from his weakened body by thieves, should he be denied the immediate bene-
fits of hospital or dressing station, or should he wait until clothing- can be
sent merely to satisfy a sentimentality?
The history of every army is that when untrained men in large numbers
are gathered into large camps they are attacked by disease; and no war
has ever been waged where disease was not vastly more deadly than the
The deaths from all causes in our army from May 1 to date were 2.010
out of a total force of 274,717, or a percentage of 1.059. These figures when
brought in comparison with the losses of former expeditions to the West
Indies, show how insignificant our death rate has been. In the English
expedition to the West Indies the land forces numbered 14,000. The losses
were 1,790 officers and men killed, wounded and missing, and the losses by
disease were about 50 per cent of the total force.
The French expedition to the West Indies in 1802 was perhaps the most
disastrous in losses from disease. The French army loss in four months
from disease alone was 15,207 men, out of a total of 58,545, a mortality of
868 per thousand. Of the 8,275 survivors 3,000 were reported unfit for duty.
The figures as to the loss of the Spanish from disease in this war are not
obtainable yet, but one statement alone shows how greatly the Spanish
army suffered. Spain has carried to Cuba during the present war 135,000
men. There now remains but 85,000, and thousands of these are incapaci-
tated and will have to be carried oack to Spain in the hospitals. Compared
with her loss from disease, the losses in battle by the Spanish have be^u
OTHER SOUTHERN CAMPAIGNS.
The death rates of other campaigns in southern climates bring out by
comparison our small losses. The loss of the campaign in Algeria, in H4s.
\v;is ;7.81 per 1.000. The expedition to Tunis, in l*si, suffered a mortality
of r,l.:;o per .1,000. The French losses in Cochin China expedition (1861-62)
was loo men per 1,000. In the French campaign to Madagascar (1884-83)
the loss was from 70 to 110 per 1,000. The English campaign in Burmal;
(l>24-26) had a loss of 72 per 1,000.
In Napoleon's campaign to Russia, his loss by wounds and disease
amounted to 243, oyo men out of 363,000. In Napoleon'a campaign of 1813,
;;::;imst Germany, but .vl.OOO out of his original 500.000 returned. In the
': urko-Russian War of isijs-jj'j, the Russians lost (50,000 men, mostly by
CIVIL WAR RECORDS.
Tn the first year of the War of the Rebellion the sick in some regiments
ran as high as 45 per cent. In the Army of the Potomac the average num-
ber of constant sick per ],000 was 61; in the Valley of the Mississippi, 1 Hi.
and in the Department of West Virginia, 162.
Of the British Army in time of peace, 6 l / 2 per cent are in the hospital.
The liritish Army in the Peninsular War, under the Duke of Wellington,
had 2] per cent sick in hospital, which increased at one time to 33 per cent.
These rates were exceeded in the British army of the Crimea, where the
constant sick rate was 26. 6 per cent; the annual rate of mortality being 3
per cent in battle and 20.6 per cent by disease and accident.
DEATHS IN FOREIGN WARS.
The rate of mortality from all causes experienced by our army in the
war with Mexico was one-half greater than it was in the War of the Rebel-
lion, and of the British troops in the Peninsula more than double, and in
the P.ritish War of the Crimea more than three times that experienced by
the Union armies in the War of the Rebellion. To sum up from extracts of
military statistics of the United States, the deaths in the volunteer forces of
the United States (June, ism. to February, 1*62.) under more favorabk
conditions than those experienced by the volunteer forces of our present
army, were from wounds received in action S.f. per cent, disease and acci-
dent 44.6, or a total of 53.2. The annual death rate in both Knrope and
America of civilians of the military age is nearly one-half the death rate
experienced in the army of the United States in the present war, from all
causes. During the war with Mexico the mortality was 118 per thousand:
14 from wounds received in action, including killed in battle, and 104 from
disease and accidents.
During the Spanish Peninsular campaign under Wellington (1S11-1S14)
the annual death rate experienced by the British forces was 163 per thou-
sand, of which 52 was from wounds and 113 from disease: in the campaign
of the allies against Russia in the Crimea the rate experienced in hostilities
for the period of the first nine months, not including those killed in battle.
was 232 per thousand, 30 being from wounds and 202 from disease.
THIS TRAIL'S STATISTICS.
