1884 numbers of the Bay state monthlyBe the first and subjects of first 10 volumes and List of por.

The Granite monthly, a New Hampshire magazine, devoted to literature, history, and state progress (Volume 53) online

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Online Library1884 numbers of the Bay state monthlyBe the first and subjects of first 10 volumes and List of porThe Granite monthly, a New Hampshire magazine, devoted to literature, history, and state progress (Volume 53) → online text (page 2 of 57)
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places and those were the ones that
most needed it. This additional
supervision costs someone about
$70,000. The law provides for pay-
ing for all supervision in the state
by a $2-per-child tax. This method
distributes the expense so that the
more favored centers, to some ex-
tent, aid in bearing the burden of
less favored communities. Ex-
perience has proven that $2 is not
enough for this purpose unless the
salaries of the superintendents are
to be reduced. The State Board
decided that men having such im-
portant work to do should be men
who are worth $2,000, — should be
men of that size. The law permits
the districts or unions to increase
this sum by bearing one-half the
increase themselves. The fact that
every union in the state has itself
increased this minimum salary, en-
tirely relieves the State Board of any
criticism that they are too high.

You have a right, if you desire,
to amend the law making the dis-
tricts pay all the increase, or you
may reduce the minimum if you
desire. But in doing so you are
sending cheaper men into these im-
portant fields to feed the minds of
future Americans. There are sixty-
four supervisory unions. The
salaries amounted last year to
$186,596, which was about $40,000
in excess of the receipts from the
$2 tax. The State Board collects
the tax and pays the superintendents
who were formerly paid from the
city or town treasuries.

The "equalization" feature of the
law is as large as you care to make
it. Many poor towns cannot have
decent schools unless the state aids
them- Last year $283,000 was used
for this purpose. This amount
does very good work. I note that
the Board this year suggests
$400,000. This would do excellent
work. It is your problem.

The actual additional expense for

administering the department is
only about "$15,000 more than the
old system of administration.

The State Board carried on with-
out interruption the work of the
former Department of Public In-
struction, including the direction of
the two normal schools, the admini-
stration of the child labor and
mother's aid laws, and the inspec-
tion and approval of high schools.

The state aid has made possible
a thirty-six-week year for all chil-
dren, giving 6500 rural school chil-
dren at least four weeks more of
schooling than tlhe districts have
ever been able to give them before.

The Board has caused 526 of the
1117 school buildings in use to be
improved or remodeled along better

It has formulated and put into
operation plans for the systematic
improvement of the health of school
children. It has brought to clinics
117 children. It has extended health
supervision until it has reached 98
per cent of our public school chil-

It has been able to so combine
the districts of the state into super-
visory unions that economical super-
vision is for the first time possible.
It has employed well trained and
experienced superintendents for all

For the first time it has certified
or licensed all teachers in our pub-
lic] schools. It has improved the
quality of instruction by accepting
as teachers only those who meet
fixed standards of education and
training. The morale of the pro-
fession has been improved.

It has brought Americanization
ideals to thousands of foreign-born
and has increased the attendance at
evening schools from 1500 to 6000.

It has secured co-operative work-
ing relations with the parochial
schools of the Roman Catholic
church and with other private
schools, and has sympathetically


inspected and reported on all such
schools. I officially commend this
patriotic co-operation.

It has accomplished these results
in a period of advancing costs at a
total increase in expense to state
and districts of about 21 per cent.

The worst abuse of advancing
costs is in connection with the law
compelling the transportation of
school children. The total cost of
all transportation of pupils in the
state in 1916 was $90,000, but by
1920 it had increased to $195,000.
There must be some wrong here
somewhere. For your information
only, I quote a few other figures.
The total cost of all schools in the
state in 1916 was $2,285,000, in 1918
it was $3,248,000, and in 1920 it was
$3,960,000, or a gain in two years
of about 21 percent as compared
with the gain of about 42 percent
for the preceding two years. The
total cost of all teachers in the
state was $1,269,000 in 1916, and
$2,071,000 in 1920. Janitors' salari-
es increased from $100,000 to $175,-
000, text books from $55,000 to
$81,000, fuel, light and incidentals
from $128,000 to $248,000.

