11181. Ertel & Sohn * Munidi * Geodetic and mathe-
matical instruments of precision.
1 1 19 R. W. Faber Stein near Huremberg (Bavaria) *
ead pencil works.
The factory exists since
1161. RU kinds of lead and coloured pencils
for artists, architects, engineers, offices, schools,
&c. RU kinds of mechanical pencils with lead
and coloured fillings, flew rulers, angles,
measures, calculating rulers, squares, slates
and slate articles made of natural and arti-
ficial slate. See also gr. XV cl. 92 p. 339 and
gr. XVI cl. 108 p. Hi. *
1 120 6. Falter & Sohn * Munich * Geodetic apparatus.
Specialty : Franks hydrometric tubes for the
direct measurement of the velocity of water
1121 Otto Fennel Sohne Cassel * Manufacture of
geodetic instruments. Theodolites, Wagner-
Fennels tachymeter, levelling instruments,
mining theodolites, mining compasses.
1122 R. Fuess * Steglitz near Berlin * Division I.:
Optical instruments of all kinds. Division II :
Meteorological and geophysical instruments.
Division III: Hydrotechnical instruments, Seibt-
Paul GebhardUBerlin .Instruments forschools, 1123
workshop and warehouse of physical, electric,
optical and chemical apparatus. Illustrated
catalogues on application.
C. P. Goerz * Friedenau near Berlin * Telescopes 1124
and apparatus for photographic optics. Branch
office: Paris, 22 rue de I'Entrepot. See also
collective exhibit of photography, cl. 12 p. 89.
F. 0. R. Goetze * Ceipzig * Thermometers and 1125
J. C. Greiner sen. & Sohn * Berlin * Metrological 1126
Grimme, Hatalis & Cie. * Brunswick * Calculating 1121
machines for all kinds of single and combined
reckoning operations. Rdding machine with
Grossherzogliche Psychiatrische Klinik * Giessen 1128
* Psychopathological instruments.
H. Haecke * Berlin * nautical instruments. 1129
Bernhard Halle * Steglitz near Berlin * Optical 1130
instruments. Optical preparations for the
polarisation of light, &c.
Gustav Halle * Rixdorf near Berlin * Hermann- 1131
str. 53 * Workshop for scientific and technical
instruments of precision. Specialty : Rppa-
ratus for measuring the angle of prisms.
Delicate calibres; sphaeroscopes, heliostates.
Demonstrating microscopes of all kinds. Rstro-
Ch. Hamann * Friedenau near Berlin * Geodeti- 1132
cal instruments. Calculating and drafting in-
W. Handke * Berlin * Measuring instruments 1133
for sporting purposes. Counting apparatus.
Hartmann & Braun * Frankfort -on -the -Main- 1134
Bockenheim * Electrical measuring instruments.
Rpparatus referring to terrestric magnetism.
See also gr. X cl. 55 p. 251.
E. Hartnack * Potsdam * Microscopes. 1135
Hans Heele * Berlin 0. 21 * Workshop for op- 1136
tical and mechanical instruments of precision.
Spectroscopes, spectrometers, refractors, &c.,
objectives, prisms, mirrors. Rsk for catalogue.
M. Hensoldt & Sohne * Wetzlar * Telescopes. 1131
Max Hildebrand > Freiberg in Saxony * Rstro- 1138
nomical, geodetical and miners instruments.
Otto Himmler * Berlin S. 42, Brandenburg- 1139
str. 9 Optical and mechanical workshop.
Specialty : Microscopes, microscopical object-
glasses and appliances. Established 18TI.
Electromedical apparatus. Rpparatus for radio-
H. Hommel * Mayence * Manufacture of guages 1141
for normal -verification and workshop use.
1142 R. 3ung * Heidelberg * Microtomes, physiolo-
gical and ophtalmological apparatus and models.
See also gr. VII d. 38 p. 238.
H43 Junkers & Co. * Dessau in Rnhalt * Special
factory for Prof. Junkers calorimeter; bath-
stones heated by gas, rapid water - heaters.
German and foreign patents.
1 144 Kaiserlidie normal - Ridiungs - Kommission *
Berlin * exhibition of metrological apparatus.
1145 Keiser & Schmidt * Berlin * Electric measuring
instruments, physical apparatus, thermoelectri-
cal appliances for measuring high and low
U46 Gottl. Kern & Sohn, Inhaber der Pirma Rlbert
Sauter * Ebingen in Wurtemberg * Balances
of precision and weights.
