1st session : 1889-1890) United States. Congress (51st.

The Antiquary (Volume 40) online

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tained by seeing it at work, and having the
different parts explained to us A signal was
made from Paris whilst we were there, and
the attendant said the line of Telegraphs
extended to Calais, and answers could be
received in about 5 or 6 minutes when the
atmosphere was clear. In 5 minutes we
saw the answer returned, a degree of expedi-
tion which seems to exceed one's belief. On
Tuesday evening we went to the Theatre de
I'Academie Royale de Musique i.e., the
Grand Opera. The subject was familiar
enough 'Fernand Cortez, ou, la Conquete
de Mexique.' The band was admirable, but
my ears are not sufficiently French to raise
the Opera Frangaise to the level of the
Italian, The dancing was as fine as could
be, especially in the dances incidental to the
Play. After the Opera there is a pretty con-
siderable pause to allow the audience to take



LETTERS FROM FRANCE AND THE LOW COUNTRLES, 1 8 14-18 19. 73



refreshment; I think half the Pit quitted
their seats, taking a ticket at the door, and
each person resuming his place again with-
out the sh'ghtest confusion. During their
absence they take ice, lemonade, eau de
Groseille, and parade the Coffee room, talking
over the merits of the performance. On
Wednesday evening we went to the Opera
Italien ; I have seldom had a greater treat.
It was ' Agnese,' the music by Paer, and the
story taken very literally from Mrs. Opie's
' Father and Daughter.' The part of Agnese
was taken by Mme. Fodor, and that of the
father by Pellegrini, a most delightful actor.

1 have since heard that he was thought most
highly of in Italy. The Italian Opera in
Paris does not begin till 8, and has no
dancing either between the Acts or after-
wards. There is merely a pause between the

2 Acts, so that you are not fatigued by length
of performance, but quit the Theatre at an
early hour. We are all well, in spite of fruit,
wine, and Fricandeaux ! We get no Garlic !"

" Paris,
" Aziifitsi 21st, 1819.

" I bought at the door of the Hotel 6 very
fine Peaches for 7|d. ; at the Stalls there is a
profusion ; very few nectarines, the French
thinking but little of them, strawberries,
currants and figs. This morning we have
been to the Races and such Races ! in the
Champs de Mars, with clouds of dust far
exceeding any I ever saw in England. The
course was roped in upon the area, and,
being sandy, it was necessary to have that
part watered, or the competitors themselves
would have been lost to the multitude who
thronged to witness the Races. It will take
the French some years to eclipse the Spring
Meeting at Newmarket ! Since our return
we have dressed and visited the Apartments
of the King at the Palace of the Tuilleries.
They are very splendid, especially the bed-
room, of which the furniture is blue velvet
and gold. Poor man ! the splendour can
afford him but little consolation in one of his
severe fits of gout, which I fancy are by no
means rare. I have seen him but twice in
his carriage, where he appears to the greatest
advantage, because his infirmity is not
apparent. In the guard-room, through
which he must pass every time he goes out,
are hung full-length portraits of most of the

VOL. XL.



French Marshals, which were placed there
by Buonaparte. I should have felt interested
in examining them, but we were hurried
through the Apartments, as they are only
shown during the King's airing, and the
many visitors during that interval are formed
into different 'Societes.' I must observe
respecting the Races that they are to be
resumed to-morrow, Sunday, when the
' world ' will be divided between them and
Versailles, in which place the ' jets d'eau '
are to be in full action for the first time for
some weeks. ^V'e mean to go thither after
attending Mass at the Chapel Royal. You
will have not the least difficulty in imagining
how much Religion is likely to suffer in this
country (and particularly in Paris) from the
mixture of business (for a very large propor-
tion of the shops are open, and carts, etc.,
move about as on other days) and pleasure,
which reigns with unrestrained freedom. To
me it seems to leave religion no chance of
making a proper impression on the minds of
the people. The Louvre opens, we are told,
on the 26*^, and we mean to be amongst the
first to enter its doors. I fear that one day
will give no more than a general idea of the
tout ensemble."



Cfte T5ra00es in Q^ilton atJtiep,
Dot0et

By the Rev. Herbert Pentin, M.A., Vicar.

