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were liberated because none but
freemen could serve in the Roman
legions.

Ch. 11. 24. multae Italiae civi-
tates : •• chiefly Samnites and other
south Italian states. The Greek
cities held to Home, and 'not one
Roman citizen, nor one Latin com-
munity, had joined Hannibal. ' "

Pack 31. 2 - variis suppliciis :
probably the Romans exaggerated
the cruelty and treachery of Han-
nibal.

3. anulorum : these rings were
the distinctive badges of the knights
and senators.

7. duobus Scipiombus : P.Cor-
nelius and Gnaeus, the father and
iinclr of P. Scipio Africanus. For



the campaign in Spain see Borne
and Carthage, p. 183.

Ch. 12. 12. anno quarto post-
quam : H. 486 (429) ; M. 243, 1 ;
A. & G. 250; G. 393; B. 223; cf.
aliquot annls post, Ch. 6.

13. Marcellus : see note on 31.
Claudib Mdrcello, Ch. 0.

civitatem = urbem; cf. conditd
c'lvitdte, Bk. I, 2.

16. rex Macedoiriae Philippus :
although Philip promised aid, he
never gave it. Owing to his frt-
quent struggles with the states of
Greece, and the invasion of Macedo-
nia by the Romans, he was compelled
to devote his undivided attention to
preserving his realm.

21. proconsulem : 'ex-consul';
at the expiration of his term of
office -the consul was given a prov-
ince to govern, under the title of
proconsul.

22. ea : the antecedent is Sardinia.
Ch. 13. 25. Hispanils: the two

divisions of Spain, Hither and
Further.

28. missus fuerat : cf. qucsta
fuisset, Bk. I, s.

Pagk 32. 3. et Hasdrubalem :
' including Hasdrubal.'

Ca. 14. 8. ad . . . urbis i cf.
mi (//tint/in) mUiarium urbis, Bk. I,
15. This was merely a feint on the
part of Hannibal to draw the Ro-
mans away from Capua, which they
were besieging, to the defense of
Rome. Borne and Carthage, p.
187.

12. per multos annos : cf, per
annum. Bk. I, 10.



Pages 32-34]



NOTES



127



16. nobilissima urbs Syracus-

ana : "So fell Syracuse, the virgin
city, which had seen two Athenian
armaments perish beneath its walls
which had for centuries saved Sicily
from becoming altogether, what its
greater part then was, a Carthagin-
ian appanage. ... It fell to rise
no more, at least to its former opu-
lence. Its temples were left stand-
ing, because they would not pay for
moving ; . . . but the choicest works
of art were swept off to adorn the
imperial city." Borne and Carthage,
p. 181.

22. in deditionem accepit : cf.
in deditionem acceperunt, Bk. 11,21.

24. consulem : he was praetor,
not consul. He was surprised by
Hannibal and slain before Herdonia.

Page 33. Ch. 15. 2. P. Corne-
lius Scipio : he is one of the most
interesting characters in Roman
history. Brilliant and versatile, he
seemed to be the favorite of fortune.
When the senate had resolved to
make one more attempt to conquer
Spain and were looking for a leader,
he offered himself and was sent with
1 1 ,000 men. On his arrival he found
the forces of the Carthaginians scat-
tered in different parts of the prov-
ince, and New Carthage defended
by a weak garrison. By a brilliant
stratagem he captured this with its
riches and munitions of war, 207 b. c.
Next he attacked Hasdrubal at Bae-
cula in Andalusia. Although the
Romans claimed the victory, Has-
drubal escaped from his hands and
started for Italy to bear aid to his



brother Hannibal. Spain was left
to the undisputed possession of the
Romans.

3. annos natus . . . vigintl : cf .
decern . . . natus, Bk. 1, 1. He was
too young to be elected to the con-
sulship.

5. fere primus : ' almost the
first,'

Karthaginem Hispaniae : called
' New Carthage.' See note on hel-
ium Punicum secundum, Ch. 7. A
town still exists on the same spot
bearing the name Cartagena.

11. uno animo : 'with one ac-
cord.'