H4T Ma? Kohl * Chemnitz * Optical, acustic, calori-
metric instruments and physical apparatus
for instruction. Tittings for physical collections.
1t48R. Kruss (Inhaber Dr. Hugo Kruss) * Ham-
burg * Optical institute. Spectroscopes, spectro-
meters, spectrophotometers, photometers, Hef-
ner's lamps, optical lanterns and sciopticons.
See also gr. Ill cl. 12 p. 89.
1149 . eitz * Wetzlar * Optical institute, established
1850. Brandi establishments: Berlin n.W. and
new Uorh 4tt W. 50th street. Microscopes,
microtomes, photographic objectives, optical
lanterns. Over 50 000 eitz's microscopes in
use. Warehouse: Paris, 6. Cogit & Co., Boule-
vard St. Midiel 49.
It 50 1). inhof * Munidi * Optical and physical
1151 Ernst oewe * Zittau in Saxony * Metal man-
mum thermometers for clinical purposes with
certificate from Imperial Physical Institute.
Only made in gold and silver.
U526. ufft * Stuttgart * Rneroids.
U53R. Meissner * Berlin * Geodetic apparatus.
tt54JahobMerz * Munidi * Specialty : Rstronomical
and optical instruments.
U55 Em. . Meyer * Hamburg * nautical apparatus.
Specialties: Sextants, octants, logs with works
accessible for oiling.
1156Gustav Miehe * Hildesheim * Microtomes.
ItSZMoller & Sander * Rltona * Rneroids.
ll58RidiardMuller-Uri * Brunswidi * Instruments
made of glass. Chemical and physical appa-
ratus for lecturing and laboratory purposes.
1159W. niehls * Berlin n. * Royal Prussian State
medal. Mercury thermometers up to 580C.
ow temperature thermometers till 200 C.
niehls' glass gauge. Glass apparatus of various
E. nohden, Medianiher * Berlin * Paalzoiv- H60
Rubens' dynamobolometer. Rnn. de physique
XLII p. t54. 1891.
Julius Peters * Berlin * Polarimeters for 1161
scientific and tedinical purposes. Berthelot-
Mahler's calorimeter, Dr.Krdher's system. See
also gr. X cl. 55 p. 25 1.
Wilh.Petzold*eipig* Physiological apparatus. U62
Physihalisdi-tedinisdie Reidtsanstalt * Char- 1 163
lotfenburg * Exhibition of objects and espe-
cially of instruments of precision for physical
and physico - tedinical purposes.
Julius Pintsdt * Berlin 0., Rndreasstr.T2/T3* U64
Guldter's thermo-electric battery heated by gas;
an advantageous substitute for galvanic ele-
ments. Representative in Paris: S. Grauer &
Cie., 14 Boul. Ridi. enoir.
See advertisement page 41.
Randhagen * Hanover * Geodetic instruments. 1165
C. Reidiel * Berlin * length measures of pre- 1166
cision. Construction of calibre gauge (executed
by H. Heele).
R. Repsold & Sohne * Hamburg * Rstronomical 1161
and metrological instruments.
C. Riditer * Berlin * thermometers and instru- 1168
ments made of glass.
Clemens Riefler nessehoang * Munidi * Ma- 1169
nufacture of mathematical instruments. R. In-
struments of precision for drafting. B. Rstro-
nomical clodis with Dr. Riefler's escapement
and compensating pendulum. Established 1 841 .
"Five workshops, 100 hands employed, yearly
production 160 000 instruments. 23 prize
medals. Export to all civilized countries.
Owners of firm : Dr. Sigm. Riefler, engineer
in Munidi, Rd. Riefler, Commercienrath in
nesselwang and Th. Riefler, manufacturer in
Th. Rosenberg * Berlin, Chausseestr. 95 * Work- 1 1 TO
shop for geodetical instruments.
Georg Rosenmuller, medianidan and optician * 1 1 1 1
Dresden - newtown * Specialty : Rnemometers
for tedinical and scientific purposes.
1. Sartorius * Gottingen * Balances. 1112
Rugust Sauter (Inhaber: ouis Rrmbruster) * 1113
Ebingen in Wurtemberg * Rccurate balances
and weights for chemists, apothecaries and
Karl Sdieurer, i. T. C. Si&ler * Carlsruhe in 11 14
Baden * Geodetical instruments. Theodolites,
tadiymeters, levelling instruments, instru-
ments for measuring inclines.
