1899-1900 United States. Philppine commission.

Report of the Philippine commission to the President, January 31, 1900-[December 20, 1900] (Volume 3) online

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
AT LOS ANGELES




ri.ATi-: i.




AT A S

Savages of MM entirely unknown tribe. living in tiie depths
of the fore-si near volcano Apo.



EEPOET



OF THE



PHILIPPINE COMMISSION



TO



THE PRESIDENT.



VOL. III.



WASHINGTON:

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.

1901.



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.



To the President.

SIR: We have the honor to transmit to you herewith Volumes III
and IV, together with the accompanying- atlas of the Philippine
Islands, being the final volumes of the report to you of this commission.
Very respectfully, yours,

JACOB GOULD SCHURMANN,
GEORGE DEWEY,
ELWELL S. OTIS,
CHARLES DENBT,
DEAN C. WORCESTER,

Commissioners.

JOHN E. MAC ARTHUR,

Secretary and Counsel.
DECEMBER 20, 1900.



CONTENTS.



PAPER I. Chorography 3

II. Orography 129

III. Hydrography ... .... 153

Part first Marine Hydrography. ... 157

Part second Terrestrial Hydrography. 201

IV. Mineral Resources and Geology . 229

V. Botany 241

VI. Timber and Fine Woods 285

VII. Zoography 305

VIII. Ethnography 329

Part first Origin of the Philippine Peoples 333

Part second Characteristics of the Races Inhabiting the

Philippines 347

IX. Ethology 387

X. Idiomography _ 395



PAPER NO. I.



CHOBOGKAPHY



PROLOGUE.



It was proposed in the beginning simply to reproduce in this collec-
tion of papers the chorography of the Philippines by P. Beranaria
(Society of Jesus), judging it to be the best of all published up to the
present time; but considering the resulting size of the last parts of the
physical geography that is to say, the orography, the hydrography,
and the climatology, which were simply mentioned in the geography
of this author it was deemed best to amplify the present treatise on
chorography. In the composition of this paper we have made use of
the most recent work; 1 that is to say, the last volume of the Official
Guide of the Philippines, published in 1898, the Spanish-American
Encyclopedic Dictionary, and several memoirs and articles relating to
the Philippines, written by persons acquainted with the country.

We have found marked discrepancies among the various authors who
have written upon the chorography of the Philippines in three points:
First, in geodetic measurements and measurements of areas and the
census of the various islands, cities, towns, and of the various races,
and in the spelling or orthography of the names of islands, towns,
mountains, rivers, etc. In regard to measurements we have generally
accepted those published by the Geographical Institute of Madrid.
In regard to census we have given the preference to the data found in
the most recent parochial books of registry, they seeming to us the
truest sources of exact information in this matter. In regard to
orthography of proper names we have adopted that which seemed to
us most generally accepted and correct, consulting in doubtful cases
the pronunciation of the natives, who, however, do not always seem
to be in accord. The only recourse seems to be to use that orthogra-
phy which agrees best with the tendencies of the dialects or languages
spoken in the regions, towns, or islands where doubtful orthography
pertains.

The chorographic data relative to civil, military, and ecclesiastical
organizations which existed before the 1st of May, 1898, have been
united in the introduction, not alone to avoid repetition in the partial
chorographic descriptions of each region, but because they no longer
exist at the present time on account of the change of sovereignty in
the islands.

OBSERVATORY OF MANILA,
December 8, 1899.

1 The data in reference to the Visayas, Mindanao, and Jolo we owe in large part to
the diligence of Padre Baltazar Ferrer, S. J., of the Observatory of Manila.

5



INTRODUCTION.



SITUATION AND BOUNDARIES OF THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO.

The Philippine Archipelago is a group composed of many islands
situated in the most northern part of the great Asiatic archipelago,
within the North Torrid Zone, between 4 4' and 20 3' north lati-
tude and 116 4' and 126 34' east longitude from the meridian of
Greenwich. It is surrounded on the north and west by the China
Sea, on the east by the Pacific Ocean, and on the south by the Sea of
Celebes. From the extreme point of land on the northeast to the China
coast is a distance of 630 kilometers. The nearest land on the north
is the island of Formosa, on the east the Palaos Islands, on the south-
east the Molucca Archipelago, on the south the island of Celebes, on
the southwest the island of Borneo, and on the west Cochin China.

