The government of that
belligerent autocracy immediately
reproduced them, with some modi-
fications, in enormous numbers.
With this superior arm Prussia was
then prepared to go out and steal
something from her neighbors.
She promptly did so. Defeating
Austria and her allies, who had no
repeating rifles, at the battle of
Sadowa in July, 1866. she practical-
ly annexed not only Schleswig,
Holstein and Hanover in the north,
but also some half dozen South
German states which had been the
allies of Austria. Thus was the
inventive genius of the man who
was to be for nearly half a century
chief mechanical engineer of the
Sullivan Machinery Company un-
wittingly a cause of Prussia's mili-
tary ascendancy. The Ball repeat-
ing rifle is an acknowledged pro-
genitor of the Winchester and other
leading repeating rifles. Mr. Ball
was also, in 1863, the inventor of
the cartridge greasing machine
which, with little change, is every-
where in general use today.

Work was begun upon the dia-
mond chaneling machine as soon
as the working drawings could be
prepared. It was completed Aug-
ust, 1868, operated upon blocks of
marble on an outdoor platform
where the shipping room of the
factory is now, and first tried in the
quarries of the Sutherland Falls



146



THE GRANITE MONTHLY



Marble Co. (now Proctor, Vt.) in
September, 1868.

On January 18, 1869, the Sullivan
Machine Company was organized
under New Hampshire laws. The
name Sullivan was that of the
county in which the business was
carried on, which had been named
for the intrepid General John Sulli-
van, who with General Stark had
shared the principal honors of New
Hampshire in the Revolution.

The incorporators were James P.
Upham of Claremont, Roger W.
Love and Albert Ball of Windsor,
Horace T. Love and Edwin T. Rice
of New York City. The purposes
were "carrying on a General Found-
ry and Machine business, including
the development of inventions and
the holding and management of
Patents relating to Machinery."
The capital stock w.as fixed at
$200,000.

At the first meeting held on
February 6, 1869, the five incor-
porators were elected directors.
James P. Upham was elected presi-
dent, an office held by him for
twenty-three years ; Roger W. Love,
Treasurer, and Albert Ball, Super-
intendent and Mechanical Engineer.
Mr. Love and Mr. Ball came to
reside in Claremont in the spring
of 1869.

In February, 1872, John Henry
Elliot of Keene, N. H., who for
years had been a personal friend
of Mr. Upham, invested $50,000 in
the business, taking unissued stock
at par to that amount ; he was im-
mediately elected a director in
place of Horace T. Love, and re-
mained a director until his death in
1895.

A few words respecting the
characteristics of the early officers
of this company. Mr. Upham was
public spirited, enterprising, genial
and ever ready to aid in all im-
provements. Mr. Elliott had back-
ed with rare judgment numerous
successful enterprises in New



Hampshire ; a sparkling wit and an
effervescent humor made associa-
tion with him a continued delight.
Mr. Ball's chief characteristics were
and are an extreme modesty and a
quick perception of how to accom-
plish any desired operation by
mechanical means. Mr. Love in
personal appearance and cerebral
activity was keen as a razor. Mr.
Rice, a learned and highly cultured
lawyer, was counsel for the com-
pany.




Sullivan Diamond Gadder with boiler,
1870 or 1871.

The first diamond channeler, com-
pleted in August, 1868, was a six
spindle, variable .speed core drill,
movable on a track with a guaging
device to space the holes, and opera-
tive at any angle. It was soon
found that the cores caused dif-
ficulty by breaking and jamming in
the rods, and an obtuse angle, co-
nical, solid head iwas substituted
for an annular head, with at first
four, later two, holes for the escape
of the water to clear the detritus.
Black diamonds were then cheap,
costing only $3.50 per carat. They
now cost $100 per carat.



A GREAT NEW HAMPSHIRE INDUSTRY



147



The diamonds, known in the trade
as "carbon," are black, brown, or
dark gray in color, with a dull
lustre. They have no such cleav-
age as the white diamonds, so do
not split or crumble on rotation
of the drill. They are found in
gravel and almost exclusively with-
in an area of a few hundred square
miles in the province of Bahia,
Brazil. The largest one ever found
there, in 1895, weighed 3,150 carats.
The large ones are, however, rela-
tively less valuable than the small-
er sized, since much labor is re-
quired and some loss .sustained in
reducing them to fragments of
suitable size for drill heads. Black
diamonds are not beautiful, looking
much like small bits of coal ; but,
next to radium, they are by weight
perhaps the most costly commercial
commodity this planet affords.
Aside from use in rock boring they
are used only in cutting and polish-
ing brilliants.

About twelve diamonds were
set in each head. They averaged
about three-sixteenths of an inch in
diameter, about nine-tenths of each
diamond being embedded in the
steel. At the periphery they at
first projected slightly beyond the
circumference of the head. This
channeler made wall cuts at any
desired angle, which no other
machine was capable of doing.

The first channeler was never
sold, but used on contract work in
Vermont marble quarries and for
a time on red sandstone at Portland,
Conn. The channeling price was
at first $1.25 per square foot, later
reduced to seventy-five cents. The
second was sold to the Columbian
Marble Co. and used in its quarries
near Sutherland Falls, Vt. The
third was sold to the owners of
the old Prime Quarry at Brandon,
Vt.

In 1871 the six spindle machine
was superseded by the two or three
spindle channeler, which remained



in use for many years until the
high price of "carbon," black
diamonds, proved prohibitive. The
thousands of square feet of semi-
circular drill holes on the walls of
stone and marble quarries in Ver-
mont and other states attest the
extensive use of the diamond chan-
neling machines made by the
Sullivan Machine Company.