Tranz Sdiilling * Gehlberg * Thermometers. tlT5
Tranz Schmidt & Haensdi * Berlin S., Stall- 1116
sdireiberstr. 4 * Workshops for instruments of
precision and optical appliances. Specialty:
apparatus for polarisation, spectroscopy, pho-
j, projection. See also gr. VII d. 39 p. 240
and gr. A cl. 55 p. 251.
ItTTCouis Sdiopper * Ceipzig * Manufacture of all
apparatus and instruments for testing yarns,
textile fabrics and paper, corn balances and
corn testers corresponding to official require-
11T8Sdiott& Genossen, Glaswerh * Jena * Optical
glass: Carge glass discs for telescope objec-
tives, prisms, plates. Jena tubing and labo-
ratory glass. Jena thermometer tubing. Water-
gauges. Jena cylinders for incandescent gas-
light and petroleum lamps. See also gr. X
cl. 55 p. 251.
1119 W. & H. Seibert * Wetzlar * Microscopes and
other optical apparatus.
1 180 Nidi. Sendtner * Munidi * Geodetical and astro-
nomical apparatus. Self-registering apparatus.
1181 Wilh. Siedentopf, Kdnigl. Universitatsmedtani-
ker * Wiirzburg (Bavaria) * Workshop for phy-
sical and physiological instruments of pre-
1182 Gebruder Siemens & Co. * Charlottenburg * Rl-
coholometers for revenue purposes.
1 183 Siemens & Halske, Rhtien-Gesellsdiaft * Berlin*
Scientific and tedmical measuring instruments.
Induction coils for Rontgen photography. See
also gr. Ill cl. 12 p. 90, gr. IV cl. 2t and 22
p. 165 and p. 166, gr.Vcl. 23 2T p. 1Z4 tI6,
gr.VI cl. 29 p. 194.
1 1 84 Sommer & Runge * Berlin * Physical and mathe-
matical apparatus. See also gr. VII cl. 38 p. 238,
cl. 39 p. 240 and gr. X cl. 55 p. 25t.
1 185 Wilh. Spoerhase i. Tirma C. Staudinger & Cie. *
Giessen * Balances and other metrological in-
struments. Measures for forestry.
U86Dr. Steeg & Reuter * Homburg-at-the-H6he *
Rpparatus and preparations referring to crystal
optics. Preparations of quartz, Iceland spar,
gypsum and mica. Rppliances for the spec-
118TC. R. Steinheil Sohne * Munich * Optical and
astronomical institute. Instruments and op-
tical parts for astronomical and physical pur-
poses. Objectives and their appurtenances
for photography. See also gr. Ill cl. 12 p. 90.
11 88 Hermann Stern * Oberstein * normal mea-
sures and weights made of rock- crystal.
1189Heinr. Stieberitz * Dresden * Electrical mea-
1190W. Stiegel * Cassel * Institute for mathema-
tical and geodetic instruments. Universal
instruments, mining theodolites, travelling
theodolites, levelling instruments of every
1191C. Stollnreuther & Sohn Munidi * Metrolo-
Strasser & Rohde * Glashutte in Saxony * Spe- 1192
cialty: second pendulum clodis of precision,
nautical dironometers. Einc and mercury com-
pensating pendula. Measuring instruments:
micrometer gauges, showing '/too and Ysootnm.
Tenth- and twentieth -measures, allowing to
read off '/to and Vzo mm. Watdv and coun-
ting medtanisms, wheels, gears, radis.
Paul StMrath * Triedenau near Berlin * Ba- 1193
lances. Instruments for measuring the earth.
Emil Sydow * Berlin n.W. * Ophtalmological 1194
instruments, eye mirrors, &c. Many awards.
Established 1869. Illustrated price-lists.
Eudtuig tesdorpf * Stuttgart * "Furnisher to 11 95
many government offices at home and abroad.
Specialty : astronomical and geodetical observ-
ing and measuring instruments. Established
1882. Highest awards at Chicago 1893; Cubed*
1895; Stuttgart 1896. Export to all countries.
Ottotoepfer * Potsdam * Instruments referring 1196
to astrophysics and terrestrial magnetism.