The waters which surround it are very deep, not far from the east
coast the Pacific being from 4,000 to 6,000 meters in depth. The Jolo
Sea, between Mindanao and Jolo, reaches a depth of 4,069 meters, off
the Celebes 3,750 to 4,755, and not far from the south coast of Min-
danao the depth reaches 5,000 meters; nevertheless, the Philippines
are united to the Asiatic archipelago at three points where the straits
filled with islands reach but little depth, namely, north of Borneo by
the islands of Balabac and Paragua, on the northeast of Borneo by the
Jolo group, and on the northeast of Celebes by the islands of Sanguir
and Talut. Without doubt, therefore, the whole of the Philippine
Archipelago belongs to the same geographical region as Borneo,
Sumatra, Java, and the rest of the islands of the great Asiatic archi-
pelago, and in consequence to Asia rather than to Oceania. Con-
sidering, therefore, only geographical reasons, it is sufficient to note
the analogy which the situation of the Sunda Islands, the Celebes, the
Moluccas, and the Philippines bear to Asia and that which the Antilles
bear to America. The former bound the interior China and Sunda
seas, the latter the Mexican and Caribbean seas, bathing, respectively,
the Asiatic and American coasts. According to this analogy, there-
fore, if the latter belong to America the former belong to Asia.

ISLANDS WHICH FORM THE ARCHIPELAGO.

It is believed that the number of islands exceeds 1,400, although in
truth up to the present time no one can state the exact number. For
greater clearness and system in that which is to be said in this paper,
we shall consider the archipelago divided into the following parts or
regions:

First. Luzon and the contiguous islands. 1

Second. The principal islands adjacent to Luzon.

Third. The visayan Islands and those adjacent to them.

Fourth. Mindanao and the adjacent islands.

1 Spanish- American Encyclopaedic Dictionary, vol. VIII, p. 371.



s



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION.



Fifth. The Jolo group.

Sixth. Paragua, Dumarau, and Balabac, and the islands adjacent to
them.



OF



hem.

AREA, GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION, TERRITORIAL DIVISION, NUMBER
INHABITANTS, AND DENSITY OF POPULATION.

We take the data in regard to the territorial division, area, and
number of inhabitants from the corresponding volume of the census
of the population of Spain, according to the official census made
December 31, 1887, and published in 1891 by the Institute of Geogra-
phy and Statistics, conforming thus to the division already given.
This data is at the present time but relative in regard to the census.

Geographical situation.



Provinces, districts, and
islands.


Latitude north.


Longitude east of
Greenwich.


Area in
square
kilome-
ters.


Popula-
tion.


Popula-
tion per
square
kilome-
ter
(density
of popu-
lation).


From


To


From


To


LDBOK.

Cagayan and Palani Islands. . .
Ilocos, north


o i
17 4
17 6
17 1
16 9
16
17 1
16 7
16 1
16 1
16 1
14 7
15 6
15 7
15 2
15 2
14 8
14 6
14 4
14 3
14 2
14 3
13 8
13 2

13 6

13 2
14 6

12 8
12 5

18 8

12 .2
12 7

11 7

10 7


o /
18 6
16 6
18
17 9
17 5
17 4
17 3
17 1
16 9
16 9
16 4
16 3
16 2
16 1
15 8
15 3
15 3
14 9
14 8
14 8
14 7
14 7
14 6

14 2

14 2
14 1

13 5
13 2

21

13 5
13 2

12 7

12 3


> /

120 9
120 4
120 4
120 3
121 3
120 9
120 6
120 8
120 2
120 4
119 7
121 2
120
120 5
120 1
120 3
120 6
120 2
120 9
121
121 2
121
121 2

120 5

122 2
120 6

123 2
123 8

121 2

120 3
122 9
123 1

119 7


o /
122 2
121
121
120 7
122 2
121 4
121 2
121 6
120 7
120 9
120 5
122 2
120 9
121 5
120 7
121 9
121 4
120 6
121 1
121 5
121 7
121 6
122 8