Deaths from all causes between May 1 and September 30, inclusive, as
reported to the Adjutant-General's office np to date in our army are: Killed,
23 officers and 257 enlisted men: died of wounds, 4 officers: died of disease.
ficers and :.',!-"> enlisted men; total, 107 officers and 2,803 enlisted men.
This is an aggregate of r.'.'HO out of a total force of 274,717 officers and
itu'ii, a percen1a;-e o I' I .O.V.), or, if continued for an entire year, would result
in a loss of on!\ -I. -11 per cent, or, reducing- to a basis of a.-lual number of
(' a ths ])er year, makes a total loss from ail causes of but :J5.5 per thousand,
liuee from wounds received in action, and 2:2.4 from diseases and accidents,
or considerably less than one-half the death rate for the same period of the
THE DIVISION HOSPITAL.
The division hospital became the subject of peculiar and vicious attacks,
either from ignorance of its adaptability to a state of war or from jealousies
arising- in regiments. The best military authorities in the great armies of
Ilie world unite in pronouncing it the only successful method of caring for
liie sick of a great army.
Regiments are organized to move and to fight. If they are hampered by
Iheir own sick in their own hospitals, when inarching orders are received
they must either be delayed by transporting their sick to some other hos-
pitals or be burdened with their care upon the march.
The presence, too, of sick and wounded men so near noise and confusion
of a regimental camp is not calculated to hasten their recovery, and the
effect of their presence is depressing upon the able-bodied.
VOLUNTEER SIGNAL CORPS.
Its Admirable Work at the Front, Though Belated in Starting.
Tt was nearly a month after war was declared before authority of Con-
gress was secured for the organization of the Volunteer Signal Corps, but
in the short period of time intervening before the opening of the campaign,
io the small regular establishment of sixty officers and men had been
added a volunteer force of one hundred and sixteen officers and one Hious-
aml enlisted men. well organized and so perfectly equipped that in every
cam]) there had been established a complete telephone exchange and te!< -
graphic system; and at Santiago the firing line was so well supplied with
means of communication that it took but twenty minutes for a message
to pass from the rifle pits to the Executive Mansion in Washington.
In the Philippines they constructed and maintained telegraph and tele-
phone lines in the advance trenches, and wherever the troops were, there
was the Signal Corps also present, thoroughly equipped and efficient.
THE ENGINEER CORPS.
Their Work in Coast Defense and During Santiago Campaign.
The duties of the Engineer Corps of the United States Army in time of
war may be considered conveniently under two heads: First, in relation
to the seacoast defenses of the country; second, in relation to the operations
of armies in f'e field.
I'nder the first heading the duties of the corps consist in planning and
constructing permanent works of defense for the protection of our sea-
coast towns and cities, and in the planting and operation of submarine
mines blocking the entrance thereto.
Under the second heading their duties consist as staff officers in planning,
laying out and constructing temporary fortifications, hasty intrenchments,
roads, bridges, etc., and in making reconnaissances and military maps. In
this latter class of duties engineer troops are largely employed whenever
their services can be obtained.
At the outbreak of the war with Spain our seacoast defenses were scarcely
iii a condition to have withstood a well-directed naval attack upon our
coasts. Strenuous efforts were, however, made to mount every available
gun in such batteries as were then in progress, and to provide temporary
batteries for old-style armament at a number of places otherwise wholly
deli useless. In an exceedingly short time a large number of guns, new
and old, were in readiness for service, and would have given a good account
had any hostile attack taken place.
Deficiency in submarine mining material threatened to render submarine
operations futile at the outbreaking of hostilities but by taking advantage
of the entire manufacturing resources of the country, and working night
and day, torpedo defenses were placed in position and maintained in good
order throughout the entire period of active hostilities at all principal
ENGINEERS IN SANTIAGO.
In the Santiago campaign the operations of the engineer troops were,
in consequence of inadequate mimbers, limited to the more technical classes
of engineer work, such as road repairs and construction, repairs to rail-
roads, construction of landing piers and military reconnaissances.
The various engineer officers assigned to duty on the staffs of corps and
division commanders in the different camps were employed in laying out
the sites of camps, providing for water supplies and sanitation, in the
instruction of troops in military reconnaissances and map making, and in
the construction of hasty field intrenchments.
JOHN S. SIIIUVICIl.