The cost of all schools in the
state in 1920 averaged approximate-
ly $7 on a thousand on all taxable
property in the state. But there
were almost shocking differences,
however, in the different towns and
cities. Some raised only $3.50.
while others raised as high as $12
on a thousand. These conditions
which are being revealed under the
careful study of the board open up
new problems. I think our present
system is best calculated to solve
them. The fact that the total
school expense in the entire state
increased only 21 per cent under
the new board in the past two
years as against at least 50 percent
increase in the cost of living, and
as against 42 percent increase in
schools themselves during the two
years preceding the advent of the

school board not only vindicates
but extols the system.

There are outstanding instances
of criticisable things in school mat-
ters but they are the discoveries of
the law and not the off-spring of it-
For instance, the city of Concord
received school aid under the law in
a class with needy towns. No
city or town of over 3,000 people
should be eligible to state aid or
to be reimbursed for high school

Xo one who opposes the policy
of putting money into the neediest
towns in order that small children
there may have a decent educational
start in life can ever be heard to ad-
vocate appropriating even one cent
toward giving the older boys and
girls a college education at Durham
or elsewhere. If we cannot afford
to care for our small and helpless
little ones, we certainly cannot af-
ford to aid the strong "grown-ups"
who can hunt for themselves for a
college education, as many of us
were obliged to do. The quality of
our citizenship is developed in the
district and elementary schools.
The elementary schools are for all.
the colleges for only a few. The
young should have the first lien on
our money-

The elementary schools of the
country are being ruined by the far
too numerous and extended re-
quirements fixed by the college
authorities. The high schools have
a curriculum forced upon them by
the college requirements that pre-
cludes the possibility of thorough-
ness. This high school situation
compels the grammar schools to
cover too much, to make the work
superficial, to put languages in at
the expense of the rudiments, and
to spoil the training of the many
who can remain in school only a
few years. The pace is too swift
and the road too long for thorough-
ness. It is set by the college ideal-
ists for the benefit of the brilliant



10 percent, while the remaining 90
percent who are to become the
backbone of our civilization fall by
the wayside of learning, and go in-
to life ignorant of those absolutely
indispensable elements of education,
and lamentably handicapped in the
struggle for a livelihood.

The voice of the American people
must cry out against such leader-
ship by the college pace-setters.
The average and ordinary boy and
girl must have a chance to learn a
few necessary things with abiding
thoroughness. They cannot do
this, and they do not do- this, under
the existing educational standards
of this country today. The poor
boys and girls who constitute the
mass do not have a fair show in such
a swift pace. They can go to
school only a little while. It is bad
for our civilization. We are as
speed-mad in our educational system
as we are in automobiling- I speak
of it here only to aid in arousing
public sentiment to fight what is
next to crime against the young of
our land.

This may well lead me to report
on the State College. Its future
policies must be left to other ad-
visors. We have recognized its
value, its important place and have
appropriated more generously than
usual for it. We have been, or have
tried to be, as just friends to the
institution as a survey of the in-
terests of all departments in the
state permitted us to be. It must
continue to serve the cause of high-
er education in fields intended for
it. But it is perfectly clear that
we have in this college a vital ques-
tion which must be dealt with care-
fully and firmly.

The state is not in. sufficiently
close business relation to this in-
stitution. We are educating young
men there, and also young women,
at an average loss, or cost, to the
state of from $300 to $500 per
scholar per year, and all of the in-

crease falls upon the state treasury,
since its permanent income is fixed.
General expense conditions here
will improve as prices go down.
But the growth of the college in
numbers has been phenomenal,
possibly alarming, considering the
cost of each one to the state. There
is scarcely any limit as to how large
it may grow or as to how much it
will cost.