Established 1813. Ocular spectroscopes, pocket
spectroscopes, nebular spectroscopes, star
spectrometers, protuberance spectroscopes,
spectrographs, heliographs, spectroheliographs,
photographic appliances, telescopes, Zollner's
photometers, wedge photometers, spectral
photometers, sensitometers, measuring in-
struments, micrometers, registering appliances,
magnetometers, helioscope eye -pieces, helio-
states, oculars and lenses.
Wilhelm Uebe * Eerbft (Rnhalt) * factory for 11 91
medical and diemical thermometers. Uebe's
minute maximal thermometer with aluminium-
scale, D.R.6.M. 25 406 and 31 613. Uebe's maxi-
mal minute thermometer with mica scale,
D.R.6.M. 84289 and 89903.
R. Derbeek & PerAholdt * Dresden * Balances. 1198
Doigtlander & Sohn R.-6. * Brunswidi * Op- It 99
tical institute. Brandies: Condon E.C., 92 Hat-
ton Garden; new 9orh 461 West, 14*h Street.
Products: photographic objectives and tele-
scopes of all kinds. Price- lists on application.
See also gr. Ill cl. 12 p. 90.
Julius Wansdiaff * Berlin * Metrological, astro- 1200
nomical and geodetic instruments. Tools for
Warmbrunn, Qirilitz & Co. * Berlin * Collection 1201
of extracting apparatus for sugar tests. See
also gr.XIV cl. 81 p. 299.
Paul Waedtter, optical workshop * Triedenau 1202
near Berlin * Microscopes for bacteriological
and other purposes, examination of meat, &c.
Photographic objectives and apparatus.
6ebr. Wichmann * Berlin n.W., Karlstr. 13 * 1203
Specialists for drawing materials. Uarious
kinds of compasses. Dividing compasses with
rectangularly bent points, facilitating measure-
ments and adjusting. Compasses with globular
cnnrnp DE WRRS * mmn
heads. Ruler compasses, stocks made of one
piece rolled German silver. Micrometer drawing
pens and curve draining pens, made of one
piece of metal. Ho castings used for these
1 204 Ernst Winter & Sohn Hamburg - Eimsbiittel *
Diamond tools for mechanics, &c.
1205 Otto Wolff * Berlin * Electrical measuring
1206 War Wolz * Bonn * 6eodetical instruments.
Optical measuring instruments. Calculating
and drawing appliances.
1 201 Carl 2eiss * Jena * Optical institute, micro-
scopes and accessories, also apparatus for
projection and microphotography. Photo-
graphic objectives and optical appurtenances
to photography. Optical measuring instru-
ments, telescopes. Distance meters. Rstro-
nomical objectives for observation and photo-
graphu. See also gr. Ill cl. 12 p. 90, gr.X cl. 55
p. 252. See advertisement page to.
1208E- Zimmermann teipzig, Emilienstr. 2t *
Psychological and physiological apparatus.
1209 R. E. Esdiau * Hamburg * nautical apparatus.
12toRd. 2wiAert * Kiel Optical institute. Me-
dtantcian to the Royal Physiological Institute
of the Kiel University. Gold medals: Brussels
t89T, Kiel t896. Diploma of honour: Kiel 1896.
See also gr. VII cl. 38 p. 238.
Medicine and Surgery.
Collective exhibit of Medical, Dental
and Veterinary Instruments.
Managers: Committee for the organisation of
a collective exhibit of the German surgical in-
strument industry in Paris 1900. Berlin n.W.,
1231 H. M. Rnton * Berlin S.O. * Rubber works.
Specialty: surgical articles such as air cushions,
automatic and self -filling, rubber tubing,
irrigator parts, hearing tubes, syringes.
1232 Dr. Benninghoven & Sommrr * Berlin H.W.,
Thurmstr. 19 * Rnatomical models and prepa-
rations. Diverse animal models. Bone pre-
1 233 Rudolf Dtfert , Berlin n.W., Karlstr. 9 * Esta-
blished 18T1. Instruments for throat, nose-
and ear-operations. Collections of instruments
1234 Hermann Prommholz* Berlin n.,Elsasserstr.82*
Specialist for seemless tubes for surgical in-
struments and hollotu needles of steel, gold
and platino-iridium. Exhibit: surgical hollow
needles of various metals, sizes and shapes,
mounted and unmounted for injections of
C. Geffers * Berlin n.W., Schirfbauerdamm 2 * 1235
Rrtificial limbs, cases with instruments for
oculists (Burchardt's system), and for other
Triedrito Haaga * Cannstatt * Pressed hollow 1236
metal handles and metal cases for surgical
Georg Haertel Breslau, only Rlbreditstr. .1231
Surgical instruments (u. Mihulicz, Breslau).