HE Abbey Church of Milton,
founded by King Athelstan in
the year 938 and rebuilt in 1322,
was once very rich in monumental
brasses ; but the Reformation, the Revolu-
tion, and a " Restoration " of the Church in





THE ABBEY COAT OF ARMS.

1789 are responsible for the havoc wrought
among the tombs.

K



74



THE BRASSES IN MILTON ABBEY, DORSET.



Before describing the two brasses which
alone exist, it is worth mentioning that
several stones remain which show the matrices
of brass effigies, escutcheons, and inscriptions.
Of these, the most important is a coarse gray
marble grave slab of Abbot Walter in front



NOS



TUA :



DEDIT : SED : MORS : MALE
I. ED IT.

Of the two brasses which still exist, one is
of John Artur, a Milton monk, and the other
is of Sir John Tregonwell. And both of
these preserved brasses are in St. John the




ST. JOHN BAI'TIST CHAPEL, MILTON AliliKY CHURCH.



of the steps of the High Altar. This four-
teenth-century slab (9 feet by 4 feet) was once
inlaid with a large brass figure of an Abbot
in full pontificals, and the marginal inscrip-
tion cut in the marble reads : abba: valtere:
TE : fata : cito ; rapuere : te : radinga :



Baptist's Chapel at the east end of the north
aisle of the Abbey Church. The position of
each brass is shown in the illustration of the
chapel Tregonwell's is under the canopy of
his monument, and Artur's is on the large
grave slab below.



THE BRASSES IN MILTON ABBE V, DORSET.



75



Ofthe monk John Artur nothing is known.
His grave slab is of marble, and the inscrip-
tion on the plate (i foot long by 3f inches
wide) reads : " Hie jacet Johes Artur hui
loci monachus Cujus anime ppicietur deus.
AMEN." This little brass of the fifteenth
century was probably overlooked when the
many other similar monastic brasses were
deliberately destroyed, or else St. John the
Baptist's Chapel was not visited by the
bearers of axes and hammers.

Of Sir John Tregonwell much more can
be written ; but a description of the brass on



who Dyed the XHI day of January in the
yere of our Lorde 1565. Of whose soule
God have mcy." On a scroll issuing out
of his mouth are the words : " Nos autem
gloriari oportet in cruce dni nostri Jesu
Christi." To the left of this scroll are the
arms of Tregonwell with mantling, an es-
quire's helmet, and the family crest (a Cornish
chough's head erased proper, holding in beak
a chaplet ermine and sable). To the left of
this, again, but lower down, is a shield con-
taining the arms of Tregonwell impaled
quarterly (i) Kehuay or Kellawaye (the




MILTON ABBEY CHURCH.



his canopied monument of Purbeck marble
had better first be given. Sir John is kneel-
ing, with hands clasped, at a prie-dieu^ on
which rests an open book. He is clad in a
tabard. The arms he bears are Argent,
three pellets in a fess cotised sable between
three Cornish choughs proper. It will be
noticed that the arms appear on the prie-dieic
hanging as well as on Sir John's tunic and
shoulders. The knight's open helmet, with-
out bars, rests in front of the prie-dieu. He
is equipped with sword and spurs, and wears
a chain around his neck. The inscription
below reads : " Here lyeth buried Syr John
Tregonwell knyght doctor ofthe Cyvill Lawes,
and one of the maisters of the Chauncerye



surname of Sir John's first wife) : Argent,
two glazier's nippers per saltire between four
pears within a bordure engrailed sable \ (2)
By set : Azure, ten bezants, 4, 3, 2, i ; (3)
Bingham of Sutton : Ermine, three lions ram-
pant on a chief sable ; (4) Ricmsey : Argent,
a fess gules, in chief a label of five points
azure. The shield of arms on the right of
the figure of Sir John contains the arms of
Tregonwell impaled with the arms of New, of
Newbarnes, Herts (per saltire gules and or,
four chaplets counterchanged), but Sir John's
second wife was surnamed Bruce. The
entire brass shows traces of colouring, and
it has the additional interest of containing
one of the latest instances of a tabard.