I believe the state by a very defi-
nite law, after figuring out what it
can annually afford to do for this in-
stitution, should most carefully pre-
scribe by law the limits within which
the college must keep in every line
of its activity involving the public
moneys. The state should, by some
system of supervision make cer-
tain that those limits be not passed.
I will go no further into the details
of this question since my purpose is
merely to emphasize that no de-
partment of the state should be per-
mitted to establish, by its own ac-
tion alone, any policies, practices,
or salaries, which create debts for
the legislature to meet.

This institution, as I understand
it, has the power to borrow money,
receive a limitless number of stu-
dents, enlarge the college curricu-
lum, erect new buildings, fix salaries,
in other ways add to the permanent
charge upon the state, and all with-
out legislative authority. The state
should be consulted first, before
any step is taken which adds to
the expense of the state- I express
this view with positiveness, and
with the reassurance that I am a
friend of the college, and have the
highest respect and admiration for
the capable, honest, efficient and
most excellent President of the
college who is, in my opinion, one
of the hardest worked men in the
employ of the state, and also with
full confidence in the excellent
board of trustees.

I would expect that the president
himself would prefer to have such


a definite and fixed plan prescrib-
ed, and to know precisely the very
definitely policy of the state, and
his financial limits, rather than be
left in the maze of uncertainties and
worries which surround his prob-
lem at the present time. There
is, presumably, some limit on the
amount of money which the state
can afford to raise by taxation for
this institution, consequently some
limit upon the size to which it may
be allowed to enlarge at the expense
of the state. If this be so, let those
limits be fixed. If it be not so, let
us be prepared (without censure)
to raise any sums asked for to meet
the debts created, or work to be
performed. I can testify to the ex-
cellence of this college and I appeal
very earnestly to all charitably in-
clined persons, and to benevolent
will-makers to create memorial en-
dowments to assist struggling stu-
dents at this institution.

The Department of Agriculture is
of very substantial value to the
state. It is effectively and pro-
gressively managed, and I believe
its funds are very economically ad-
ministered. But it is for you to
decide how much money shall be
devoted to its various activities.

In co-operation with the federal
bureau of Animal Industry there
developed an unlooked-for and ser-
ious situation with reference to
bovine tuberculosis. Our appro-
priated funds were entirely insuf-
ficient to compensate for the neces-
sary destruction of animals, and the
governor and council, under emer-
gency powers, transferred consid-
erable sums to meet the crisis.

There exists sufficient evidence
of at least a small percentage of
transmissibility of this terrible
disease to humans, and particularly
to babies, enough to forbid ignoring
it, although there are experts who
are skeptical about the theory of
transmissibility. All concede the
commercial value of a good reputa-

tion for New Hampshire animal
products in the general market, as
to being free from this disease. We
have no reason, however, to be
panicky about it. Conditions here
are much better than in most states.

The Bureau of Markets is prov-
ing of substantial help to the farm-
ers and to the local purchasers as
well. It is increasing in efficiency
and practicability. The certainty
of a market for the small producers
is a great stimulus to additional en-

A state like ours can afford as a
business proposition to spend small
autumn of 1919 was pronounced
Our exhibition at Springfield in the
autumn of 1919 was prononunced
the best of the ten states there rep-
resented. Practically every kind of
a New Hampshire enterprise was
there displayed and exhibited to
hundreds of thousands of people.
We deemed the money well spent.

The Department of Agriculture
attends to insect suppression, the
regulation of the sale of commer-
cial feeding stuffs, commercial fer-
tilizer, fungicides and insecticides,
testing agricultural seed, inspection
of nurseries and nursery stock,
registry of stallions, licensing of
dealers in dairy products, inspection
of fruit under the apple-grading law,
and it holds profitable farmers' in-
stitutes. Its work should go on.