121 4

123 9

121

124
124 1

121

121 5
123 4
124 1

121 2


13,968
3,328
2,837
1,424
14,234
1,322
2,690
4,384
2,008
2,416
2,229
3,051
2,854
6,610
65,363
2,208
2,965
1,264
672
1,656
2,194
2,603
5,893

3,130

7,897
1,354

4,123
1,954

620

10, 167
e508
3,897

1,600


96,357
163,349
41,318
178,258
48,302
13,985
23,945
19, 379
110,064
15,734
87,275
4,198
302,178
156,610
89,339
228,902
239,221
50,781
c 300, 392
46,940
7,100
169,983
109,780

311, 180

194,022
135,053

195,129
98,650

10,517

67,656
1,708
21,366

14,291


6.9
49.1
14.6
126.2
3.4
10.6
8.9
4.4
54.8
6.5
39.2
1.4
105.9
23.7
39.2
101.4
80.7
40.2
447
28.3
3.1
65.3
18.6

99.4

24.6
99.7

47.3
50.5

17.0

6 7
J. A
5.5

8.9


Abra


Ilocos, south


I sal if la


Bontoc


Lepanto a ...


Nueva Vizcaya


Union .


Benguet


Zam bales


Principe


Pangasinan


Nueva Ecija .


Carlac


Pampanga


Bulacan


Bataan


Manila


Morong and Calim


Infanta and adjacent islands. .
La Laguna and Laguna de Bay .
Tayabas and adjacent islands.
Batangas. Laguna, and adja-
cent islands


Ambos Ou marines and adja-
cent islands


Cavite and Corregidor


Albay, Catanduanes, and ad-
jacent islands


Soreogon


PRINCIPAL ISLANDS ADJACENT
TO LUZON.

Archipelago of Batanes and
Babuyanes d


Mindoro and adjacent islands:
Lubang, Bugayao, Iling,
Marinduque, Semerara,
Sibay and Caluya


Burias


Masbate and Ticao e
Archipelago of Calamia-
nes and of Cuyos d.



a We include data in regard to the comandancia of Tiagan, the same in regard to the coman-
dancias included in the other provinces.

6 There is probably an error in these numbers. The number given by Padre Baranera is prob-
ably more correck-2,277 square kilometers.

c This number is actually considerably greater.

d Including all the group.

There must be an error in this number. We adopt the number published in the treatise on
orography 720 square kilometers.



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION.



Geological situation Continued.



Provinces, districts and
islands.


Latitude north.


Longitude east of
Greenwich.


Area in
square
kilome-
ters.


Popula-
tion.


Popula-
tion per
square
kilome-
ter
(density
of popu-
lation).


From


To


From


To


VISAYAS.

Panay and adjacent islands:
Antique and Cagayan
Capiz.Calaguan, Gigantes,
Sicogon and Carabao
Iloilo, Guimaras, Hampu-
lugan, Malagaban, Pan
de Azucar, Cagabanjan,
Cagu, etc


o /
10 4

9 6

9 4
9 1

10 9
10
12 2

6 8
7 3

6 8
6 3

5 6
6 4

4 5

8 3

7 8


/

11 9

10 2

11 3
11

12 7
11 6
13 1

9 8
9 1

8 1
8

7 8
6 8

6 4

11 5
8 2


o /
121 8

123 7

123 3
122 4

124 3
124 3
121 7

125 1

122 2

121 9
123 2

123 9
121

119 3

117 1
116 8


o t
123 2

124 6

124 6
123 6

126 8
125 3
122 6

126 6
125 4

123 3
125 2

126 3
6 122 3

121 4

119 7
117 1


13,538

3,528

6,582
9,341

13,471
9,976
1,278

99,450
1,276

1,766

14,584
360


115,434
194,890
432,462

224,965

504,076
0242,433

185,386
270,491
34,828

67,760
116,024

17,199
4,138

3,966
1,119

2,896

5,986
2,110


54.8

63.8

76.6
39.8

13.8
27.1
27.3

2.1
.9

1.6

.4
5.9


Bohol and adjacent islands
(Bohol, Minoco, Pinigan or
Lapinig, Panglao or Danis,
Siquijor or luegos)


Cebu and adjacent islands
(Cebu, Bantayan, Guinta-
can, Mactan, Malapascua
and Olang6) . .