Gynaecological instruments (Tritsdi , Bonn and
Kiistner, Breslau). Georg Haertel's wire saws,
registered. Orthopaedical apparatus with cellu-
loid leather casings. 4 silver medals of the
Hermann Haertel * Breslau, Weidenstr. 33 * 1238
Established 1819. Manufactory of surgical
instruments. "Fittings for operating rooms.
Original wire saw, Dr. Gigli system. Specula.
H. Hauptner * Berlin n.W. * Instrument fac- 1239
tory for veterinary purposes and agriculture.
Specialty : veterinary instruments. Established
1851. 180 workmen. Ejrport to all countries.
Complete collection of instruments in aseptic
execution. Rnatomical, microscopic, trepann-
ing &c. instruments. Instruments for ope-
rations on the eyes, teeth, larymr, windpipe,
urinary organs and members. Rpparatus for
veterinary hygiene and animal nursing. Special
catalogue with 3000 illustrations. Rwards
for excellence of products: 2 Prussian State
medals. See also gr.VII cl.35 p. 243.
See advertisement page 3.
Knoke & Dressier * Dresden * Purveyors to 1240
the Royal Saaron Court. Manufacturers of all
hospital appliances of the latest forms. Speci-
alty: operating tables and medico -medianical
appliances. See price list. Exhibit: Stelzner's
aseptic operating table with patented inclining
Ernst Kratz * Tranhfort-on-the-Main * Sur- 1241
gical needles, hollow needles, instruments for
T. & M. Cautensdilager * Berlin, Oranienbur- 1242
gerstr. 54 * Complete fittings for bacteriological
and microscopical laboratories. Tittinqs for
operating rooms, arranged according fo the
Oeberg & Meyerhof Cassel * Injection syringes 1243
Couis & H. Coewenstein * Berlin n., 6rossel244
Hamburgerstr. 3 * Manufactory of surgical
instruments and electro -medical apparatus.
Specialty: cystoscopes, dilatators, phantoms,
urethroscopes, storage batteries, incisors, &c.
CHHMP DE mnRS * roam BincDine
1245 Meyer & Kersting * Carlsruhe in Baden Manu-
factory of platinum for surgical and artistic
purposes, injection, aspirating, and subcu-
taneous syringes, bougies, puluerizers,&c.made
1246 T. Rd. Muller Sohne * Wiesbaden * Rrtificial
eyes of uarious description, Germ. pat. 52 190.
Reform" eyes, Germ. pat. 101 044. Repro-
ductions of diseased eyes. Turnisher to all
1 241 Stanislau) Sadis * Berlin W., Jagerstr. 63 *
Orthopaedical ball -joints of a neto system.
Rctiue and passiue movements of all parts
of the body for gymnastical purposes. Proved
to be of ualue as an after-treatment for bone-
fractures and stiff joints, also for general
strengthening of the muscles (training for
sport) and for an exercise and enlargement
of the respirating organs with sidily persons
or inualides. Royal Prussian State medal.
Patented in all countries, exhibit: foot joint
1248 RdamSdineider* Berlin Tl. 31,Bernauerstr. tot *
Manufactory of dental appliances. Established
1883. Wholesale export. Dental operating
diairs, madtines and apparatus.
1 249 . Simonis * Berlin Tl. 24, Oranienburgerstr. 38 *
Dental apparatus, madiines and operating
diairs. fillings. Electrical apparatus for
Uereinigte Fabrihen fur medizinisdten Bedarf
T. R. Esdtbaum * Bonn -on -the -Rhine * Esta- 1250
blished 1840. Instruments of the surgical
institutes of the uniuersity, Professors Tritsdi
and Schede. Orthopaedical apparatus made
of aluminium bronze etc. Mouement apparatus.
Schede-Esdibaum table, 99 model for LU*. cong.
and spondyl. calot.
Paul Holland & Co. * Berlin SW., Triedridt- 1251
str. 19 * Patent electric boring-madtines for
dentists, sioitdi-boards, storage batteries, re-
flector and other instruments, caloric motors.