Vital beyond our usual concep-
tion is the highway problem. In
general it may be said that the
roads of the state viewed as an en-
tire system, averaging up the good
and the bad, have been a little bet-
ter than in previous years, meaning
by this that we are actually making
some steady progress. The depart-
ment has never been one half so
well equipped as at present, having
adopted a policy of owning instead
of hiring. It now owns equipment
property of a total value of nearly
$500,000. It has purchased the three
storv brick structure known as the



Eagle stables in Concord to house
its machinery and tools and repair
them. It has secured gratis about
seventy-five high grade auto trucks
from the federal government. It
now shovels by steam instead of by
hand where possible. It has begun
to buy gravel banks in all parts in-
stead of buying gravel by the load
as formerly to a large extent. It
has established repair gangs in dif-
ferent sections of the state, supplied
them with facilities for doing good
repair jobs more quickly, and has
adopted the idea of repairing more
and faster and building less, of keep-
ing up what we have rather than al-
lowing them to become top far
worn out while we are trying to
build too much new. When prices
reached sky heights about six
months ago we practically aban-
doned new construction, and, there-
fore, we now have about $300,000
ready to do projects when deemed
wise to begin- One informed must
admit that this department is in
splendid condition. From my ex-
perience comes the conclusion that,
with our present equipment and
business methods, we can keep on
improving our highway system each
year by raising about the same
amount of money as we did two
years ago, bearing in mind that the
auto money is increasing and that
it should be made to increase more
rapidly by larger fees on heavy

The federal money comes to us
with so many strings attached that
we do not get nearly the practical
advantage from it that we ought to

We should be permitted to spend
the federal aid money in a way suit-
ed to the needs of our own state.
We ought to be trusted to that ex-

The tremendous destruction of
our state roads when soft in the
spring is the greatest waste that ex-
ists in the state. It is enormous

when reduced to dollars and cents.
For the first time we have attempt-
ed to invoke common law and pro-
hibit the use of the roads by heavy
trucks entirely during the soft
season, and this, with some good
results, but a statute law may be
devised by you which will be more

Probably no state in the union
has its roads worn out more than
ours are by those autos which pay
no license fee whatever. As a
tourist state bidding for transient
visitors this condition cannot be
avoided unless we reduce the length
of time in which they may remain
free, or charge a fee to all. A
financial compensation in part comes
in the money left within the state
by the summer tourists.

Patrolmen with horse power are
unprofitable. They get over the
road so slowly and do so little that
the cost is not compensated for in
results. Scientifically equipped and
manned patching gangs with a few
auto patrolmen, and better district
supervision, would give better re-
sults for the same amount of money.

If the state lays out a road and
then waits three years before it im-
proves it a condition arises which is
scandalous. The town waits for
the state and the state waits for
the money, while the public en-
danger their lives. This must be
remedied- We have done a little
to remedy such situations, but
legislation is needed to cure it. It
is far better to have passable roads
everywhere than to have stretches
of princely roads abruptly terminate
in impassably bad ones, and besides,
that creates a grave danger to life
and limb. Ten notoriously bad
places in the roads of a state will
give us more unfavorable advertis-
ing than can be overcome by hun-
dreds of miles of magnificient boule-
vards. Our aim should be to keep
all the roads at least decent, and
then to add to our fine roads as fast



as we may, while keeping up such
a policy.

The recognition which we gave
our world war defenders was $100,
a medal, and a state certificate.
This was creditable as compared
with the action of other states. The
law provided also for a memorial to
the dead of the entire state to be
placed in or about the State House.
A complete honor-roll believed to be
accurate has been made through the
commendable efforts of our state
historian, Professor Husband, and
plans for the memorial, though un-
derway, have been impossible of

You will permit me on behalf of
all our people to express very feel-
ing gratitude to our service men
and women, not only for their won-
derful service, but for their stabiliz-
ing and loyal influence during the
turbulent reconstruction days. And
the splendid spirit with which they
are uniting with the veterans of the
Civil War and aiding them in their
years of enfeebleness is worthy of
special commendation. Regardless
of all other consideration and un-
derstandings and without the least
personal allusion or feeling, I deem
it my duty to record the belief that
for the highest good of the state
its military establishment should
be placed in the hands of those
splendid heroes who risked their
lives in the world war to preserve
our civilization.