K 2



76



THE BRASSES IN MILTON ABBEY, DORSET



And now we leave the brass and return to
the man. Sir John Tregonwell came of a
very ancient Cornish family, and was probably
born at Tregonwell Manor in Cornwall. He
matriculated at Oxford, and was admitted
Licentiate of Civil Law in 1522. He is also
credited with having been Principal of a
small college now included in Christ Church,
Oxford. But he made his reputation by the
support he gave Henry VHL in re the
divorce of Catharine of Aragon. In 1529,
Dr. Tregonwell (he had then taken his
I^L.D. degree) was one of the King's Proctors,
and was present in London at Cardinal
Campeggio's trial of the Queen. A year later
he visited, with Cranmer and others, the
Universities of Europe, to gain their decision
in favour of the divorce. In 1533 he was
employed as a Master of the Chancery, and
in the same year he acted as King's Counsel
when the final sentence of divorce was pro-
nounced on Catharine. For this he received
a pension of j[,^o a year, and was soon after-
wards made Chief Judge of the Admiralty;
but his work, nevertheless, for the next few
years seems to have been on the King's busi-
ness in Scotland. In 1538 he was appointed
a Commissioner to receive the resignation of
religious houses in England, and on March 1 1
of the next year the Abbot of Milton (John
Bradley, B.D., afterwards Bishop Suffragan
of Shaftesbury) surrendered Milton Abbey
into his hands. A year later Henry VIII.
granted him (Tregonwell) the Milton Abbey
Estate for ;^ 1,000 and the forfeiture
of the ^40-pension aforesaid. In 1544 he
again sat in the Court of Chancery, and in
1550 he was made one of the Commissioners
of the Great Seal. Three years later he was
elected Member of Parliament for Scar-
borough, and received the honour of knight-
hood. The following year (1554) he was
chosen as Sheriff for the counties of Dorset
and Somerset, and probably he lived chiefly
at Milton from this time to the time of his
death in 1565. Sir John's descendants
reigned as lords of the manor of Milton for
over a hundred years, and a pedigree exists
which shows intermarriages with such families
as the Villiers, the Montagues, the Beau-
champs, and the like. The last Tregonwell
who lived at Milton was Maria Tregonwell,
wife of Sir Jacob Bancks, and her monument



exists in the Abbey Church, bearing the date
1703.

In conclusion, it should be added that
whatever were the faults of Sir John Tregon-
well, he must certainly be most highly com-
mended for having preserved the beautiful
Abbey Church of Milton, and for having
constituted it the Parish Church. Thanks
also to his care, many of its valuable internal
fittings and ornaments were saved, including
the ancient Tabernacle or Sacrament House
(for reserving the Eucharist), which still
exists in the church to-day as an unique
prize. He spared all he could, and amid the
stormy days which have since arisen his own
tomb has been spared. Sunt superis sua
iura.

And so we take our leave of Sir John
Tregonwell and his monument, marking
carefully his motto, " It behoves us to glory
in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ," and
breathing softly the prayer, " Of whose soule
God have mcy."




Cfte CObite IPatecnostec.



By E. C. Vansittart.



ANY of us have probably never
heard of the ^Vhite Paternoster,
a strange remnant of superstition
which, under the form of an even-
ing prayer, is still used as a charm or incanta-
tion by the illiterate in at least five European
countries. As Countess Martinengo Cesaresca
remarks in her Study of Folk-songs, " Prayers
that partake of the nature of charms have
always been popular, and people have
ever indulged in odd little roundabout
devices to increase the efficacy of even the
most sacred words."

The earliest reference to the White Pater-
noster in English literature is by Chaucer in
his " Miller's Tale " :

Lord Jhesu Christ, and seynte Benedyht,

Blesse this hour from every wikked wight.

Fro nyghtes verray [commonly supposed to mean

nightmare], the White Paternostre
When wonestrow now, seynte Patres soster.



THE WHITE PATERNOSTER.



77



Another mention of it occurs in White's
Way to the True Church (1624) :

White Paternoster, Saint Peter's l^rother,
What hast i' th' t'one hand ? heaven gate keyes.
Open heaven gates, and streike [shut] hell gates :
And let every crysome child creepe to its own mother.
White Paternoster. Amen.

The ordinary English version now in use
has been modified to :

Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John,

Bless the bed that I lie on,

P'our posties [or corners] to my bed.