See also gr. V cl. 25 p. 175.
Wilhelm Walb * Heidelberg * Maker of surgical 1252
instruments. Microtome hniues. Microscopic
instruments made of nickel and platino-
Weber & Hampel * Berlin Tl., Sdiulzendorfer- 1253
str. 26 * Upper parts, mouable angles, filling
hammers, cables, &c. for dentist's boring
H. Windier * Berlin Tl. 24, Triedrichstr. 133 a * 1254
Koniglidter Hoflieferant. Surgical instruments.
Instruments for the eye, ear, larymr, for am-
putation, gynaecology and obstetrics. Ban-
dages, protheses, Orthopaedical apparatus.
Bronze medal, tondon 1862. Siloer medal,
Paris 186T. Gold medal, Moscow 18T2. Gold
State medal, Berlin 1879. Medal and diploma,
Judging from the many factories, the uaried kind of manufacture, the number of their
products, and the high esrport, the industry of musical instruments takes up an im-
portant position in the German Empire. RU ouer the world German musical instruments
are certain of finding a ready market, and in the high number of their esrport whidi
during the last years has risen to the ualue of an auerage sum of 3840 millions
of marks per year, no other country has come up to Germany.
Dery worthy of notice is the rise whidi has come ouer this industry during the last
30 years, and whidi has been a means of transforming small workshops into factories
of great importance.
Though the manufacture of German instruments, particularly piano-making, could boast
already in the last century of many uery worthy firms who^hawe donejnudi to im-
CHRIMP DE MRRS * MRin BUICDIHG
prove and develop this trade, the industry was a very small one till after the middle
of the t9th century.
With the exception of Markneukirchener and Nittenwalder violins, and the Dogtlandische
musical instruments which in t85t found great favour at the Condon exhibition, the
German musical products were in general very little known in the international
R very marked difference was to be seen in the second Condon Exhibition in the year
t862. It was wonderful how every branch of the musical instrument industry had
developed in so comparatively short a time. The German piano industry had espe-
cially made great strides in its improvement, and it was then that the foundation
stone of the export to England was laid which now brings in to Germany the yearly
sum of tt millions of marks.
Several years later followed the political changes and the founding of the German
Empire which made trading with foreign countries much easier; the use of steam-
power and mechanical means of working brought the industry to such a rise in the
seventies and eighties, as has never been paralleled before or since.
Whilst the exports of musical instruments from the German Customs Union in
the year tS62 only amounted to 844550 kg, it attained in the year t86T already
1 631200 kg, and the further increase of the export trade is to be seen from the
following list of figures which are taken from the export statistics:
Meter zentner to 100 kg Ualue in marks
1873 . , . 29300 16 ttOOOO
1880 , , , 63632 21 65T 000
1898 , , , 151 350 37948000
How the value of the export is distributed oner the different countries is to be seen
from the following data, taken from the export statistics of the year 1897:
Ualue in marks Ualue in marks
Great Britain-lrland , , 13401000 Denmark 440000
British Rustralia , , , , 4 260 000 Mexico 434 000
Russia 3 301 000 Chili 414000
United States of Rmerica 1877000 Roumania 236000
Rustrian Empire , , , . 1 695 000 Portugal 201 000
Holland 1 530 000 Peru 151 000
Cape Colony 995 000 Transvaal 137 000
Switzerland 922 000 the dutch East Indies . , 137 000
Brazil 831 000 Central Rmerica 121 000
Belgium 800000 British florth Rmerica, , 106000
Rrgentine Republic . , , 760 000 United States of Columbia 95 000
Italy 635 000 China 92 000
tlorway 628 000 Spain 87 000
France 621 000 Uruguay 80 000
The industry of the manufacture of musical instruments is more or less spread all
over Germany, but in spite of this some important centres have sprung up and become
famed for certain branches of the industry which are carried on there.
CHRNP D MRRS * NRin BUUDinG
The most important of these centres is the Uogtland in Sa*ony with its principal
places of Warkneukirthen and Klingenthal; here an extensive domestic industry and
a number of factories are engaged in the production of string and wind instruments,
harmoniums &c., whidi are sold by the resident export firms; the number of hands
employed in this neighbourhood is hardly overrated if estimated at 5000.
Recording to the official census of the year tS95 the industry of musical instruments
in Germany is made up of 6T45 establishments with 29272 workers; this number