Negros


Samar and adjacent islands
(Samar, Bahcuatro, Batag
Capul, Dalupirit or Puercos,
Tamonjol or Malhon, Sa-
guan or Lavang or Calamu-
tang. Mauiconi, Parasan,
Buad Los Naranjos Mesa,
Cagapula, and Limbaucau-
ayan)


Leyte and adjacent islands
(Leyte,Biliran,Calunnagan,
Limasua, Camotes, Carnasa,
Gigantagan, Maripipi, Pa-
naon, etc.)


Romblon and adjacent islands
(Rombl6n, Banton, Maestre
de Campo, Sibuyan, Simara,
Tablas, and adjacent Is-
lands) 6


MINDANAO AND ADJACENT
ISLANDS.

Surigao and adjacent islands
(Bucos, Dinagat, Hinatuan,
Guipoo, Siargao, Sibunga,
and various islands)


Misamis and adjacent islands
(Camaguin, Silina, and two
islands i


Zamboanga and adjacent is-
lands (Malinipa, Olutanga,
Santa Cruz, Tigtauan, and
Tumalustan)


Cottabato and Bongo


Davao and adjacent islands
(Samal, Malipano, Talicud,
Sarangani, and various is-
lands)


Basilan and adjacent islands
(Basilan group)


JOLO ARCHIPELAGO.

First group Balanguigui: 14
islands, 7 deserted.


Second group Jolo: 13 is-
lands, 7 uninhabited


Third group Recuapons6n :
8 islands, almost all deserted.
Fourth group Panguratan:
23 islands, 12 deserted


Fifth group Tagbabas: 14 is-
lands, deserted


Sixth group Tawitawi : 42
islands, 30 deserted c


Paragua and Dumaran


Balabac





a The number of inhabitants is actually much greater according to the last official guide 372,001.
b Including all the islands of the group,
c Some reduce these six groups to four.



10 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION.

OBSERVATIONS IN REGARD TO THE NUMBER OF INHABITANTS.

In regard to the number of inhabitants, which, according to the pre-
vious statistics, reaches 5,985,124, it is necessary to observe that these
statistics treat only of the inhabitants recorded in some way or other
in civil records; in the parochial records, verified by greater time, there
appears a larger number than in the civil census differences due in
part to the greater or less number of omissions, and to the more or less
perfect knowledge of the number of pagans. It should be taken into
account that this includes the number of inhabitants in the various
islands and provinces. In an 'examination finished the latter part of
1894 it appears that the population of the various islands included
in the general government of the Philippines is formed as follows:

Population according to the parochial records 6, 414, 373

Omissions and absentees (2 per cent) 123, 237

Clergy 2,651

Military 13, 640

Navy 3, 459

Carbineers (coast and customs guard) 440

Civil guard 3, 561

Veteran civil guard 413

Inmates of asylums 689

Convicts 702

Foreigners:

Chinese, registered l 49, 696

Absentees 24, S4.S

Europeans, Americans, and others '. 1, 000

Moros:

Paragua and Jolo Archipelago 100, 000

Mindanao and Basilan 209, 000

Pagans in Philippines:

Subjugated 138, 000

Independent tribes 692, 000

Total 7, 782, 759

This number, however, seems to be very near to the truth, even if
it is reduced on account of omissions, absentees, Moros, and pagans, who
do not appear in the official census. There would have been a very
slight increase in the population from 1877 to 1894, but, as the archbishop
noted in 1887, the preceding ten years were full of calamities for the
Philippines, so that the total annual increase was about eight- tenths of
1 per cent, and from that time until 1894, inclusive, the archipelago
has likewise suffered serious misfortunes, among which should be
recorded epidemics of cholera, influenza, and smallpox. It is to be
noted likewise, in regard to the political civil divisions of Luzon, that
in certain of the provinces or districts mentioned there have recently
been formed politico-military comandancias, which are briefly enume-
rated to complete the list.