Six angels are outspread.

Two to bottom, two to head,

One to watch me while I pray,

One to bear my soul away.

Speaking of the White Paternoster, the
Rev. S. Baring-Gould remarks : " We find
that the only prayers used by tens of thou-
sands, only now very slowly being driven out
by the Lord's Prayer, or being abandoned
because all prayer is being given up, are not
a Catholic reminiscence at all, but an hereti-
cal one condemned by the Papal Church."

The reason of these prayers being denomi-
nated "white'' remains a mystery: perhaps
they were so designated in contradistinction
to the things of darkness and powers of evil
from which they are supposed to preserve the
suppliant, white being the symbol of purity
and goodness. " Provence, for instance, has
a strange passion for white things white
horses, white dogs, white sheep, white doves,
white flowers." The White Pater occurs in
many different forms, but all take the tone of
a magic incantation or charm ; some are so
weird and strange as to border on blasphemy.
la the southern French provinces of Provence
and Gascony, though formally proscribed by
the Church, they are still in common use.
There, when round the wide hearth of the
homestead, the spinners have spent the dark
winter evening relating wonderful old-world
fairy tales, these prayers are recited before all
retire to rest : some of them picture Paradise,
with its golden trees, among which rainbow-
hued birds sing wondrous songs; others,
Christ on His cross, the flowers beneath
reddened by His blood ; others, again, the
iniquities of men having filled up the measure
of God's patience, terrible vengeance falls
upon the world ; saints and martyrs are
appealed to, mysticism and agonized terror



combining to produce petitions wellnigh
incredible. The following " Petit Patenotre
blanc" was taken down in 1872 from the
lips of an old woman named Catherine
Bastien, living in the Departement de la
Loire :

Jesu m'endort.
Si je trepasse, mande mon corps.
Si je trepasse, mande mon ame,
Si je vis, mande mon esprit.
Je prends les anges pour mes amis,
Le bon Dieu pour mon pere,
La Sainte Vierge pour ma mere,
Saint Louis de Gonzague
Aux quatre coins de ma chambre,
Aux quatre coins de mon lit ;
Preservez moi de I'enemi,
Seigneur, ^ I'heure de ma mort.

Jesus puts me to sleep.
If I die, my body He'll keep ;
If I die, my soul He'll keep ;
If I live, my spirit He'll keep.
I take the angels as friends.
The good God as my Father,
The Blessed Virgin as mother,
St. Louis of Cionzague
At the four corners of my room,
At the four corners of my bed ;
Preserve me from the enemy,
Lord, at the hour of my death.

Provence is the home of the following

Au liech de Diou,

Me couche iou,

Sept anges n'en trouve iou,

Tres es peds,

Quatre au capct ;

La Buceno Mere es au niitan,

Uno roso bianco a la man ;

Me dit : "N., endourme te,

Agues pas poou se n'as la fe,

Ni en creynes ren dou chin, dou loup,

De la ragi que vai partout,

De I'aiguo courrent, dou feuc lusent,

Ni de toutes marides gens."

In God's bed

I lay me down ;

Seven angels there I find,

Three at the foot,

Four at the head ;

The Blessed Mother thrones in the midst

A white rose in her hand ;

" Sleep, N.," to me she saith ;

" Flave thou no fear, if thou hast faith ;

Dread neither dog, nor wolf,

Nor the storms that rage around,

Nor running water, nor flaming fire,

Nor yet any evil men."

Santo Anno, mero de Noustro Damo,
Et mero grand de Jesus Christ,
Enseignetz me Iou Sant Paradis.



78



THE WHITE PATERNOSTER.



St. Anne, mother of Our Lady,
And grandmother of Jesus Christ,
Teach me the way to Paradise.

Grand St. Calici benesit,
Adoura de Jesus Christ,
Mettez moun corps en terro,
Et moun amo en Paradis.
Great blessed holy Chalice,
Adored by Jesus Christ,
Place my body in the earth,
And my soul in Paradise.

For the following I am indel)ted to Jean
Fran(^ois Blade's exhaustive collection of the
folk-songs of Gascony :

Pater blanc,

Dauant Diu nous presentan,

Dauant Diu e dauant tout/,

Dauant I'aubre dc la croutz.