SENATOR CULLOM ON PROSPERITY
Money, Coinage " Prices
JULY 1896, AND JANUARY, 1898
INCREASE OF WAGES
REVIVAL OF INDUSTRIES
From the remarks of
SENATOR SHELBY M. CULLOH
In the Senate, Friday, January 28, 1898
FROM THE REMARKS OP
Senator SHELBY M. CULLOM,
In the Senate, Friday, January 28, 1898.
Mr. CULLOM said:
I wish now to submit a few observations not directly related to the
pending resolution. I have gathered some statistics to which I wish to call
the attention of the Senate. I hold in my hand the official figures of the
Treasury Department showing the money in circulation In the United States
July 1; 1896, and January 1, 1898.
July 1, 1896.
Jan. 1, 1898.
$454 905 064
$547 568 360
Standard silver dollars . . . .
61 491 073
Subsidiary silver . ... .
60 204 451
65 720 308
Gold certificates . .
42 198 119
36 557 689
376 695 592
Treas ury notes
103 443 936
United States notes
224 249 868
262 480 927
43 315 000
National bank notes
223 827 755
Gaia ia circulation in eighteen month*, 1214,665,674.
We have heard much about the distress in the country and the disposition
on the part of the Republican party and its Administration to neglect the
people and to subserve only the interests of the bondholders, and I submit
whether we have not done measurably well to increase the circulation of the
country in eighteen mocihs since the nomination of the candidates for the
Presidency in 1896 $214,665,674.
The addition to the currency of the country by coinage of the United
States Mints since July 1, 1896, is as follows:
July 1, 1896, to January 1, 1897 $39,129,305
January 1, 1897, to January 1, 1898 96,041,882
MR. BBYAN ANSWERED.
I call the attention of the Senate to the fact that Mr. Bryan, In his
Greensboro, N. C., s-peech in 1896, asserted that Senator Sherman had stated
that there should be an addition of $42,000,000 per annum to the circulating
medium of the country to keep pace with the growth of population, and he
said: "What provision has the Republican party made for the supply of
the money that we need? None whatever." Yet it will be observed that
the amount of money coined by the mints of the United States since the
beginning of the campaign of 1896 is more than double the increase named
by Senator Sherman and approved by Mr. Bryan in the speech referred to
I call the, attention of the Senate to another table, compiled from Brad-
street's Journal, comparing the prices of articles mentioned on January 1,
189S, v.-ith those of July l, 1896, the nearest obtainable date to Mr. Bryan's
nomination. They show that in practically all articles which farmers pro-
duce the prices now received are much higher than when Mr. Bryan was
nominated and when his party insisted that improved conditions could only
come through the free and unlimited coinage of silver; also, that in a large
proportion of the articles which the farmers and others must purchase for
daily use the prices have fallen. The figures relate to New York markets,
except where otherwise specified.
INCREASED PHICE OF FABM PRODUCTS.
Jan. 1, 1898.
Wheat, No. 2, red winter
37 V 2
.02 1 /i
Barley No. 2 (Milwaukee)
Flour, winter r>er barrel
Beeves, best (Chicago) per
100 pounds. .
Horses, average (Chicago)
Beef carcasses (Chicago)
.per pound. .
Hogs' carcasses (Chicago)
Mutton carcasses (Chicago)
Bacon, smoked (Chicago)
.per pound. .
do . .
per bushel. .
. per barrel . .
Wool, Ohio and Pennsylvania X (Bos
Tobacco, medium (Louisville)
Cotton seed (Houston)
Lumber, pine, yellow
Timber Eastern spruce
Timber hemlock (Pennsylvania)
. . .per keg. .
Tin plates (Pittsburg)
Print cloths . . . .
Steel rails ''Pittsburg)
. . . per ton . .
Coal, bituminous (Chicago)
Phosphate rock (South Carolina) ....
. . .per ton. .
Quinine . ,
per ounce. .
I present the table because our distinguished friend the Senator from
Colorado was talking much about the blistered hand of the farmer, and I
desire to show that the farmer did not suffer so badly last year as com-
pared with previous years.
Mr. GEAR." In 1896, during the campaign, our Democratic friends car-
ried in one hand the Democratic platform and in the other Bradstreet's and
Dun's reports, showing that they trusted them implicitly, and now they deny
everything therein stated.