NEW COMANDANCIAS.

Apayaos, situated to the north of the province of Cagayan de Luzon.
Cabugaoan, likewise in the north of Luzon, is situated to the east of
the comandancia of Apayaos.

1 According to the data in the office of the secretary of the archbishop of Manila,
at the beginning of the year 1898 the population estimated by the parochial priests
was 6,559,998, according to which the sum total would be 7,928,384.



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 11

Amburayan, situated between the districts of Benguet, Tiagan,
Lepanto, and the provinces of South Ilocos and Union.

Itaves, between the provinces of Cagayan and Isabela.

Biuatangan, on the east coastof the Island of Luzon, between Isabela
and the district of Principe.

Saltan, in the province of Isabela.

Llavac, likewise in the province of Isabela.

Cayapa, created in 1891, in the island of Luzon, near the River Am-
bayan, near the province of Nueva Viscaya.

Quiangan, just to the west of Lepanto.

The area of these comandancias, and the number of inhabitants
included in the area, are included in the provinces or districts in which
they are found.

We .shall now take up the chorography of each of the aforementioned
islands, provinces, and districts, allowing them space proportionate to
their importance; giving, first, a general description of the island, its
geographical situation, its area, and treating briefly the number and
character of its inhabitants and its politico-civil division into provinces,
districts, and comandancias; afterwards, if the island is a large one,
we shall divide it into various regions, discussing these individually,
beginning with those found farthest to the north, and continuing
to follow this plan according to the atlas of the Philippines. We
shall leave out hydrographic and orographic descriptions, which the
reader will find in the papers on hydrography and orography, con-
fining ourselves especially to what may be called the politico-civil cho-
rography, without omitting the data, and physical geography, which is
not especially discussed in the other papers, such as the geograph-
ical situations, dialects, or languages of the inhabitants, industries and
products of the different islands of the provinces.



MILITARY ORGANIZATION.

THE ARMY OF THE PHILIPPINES.



The army of the Philippines was composed of infantry, cavalry,
artilleiy, engineers, the civil guard, and the coast guard. There
existed also the executive branches of the sanitary and veterinary
departments of equitation, the auxiliaries of the military offices, and
the military clergy. For the organization and control of these forces
there were a captain-general and various departments, as follows:
Infantry, cavalry, civil guard, artillery, engineers, and that of army
sanitation, together with an administrative body from the army, and
military clergy. At the beginning of the year 1898 there existed the
following divisions of operations: Mindanao, under the command of a
general of division, the brigades Iligan and Jolo, the general coman-
dancia of Manila and Morong, and that of Laguna and Batangas, that
of Cavite, and various flying columns which operated in other parts of
the archipelago, commanded by generals of brigades or by colonels.



NAVAL FORCES.

GENERAL ORGANIZATION OF THE NAVY.



The naval forces of the archipelago comprised the naval station and
a .squadron. The immediate commander of both of these was the gen-
eral commandant of the dockyard and fleet, a position held by a rear-



12 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION.

admiral of the navy. The naval station and its various branches and
departments assumed direction of all affairs of this branch. The fleet
had charge of the inspection, vigilance, and defense of the waters and
coasts of the islands. The archipelago was divided into naval districts,
at the head of which there was a commandant of varying rank, accord-
ing to the importance of the district, who exercised at the same time
the duties of harbor master of the most important port in his jurisdic-
tion. The naval station included all necessary branches, with an
arsenal established at Cavite, another in construction at Subig (Olon-
gapo), a dry dock in Isabela de Basilan, and a dock at Pollok equipped
with the necessary machine shops. The command of the naval station
of the Philippines was held by a rear-admiral of the navy, who had
at his order a general staff for the naval districts and one for the fleet.
The next in command of the naval station was a captain of the navy of
the first class, who was at the same time commandant of the arsenal at
Cavite. The commandant was assisted by a captain of the navy of the
economic board, composed of the leading officers of each branch, and
the auditor's department, which assisted in all matters of justice.