White Paternoster,

Before God we bow ourselves,

Before God and before all the rest

Before the tree of the cross.

Au lleit dou Boun Diu me couche jou ;

Cinq anjouletz que trobi jou ;

Dus as pes, dus au cap.

La sento Bierge es au mitat.

" Per(jue," (^a ditz, "nou dromes pas ?"

" Podi pas."

" Qui t en empache ?"

" Jesus-Crit."

" Oun es Jesus-Crit ?"

" Sur la porte du Paradis."

" Que he aqui?"

" Que benasis lou soun et lou leuere."

" Mechantos causos, tiretz bous en darre !"

In God's bed I lay me down ;

Five angels find I there :

Two at the feet, two at the head,

The Blessed Virgin in the midst.

" Why," says she, "dost thou not sleep ?"

" I cannot."

'* Who prevents thee ?"

"Jesus Christ."

" Where is Jesus Christ ?"

"At the gate of Paradise."

" What doth He there?"

" He blesseth sleeping and waking."

" Evil things, get you gone !"

La Sento Bierge Mario,

Deguens soun lleit droumeno,

Soun benasit car es as pes,

De sa mai benasido.

" O ma mai, Mario,

Droumetz ou beillatz ?"

" Nani. Lou men benasit car hill m'en goarde.

Jou n'ei sounjat

Que bous auon pres e ligat

Sou pe dou Mounti Carbat."

" Ma mai, Mario, es bien bertat,

M'an pres e ligat,

Sou pe dou Mounti Carbat."



Bostes benasitz pes soun dambe clouerous cloueratz,

Bostes benasitz coustatz

Dab lanfos nar^atz ;

Bosto benasido bouco

Dab soijo e vinagre abeurado."

(^ui aquesto ouresoun sabera, e tres cops la digue,

Gagnera I'amou dou Boun Diu,

E de la Bierge Mario.

The Blessed Virgin Mary

Lay in her bed.

Her dear blessed Son lies at the feet

Of His blest Mother.

"O my mother, Mary,

Dost thou sleep or wake ?"

"No. My dear blest Son prevents me.

I dreamt

That they took and bound Him,

At the foot of Mount Calvary."

" But, My mother, Mary, it is true,

They took and bound Me

At the foot of Mount Calvary."

" Your blessed feet were nailed with nails.

Your blessed side

Pierced by a spear,

Your blessed mouth

With hyssop and with vinegar was wet."

Who knows this prayer, and thrice repeats it,

Shall gain God's love,

And Virgin Mary's too.

Dens lou cenienteri cntri jou,

Bous saludi praubos anielos,

Bous aus que droumetz,

Bous aus que beillatz

Dempus sent Pierre dinqu'a sent Joan,

Ave Maria.

As the cemetery I enter,

Poor little souls, I greet you,

You who sleep,

You, too, who wake.

From the day of St. Peter to that of St. John,

Ave Maria !

Tiratz, tiratz auant, hrilletos,

Trouberatz lous hrcetairous,

Lou blanc conquet,

Lou martinet,

Lou haure blanc,

Dambe sas estiaillos d'argent.

Come on, come on, little girls ;
The scourgers you'll find,
The little white cock,
And the martin,
The blacksmith white
With pincers silvery.

In several parts of Southern France the
belief prevails that our Lord was nailed to the
cross by a blacksmith clothed in white.

Marie Madaleno
Ero que se proumeno,
Per las ribos, lous camps,
Lou prume que rencountro
E^tec moussu sent Joan.



THE WHITE PATERNOSTER.



79



" Sent Joan, au^tz pas bist moun hill ?"

" Si fet, Nostro Damo.

L'ei bist sur I'aubre de la croutz,

Dambe sas mas claueradas.

Sou cap a no couroune,

De set espinas blancos."

Cette priere

Qui la dira maitin e soir,

James nou beira hoec d'inher.

Mary Magdalene

Took her walk,

By the streams and through the fields.

The first she met

Was Mister St. John.

" St. John, my Son have you seen?"'

" Yes, indeed, O my Lady !

On the tree of the cross have I seen Ilim,

With nails in His hinds,

And His head wears a crown

Of seven white thorns."