My experience as governor does
not permit me to criticise in the
least the prosecuting and police
authorities of, or within, the state.
My belief is. however, that the
automobile has opened up the
possibility of criminality in the
rural communities of the state to
an extent whch has not been met
with adequate police protection.
Then, again, the dangers from riot-
ing, such as we experienced at Ray-
mond, suggests that the state
should be able to furnish police as-

sistance without calling on the mili-
tary establishment. We have state
police now, but their jurisdiction is
limited to the work of particular
departments. There is an oppor-
tunity, without additional expense
to the state, to so organize and co-
ordinate our prosecuting and police
agencies, and the similar agencies
of the counties, cities and towns, as
to better meet the new conditions.
The rural communities of the state,
during the automobile season, re-
quire active motor police service
both day and night, not only against
speeding, but against all kinds of

Permit me to discuss things
somewhat elementary in relation to
our state finances, and this for the
purpose of establishing a right view

The amount of the state tax for
1919 was $2,200,000.

For 1920 it was $1,700,000.

Prior to these years the state tax
had been $800,000.

The reason for the increase was:
to take care of obligations of over
$350,000 necessarily left over from
the preceding administration sud-
denly confronted with war condi-
tions ; to meet the probability of the
same war scale of prices being kept
up, which probability was more
than realized, since the war prices
not only kept up but continued to
increase ; and then $600,000 to pay
the war bonus in part.

The legislature of 1919 voted no
new buildings except a small farm
house at GlenclifL It denied all
requests for normal schools and
armories, and dealt only in absolute

It enacted the so-called new school
law which added around $300,000 to
the state appropriation, and it dealt
rather more liberally with the
State College than had been done
formerly, buying war buildings and
paying old debts.

It released the war conditions on



the balance of the military act funds
of around $300,000 and put that at
the disposal of the governor and
council to parcel out to the depart-
ments as they became pinched by
soaring price emergencies.

We had on hand at the end of the
last fiscal year, viz: Sept. 1, 1920,
the sum of $124,478.01.

There will be some deficit before
the end of the next fiscal year, which
no one can now definitely forecast.

Under the new executive budget
law enacted by the last legislature,
the various departments have put
in their requests for the -next two
years, and, if our non-state-tax in-
come remains the same, and all
these requests are allowed by you
the state tax will have to be about
$2,200,000, or the same as it was in

There is a hopeful side to this
situation. It is not for me to recom-
mend what you shall do with these
requests, but no legislature has
ever allowed all every one asked.

Again there is hope in the future
of prices. The state can certainly
care for its more than 2000 pent-up-
wards more cheaply than during the
past four years.

The extension of the inheritance
tax law by act of legislature of 1919
will begin to show big results dur-
ing the next two years producing an
additional income of probably $200,-
000 per year.

The new corporation law will
continue to increase our income, in
my opinion.

It is scarcely possible that we
will be confronted with such ex-
traordinary emergencies as last

The automobile income will in-

The insurance income will in-
crease under its thorough and com-
petent administration.

Firmly believing that we are
headed in prices back toward
normal, I believe you can, if you

desire to economize reasonably,
bring the state tax back to some-
what below $2,000,000 without cur-
tailing the efficiency of the school
law or unduly limiting the State
College, or any other established
function of the commonwealth- I
say this without prejudice to any
policy which the next adminstration
may have, and only to give you
the view-point of my experience.

Now, I beg you to permit me to
correct the erroneous impression
that the state tax is what causes
the local taxes to be so high. It is
not. The state tax is the merest
fraction of the local tax.

The total taxable property in the
state on our present basis is $556,-
647,000. If we wish to raise $1,-
700,000, as we did last year, we first
credit the railroads, insurance com-
panies, and savings banks tax of
$1,040,000, leaving $660,000 to be
raised by some other tax. This
would require about $1.20 on a
thousand. In other words, the tax
rate in your town was increased
about $1.20 on account of the state
tax last year. If your rate was
$31.20 it would have been $30.00
without the state tax. Every mil-

Online Library1884 numbers of the Bay state monthlyBe the first and subjects of first 10 volumes and List of porThe Granite monthly, a New Hampshire magazine, devoted to literature, history, and state progress (Volume 53) → online text (page 2 of 57)