Mr. CULLOM. As a matter of fact, I think the country generally, with-
out reference to party politics, regards Bradstreet's report as entirely im-
I want to submit a statement showing the resumption of manufacturing
activities and increase of wages since the enactment of the Dingley law,
taken from Bradstreet's, a generally recognized journal of trade, finance, and
THE RECORD OF THE MONTH OF ATJGTJST.
Cleveland (Ohio) rolling mills resume work, employing 2,000 men.
Wages increased 16% per cent, on Louisiana plantations of Leon God-
chau, the largest sugar producer in the United States.
Wheaton & Co.'s glass works, at Millville, N. J., resume work.
Ensign Car and Manufacturing Company, Huntington, W. Va., resume
Cotton mills at Lancaster, Pa., resume operations, employing 1,000 hands.
Edge Tools Works at Ogontz, Pa., resume work.
Philadelphia and Reading coal and iron collieries, near Pottsville, Pa.,
American Watch Company, Waltham, Mass., resumes work.
The Crescent tin-plate mill, Cleveland, Ohio, the second largest mill in
the United States, resumes work.
Rolling mills at Lebanon, Ohio, resume operations.
Birmingham, Ala., rolling mills resume work, employing 1,200 men.
Gate City, Ala., rolling mills resume work.
American Wire Nail Company, St. Louis, increase working force from 400
to 1,000 men.
Victor Window Glass Company, St. Louis, increases its plant 50 per cent.
American ' Tin Plate Company, St. Louis, increases its working force
Reading, Pa., iron works resume, giving employment to 700 men.
Richardson & Boynton, stove works, New Jersey, resume.
Norwalk Woolen Mills, Winnipauk, Conn., resume work, notifying em-
ployees that night work will also be required.
Birmingham, Ala., rolling mills resume, employing 700 men.
Alabama Pipe Works, at Bessemer, Ala., resume.
ast Lake Woolen Mills, Bridgeton, N. J., resume work.
Providence Coal Company Mines, Scranton, Pa., resume after two years'
Delaware Iron Works, Newcastle, Del., resume, giving employment to
Wall paper factory at Newark, Del., begins operations.
Advance of 20 cents per ton on prices paid miners in Boyd coal mines,
Pottery manufacturers of New Jersey announce advance in wages averag-
ing 12% per cent.
Southern Railway increases working hours in its shops at Birming-
INCREABE IN WORKING TIME.
Alabama Great Southern Railroad Company increases working time from
five hours per day to nine hours, affecting 1,000 men.
Hutchinson, Cole & Co., manufacturers of shirts, Norwalk, Conn., re-
sume, giving employment to 500 operatives.
United States Rubber Company, Millville, Mass., increases working hours.
Hetzel & Co., worsted goods manufacturers at Chester, Pa., restore wages
of 1892, affecting several hundred hands.
Mitchell-Lewis Wagon Works, Racine, Wis., increases time to twelve
hours per day.
Hartford, Vt., Woolen Company restore wages of 1892 rates.
Methuen, Mass., cotton mills, employing 500 hands, resume work.
Pottstown, Pa., Iron Mills resume work, running night and day.
Whitaker Iron Company, Wheeling, W. Va., resumes work.
Consul-General Osborne reports that leading tin-plate and woolen manu-
facturers of Great Britain are preparing to transfer their manufactories to
the United States.
Heskell & Barker Car Company, Michigan <?ity, Ind., increase time to
twelve hours, affecting work of 1,500 men.
Hillsboro, N. H., woolen mills start up on full time.
Britton Tin Plate Company, Cleveland, Ohio, resumes work.
Union Rolling Mills, Cleveland, Ohio, resume work.
All railroad shops at Birmingham, Ala., increase working time to ten
hours per day.
Washington Steel and Tin Plate Company, Washington, Pa., resumes
work at double its former capacity.
Pennsylvania Railroad locomotive shops at Altoona, Pa., increase work-
ing time to ten hours per day.
Girard Union Iron and Steel Works, Youngstown, Ohio, resumes after a
Read Carpet Company, Bridgeport, Cona., resumes operations.
National Tube Works, McKeesport, Pa., increase wages 10 per cent.
Fall River (Mass.) Iron Works, employing 2,700 men, resume work.
American Printing Company, Fall River, increases working hours to
Columbus, Hocking Valley and Toledo Railroad shops increase working
hours from half time to 10 hours per day.
Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad Company adds 30 clerks to its
force in auditing office.
Illinois Steel Company, at Chicago, Milwaukee and Joliet, resumes work
with increased force.