Who morn and even

This prayer shall say.

Hell's fire need never see.

Another kind of White Paternoster goes
by the name of La Planchette, and bears a
strange resemblance to the narrow plank
spoken of in the sacred books of the Arabs
and Persians. I give two instances of this
weird incantation, for prayer it cannot be
called :

" Agrineto

Poulidcto,

D'oun bengues ?"

" Dou Paradis."

"Qu'as bist?"

" Ei bist no palanqueto

Que n'es pas larjo, mes estreto,

Coumo un peu de ma testeto.

Lous urous i passaran,

Lous damnatz i toumberan ;

Crideran : 'Jesus ! misericordo !

Baillatz nous I'aubre de la croutz.' "

" Swallow,

Pretty one.

Whence comest thou ?'

" From Paradise."

" What hast thou seen?"

" I saw a plank

Which is not wide, but narrow,

As a hair of my head.

The blest walk across it.

The damned fall off it ;

They cry : ' Jesu ! mercy !

Give us the tree of the cross.'"

Digan lou Petit Pater

Coumo lou Boun Diu I'a dit.

Au leuat,

Au couchat,

De buonos obras s'es debrumbat.

Es entrat en nau cram pet os,

I a troubat nau Biergetos.



" Nau Biergetos, que brasetz aquiu? "

" Que batian le hill de Diu."

" Coumo lou batiatz ?"

" Couloumbeto, couloumban,

Que pourtatz sur boste banc ?"

*' Oli, chremo,

De boste batemo.

Lous que bien haran

Aqui que passaran.

I a no palanqueto

Qu'es pas largo, mes estreto

Mes qu'un peu de ma testeto,

Lous qui bien haran,

Aqui passeran.

Lous qui mau haran,

En inher que toumberan."

Let us recite the little Pater

As the good God has bid us.

On rising.

On lying down,

Of good works forgetful he has been.

He entered into nine little chambers ;

I have found there nine little maidens.

" Nine little maidens, what do you here?"

" We are baptizing the Son of God."

" How do you baptize Him ?"'

' Dove little dove.

What are you carrying in your beak ?"

*' Oil, chrism.

From your baptism.

Those who do good

This way shall pass.

There is a plank

Which is not wide, but narrow,

Narrow as a hair of my head.

Those who do good

Here shall pass;

Those who do evil

Into hell shall fall."

The following is in use as a preservative
against fever :

Sainte Catherine, aux fleurs de lys,

Pretez moi vos petits souliers gris,

Pour aller dans le Paradis.

On dit que le Paradis est si beau,

Qu'on voit trois anges et trois agneaux,

Trois pucelettes,

Cuillant de la violette

Dans le jardin de notre Seigneur.

Notre Seigneur passant pas la

Dit a Catherine : " Que fais tu la ?"

" Je tremble de fievre et de frisson."

Ceux qui sauront cette oraison

En seront exempts dans la saison.

St. Catherine with the lily flower,

Lend me thy sandals gray.

To bear me in to Paradise.

They say that Paradise is fair.

Three angels and three lambs are there,

Three maidens

Who the violets cull

In the garden of our Lord.



8o



THE WHITE PATERNOSTER.



The Master, passing on His way,

Thus to St. Catherine spake : " \Vhat doest thou in

here ?"
"With fever and with ague I do quake."
Who knows this prayer
A year the fever need not fear.

In Italy the White Paternoster exists in
*' an embarassing abundance of folk-prayers
formed after the self-same model." The
Sicilian, for instance, uses as his regular
evening prayer the following :

Lu Signiruzzi m' e patri,

La Madunnuzza m' e matri,

L'Ancileddi fratuzzi,

Li Sarafini cucini ;

Ora ca haju st' amici fidili,

Mi fazzu la cruci e mi niettu a durmiri.

The Lord Ciod my Father is,

Our Lady is my Mother,

The angels my brothers are,

The seraphim my cousins ;

Now these faithful friends surround me,

I cross myself, and lay me down to sleep.

In Sardinia the formula is longer :

Su letto meo est de battor cantones,

Et battor anghelos si bie ponen !

Duos in pes, et duos in cabitta.

Nostra Segnora a costazu m' ista.



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