DEPENDENCIES OF THE NAVAL STATION.

The general board of the navy, composed of chiefs and officers who
exercised command either in the naval station or on ships of the fleet;
the engineering corps of the navy, represented by a chief engineer
and two other officers of that body ; the corps of the artillery of the navy,
in command of a commandant or lieutenant-colonel; the administrative
board, composed of a deputy of the navy, the comptroller, and the
accountants of the navy; the marine infantry, commanded by a
lieutenant-colonel, composed of disembarking forces and companies;
arsenal guards ; the sanitary department of the navj r , at the head of which
there was a subinspector of the first class; the ecclesiastical corps of
the navy; the judge-advocate's corps of the navy, which was formed
of the auditor and the attorney and four assistants; the naval forces,
composed of the ships' fleet, the comandancias of the navy, which were
those of Manila and Iloilo, and depending upon those the districts of
Pangasinan, Ilocos, Aparri, Marianas, the Caroline Islands, and Leyte,
and the comandancia of the naval division of the south, and depending
upon these the divisions and districts of Mindanao and Isabela.

THE FLEET.

The fleet was composed of the following vessels:

Two cruisers of the first class the Reina Cristina and the Castillo,.

Two protected cruisers of the second class Isla de Luzon and Isla
de Cuba,.

Three cruisers of the second class the Velasco, the Don Juan de
Austria, and the Don Antonio de UTloa.

Three cruisers of the third class Marques del Duero, Elcano, and
General Lezo.

Two gunboats of the first class Quiros and Villalobos.

Three transports Manila, Cebu, and General Alava.

One steamer of the hydrographic commission the Argos.

Thirteen gunboats of the second class Calamianes, Paragua, Samar,
Leyte, Bulusan, Mariveles, Arayat, Pampanga, Albay, Manileno,
M/indoro, Panay, Callao, and Mindanao.

\



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 13

Four gunboats of the third class Otalora, Urdaneta, Basco, and
Gardoqui.

Four armed steam launches Corcuera, Almonte, Lcmao, and General
Blanco.

One tug Rdpido.

Three steam launches and two others for the exclusive use of the
commander in chief and the arsenal of Cavite, without counting those
which were at Yap and at Isabela de Basilan.

The marine infantry force of the station was as follows:

A colonel (subinspector), a lieutenant-colonel of the first class, and
the other chiefs and officers who formed the second battalion of the
first regiment of this archipelago; also the company of arsenal guards
who garrisoned Cavite and Subig.

p c VOL 301 2



CHAPTER I.

LUZON.

GEOGRAPHICAL SITUATION.

Luzon, the largest and most northern of the islands of the Philip-
pine Archipelago, is situated between latitude 12 32' and 18 3!>' north
and longitude 119 42' and 124 8' east from Greenwich. In form it is
very irregular, elongated from north to south and southeast, much
wider at the north than at the south. It narrows very much at 14 30'.
where the Bay of Manila is situated; and very much more at 14. where
a narrow isthmus unites the larger and western part of the island witl
the eastern.

SHAPE OF ISLAND.

The coast of Luzon 1 presents a great number of irregularities.
There is near the center and on the south, where there are large bays,
excellent ports and harbors. From Point Negra, at the extreme north-
west of the island, the coast extends southwest to Cape Bojeador; it
then turns to the south southeast and south southwest, and continues
in this direction as far as Point Dile. In all of this part, of approxi-
mately 1 Cape Bojeador being 18 30' and Point Dile being 17 :-J4'
is found the Bay of Dirique, the bar of Cauit, Point Culili, Port Cur-
rimao, the Gulf of Gan, the island of Badoc. and Point Solot, ah 1
belonging to the coast of the province of North Ilocos. The island and
port of Salomague and the island of Pinget belong to the coast of the
province of South Ilocos.

At Point Dile the coast begins to form a curve toward the east, in
which are the Bay of Solbet and ports San Estaban and Santiago.
The coast continues toward the south with a slight deviation as far as



Online Library1899-1900 United States. Philppine commissionReport of the Philippine commission to the President, January 31, 1900-[December 20, 1900] (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 46)