The drills sank into the marble
at the astonishing rate of eight to
ten inches per minute when run at
the usual speed of 800 to 1,000
revolutions. A depth of one inch
to a hundred revolutions could be
depended upon in average marble.
The wear on the diamonds, even
after long periods of service, was
almost imperceptible unless flint or
quartz had been encountered, or
nuts, or bolts dropped into incom-
plete channels. when, although
nine-tenths imbedded in the
hardened steel, the diamonds were
sometimes ripped bodily from their
setting without being otherwise
injured.

These channelers were so far in
advance of all other machines that
they became indispensable and
elicited the highest praise from
many of the best known quarrymen
who wrote as follows : "The great
labor saving machine of the age ;"
"Without it we cannot successfully
compete with our rivals in the
trade ;" "Does work hitherto re-
garded as impossible to be done by
machinery."

In 1869 the company built its first
"Gadder," a single spindle, solid
head diamond drill, used for drilling
shallow holes beneath the marble
block to split it from its bed. One
machine accomplished more and
better work than the hand labor of
twenty men. In January, 1872,
Redfield Proctor, afterwards Gov-
ernor, Secretary of War and U. S.
Senator from Vermont, wrote ; "We
have owned and worked two of
your Gadding Machines for several



148



THE GRANITE MONTHLY



years and find them admirably
adapted for the work required, and
not often out of repair, though in
almost constant use."

On January 1, 1872 the superin-
tendent of the Rutland Marble Co.
wrote; "We have used your 'Gad-
der' for two years. It has no rival
and is the only practical mechanical
appliance for its especial work
within my knowledge. It is in-
valuable because the work done by
it is so much cheaper and better
than by hand labor."




H







Sullivan Diamond Channeler at Work,
and Wall Cut By It.

It should be stated that prior to
the invention of the diamond chan-
neler all channels cut in stone by
machinery had been made wholly
by concussion, by the successive
blows of heavy steel cutters ; and
that with the then crude mechanism
for operating such cutters break
downs, caused by the continuous
jar, were of frequent occurrence.
The blows also strained and some-
times cracked the marble.



The credit for the first applica-
tion of the diamond to a rock
cutting tool belongs to M. Her-
mann, a Frenchman, whose draw-
ings, accompanying a patent issued
in France in 1842, showed various
forms of boring tools whose cutting
edges were diamonds. It does not
however, appear that the idea had
ever been put to a practical use in
the country where it originated.
In 1863 another Frenchman, Ru-
dolph Leschot, took out an Ameri-
can patent for one form of diamond
cutter shown in the drawings of
Hermann, which consisted of arm-
ing the lower edge of a metallic
ring with diamonds slightly pro-
jecting beyond the periphery.

Leschot's patent was bought by
an American company which is not
know to have engaged in 'much,
if any, business other than in pro-
secuting a suit against the Sullivan
Company. This litigation was
long, tedious and expensive, in-
volving the taking of much testi-
mony in France and Mr. Upham's
presence there for many months.
The validity of the Leschot patent
was finally established so far as it
covered the circumferential pro-
jection of the diamonds.

Long before the decision was
rendered it had been discovered by
the Sullivan Company that such
projection was not only unneces-
sary, but a positive disadvantage.
With the diamonds set flush the in-
evitable slight eccentricity in the
revolution of the head gave all
necessary clearance, the drills run-
ning steadier and with less wear.

This article will some time be
continued giving an account of
some of the deep diamond drill bor-
ings made by the Sullivan Company
in South Africa and other places,
where it has brought up "cores,"
i.e.. stone rods, showing the charac-
ter of the metaliferous rock all
the way down for considerably
more than a mile in depth. The



A GREAT NEW HAMPSHIRE INDUSTRY 149

Sullivan Machinery Company is tractor for diamond drilling in the
still the largest manufacturer of world,
diamond drills and the largest con-



I WANT TO SING

By Grace Stuart Orcutt.

1 want to sing

Of earth's unbosoming ,

Of springing rills and modest woodland flowers ;

Of greening moss and thudding summer showers ;

Of arbutus and curling fiddle heads ;

Of dead leaves massed and broken into shreds.

1 want to sing

Of creatures on the wing;
Of pudgy moths that beat the glass at night ;
Of fireflies that make the swamp alight ;
Of dusky shadows darting here and there,
The flitter-mouse that scarcely moves the air.

I want to sing

The joy the thrushes bring;

Up toward the mountain's wood encircled top
Sonatas on the world below they drop ;
From peak to peak each to the other cries,
They trill their oratorios through the skies.

I want to sing

Of clouds and coloring;

Where far flung sunset's pinkest afterglow

Shines in the water at the wharf below.

Or lingers soft upon an Alpine peak,

Like patchwork clings behind Sardinia bleak.

I want to sing

And make the song to ring

In every land, in every heart benign ;

I want to touch one chord that is divine ;

I want to make one soul reach out and say :
" 'Tis good, 'tis good, that you have sung today."



THE ORIGIN OF THE SHAKERS



By Nicholas Briggs



In the year 1668 there occurred
amongst the Huguenots in Dau-
phine and adjacent territory in
France, a most peculiar religious
revival, increasing in intensity un-



Online Library1884 numbers of the Bay state monthlyBe the first and subjects of first 10 volumes and List of porThe Granite monthly, a New Hampshire magazine, devoted to literature, history, and state progress (Volume 53) → online text (page 16 of 57)