Great Falls Manufacturing Company, at Somerville, N. H., resume work
with 2,000 hands.
Eight puddle furnaces of Ellis and Lessig Steel Company, Pottstown, Pa.,
Glasgow, Pa., Rolling MiH resumes after a year's idleness.
Philadelphia and Reading machine shops increase working hours to
Schuylkill, Pa., Coal Exchange advances miners' wages 6 per cent.
Sharpsville, Pa., iron furnaces resume work.
Falls Manufacturing Company, Norwich Conn., start up on full time.
Sampson ft Williams's woolen mill, Fairfleld, Me., increase hours to
New York Herald publishes official estimates of trades union, showing
that 36,000 workmen in New York city who were idle in 1896 are employed
Reports from 20 large iron plants in Mahoning Valley, Ohio, indicate
business 70 per cent, better than one year ago.
Corunna Coal Company, Owosso, Mich., advances miners' wages 5 cents
Baltimore arid OMo Railroad Company reports the demand for freight
cars in excess of supply.
Isaia (Ohio) Cordage Mills, idle several years, resume work on full time.
East Lake Woolen Mills, Bridgeton, Pa., resume work after three years'
Wead Paper Mill, Malone, N. Y., resumes after two years' idleness.
Advance in wages of coal miners In Ohio, West Virginia, and elsewhere,
affecting many thousands of men.
Cleveland Rolling Mill announces sale of 1,000 tons of bar steel in Bir-
mingham, England; and Appleton, Wis., paper mills annnounce sale of 2,000
tons of print paper for Japan.
American Wire Nail Works, at Madison, Ind., resume work.
Lamp chimney factories at Madison, Ind., employing 800 hands, resume
National Rolling Mills, Pittsburg, Pa., resume work in puddling depart-
ment after long idleness.
American Steel Casting Company, Sharon, Pa., doubles the capacity of its
Bellaire (Ohio) Steel Company resumes work, with new $500,000 blast
furnace in operation.
Tip-Top Coke Works, Scottdale, Pa., resume work after an idleness of
Reports from Pennsylvania coke fields show an increase of 886 ovens in
operation within twelve days' time.
Monadnock Cotton Mills, Claremont, N. H., increase schedule from half
time to full time.
Lindsay & McCutcheon's Iron Mills, Allegheny, Pa., advance wages.
Peninsular Car Works resume operations in all departments, increasing
force from 2,500 to 3,500 men.
One of the largest soap manufactories in England announces establish-
ment of a large factory in the United States and construction of a village
for its employees.
Philadelphia and Reading Company increases working hours in its loco-
motive departments. f
Woolen mill operators at Chambersburg, Pa., advance wages.
Red Stone Coal, Oil and Coke Company begins work in Its coke plant?
built five years ago, but never operated in full until now.
Brooke Iron Company, Birdsboro, Pa., increase output 20 per cent.
Sharpsville, Pa., furnace works resume after more than one year's idle-
Reading, Pa., Iron and Pipe Company Increases hours to double time.
Cumberland Valley Railroad shops increase to ten hours per day for the
first time in several years.
Seyfert Rolling Mills, Naomi, Pa., resume work.
Warren Tube Works, Warren, Ohio, Increase wages 10 per cent.
Minnesota Iron Company increases wages of all employees 10 per cent.
Large increase in blast furnaces In operation at Birmingham, Ala., re-
Hollidaysburg, Pa., iron and nail works resume after a long period of
Sharon, Pa., iron works resume, including thirty-six puddling furnaces;
increase of employees, 25 per cent, over 1896.
Coal miners at Des Moines, Iowa, give a 10 per cent. Increase of wages.
Disston Saw Works, Tacony, Pa., resume work on full time, employing
1,000 men, after four years' of partial Idleness.
Bellefonte, Pa., glass works resume operation.
Lake Erie, Alliance and Southern Railroad advances wages 10 per cent,
and restores employment to all employees laid off during the year.
Reeves Iron Company, Canal Dover, Ohio, resumes after a long idleness.
Wilhelni Bicycle Works, Hamburg, Pa., increases wages 5 per cent.
Wages of cornice and skylight workers in New York and Brooklyn ad-
Old Dominion Iron and Nail Company, Richmond, Va., resume work In
horseshoe rolling plant.
Wages of employees in Howard-Harrison Pipe Works, Bessemer, Pa.,