Ch. 16. 14. Q. Fabius Maxi-
mus : see note on Q. Fabio Maximo,
Ch. 9.

17. pecuniam hominum ven-
ditorum : ' the money derived from
the sale of the prisoners.'

18. ad fiscum: cf. ex fisco, Bk.
II, 27.

21. egregias res: 'extraordi-
nary exploits.'

perse : cf. per Jllios, Bk. I, 6.

22. L. Scipionem: became fa-
mous for his victories in the East,
Bk. IV, 4.

23. Claudius Marcellus : see
note on M. Claudib Marcello, Ch. 6.

Cn. 17. 26. res inclitas: cf.
egregias res, Ch. 16.

Page 34. 1- m amicitiam ac-
cepit: cf. in deditionem acceperunt,
Bk. II, 21. It meant practical sub-
jection in either case.

a victS : sc. hoste.

2. obsides non poposcit- by
pursuing the opposite course to that



128



NOTES



[Pa<



U36



of the Carthaginians he hoped to win
over the Spaniards.

Ch. 18. 3. desperans : ' giving
up the hope.'

6\ a consulibus: construe with
insidids compositds.

7. apud Senam : one of the crit-
ical battles of the world's history.
It is generally known as the battle
of the Metaurus, from the name of
the river near which it was fought.
The messenger sent by Hasdrubal to
inform his brother Hannibal of his
coming fell into the hands of the
Romans. Nero, leaving a part of
his forces to w r atch Hannibal, with
a picked band hastened north, joined
the force under Salinator, defeated
Hasdrubal, who perished in the bat-
tle, and returned to his army in
Apulia before Hannibal discovered
his absence. It is said that he or-
dered the severed head of Hasdrubal
to be flung into the camp of Hanni-
bal. He "recognized the features
of the brother whom he had so long
and eagerly expected, and in them
sadly saw the doom of Carthage."
Borne and Carthage, p. 100 ; Creigh-
ton, p. 45.

12. ingens animus accessit :
lit. » great courage came to in ad-
dition 1 = 'great courage was in-
spired in.'

et ipsi = etiam : cf. et ipse, Bk.
1,8.

< ii. 20. 10. in Africam missus :
the senate, led by Fabius, opposed
the sending of Scipio, but the people
forced that body to accede to their
demands. Owing to the opposition



Scipio was not as well equipped for
the expedition as he should have
been.

divinum quiddam : ' something

divine.' The ancients believed that

great men were inspired by the

gods. Scipio pretended to hold

communication with Jupiter Capito-

linus. Probably he merely took

advantage of a popular superstition.

24. Syphacem : Syphax had

driven Masinissa, a Lybian king,

! from his throne. Masinissa joined

Scipio on his arrival in Africa and

| gave him valuable aid. When the

| war was ended Masinissa was re-

i stored to his throne as his reward.

Page 35, Cn. 21. 5. legati . . .
petiverimt : their purpose was to
enable Hannibal to reach Africa
and prepare for war against Scipio.

7. quousque = donee : a late
usage.

8. milia : sc. Ubrdrvm.
pondo : ' by weight. '

11. ne . . . redderent : Indirect
Discourse depending on an idea of
commanding implied in his . . .
dedit.

Cn. 22. 10. quibus prius : sc.
data esset ; cf. his condicionibus
dedit, Ch. 21.

20. quingentis milibus \ Dative,
object of additls.

24. Karthagini bellum : the de-
tails of these operations are imper-
fectly known. Borne and Carthage,
p. 222.

PAOS3& c »- 23 -• Wll me-
moria : ' within the memory of
any one'



Pagks 36, 37]



NOTES



129



3. ScipiS victor : this was at
the famous battle of Zama, one of
the decisive battles of the world.
Although Hannibal managed his
forces with his usual skill, and his
veterans fought like the men who
had so often conquered in Italy, the
Carthaginians were utterly defeated.
This ended the Second Punic War.
Borne and Carthage, p. 224 ; Creigh-
ton, p. 46.

6. mllia : sc. librdrum.

7. suppellectilis : Nominative,
the usual form is supellex.

9. Africanus : later Mdior was
added to his name to distinguish
him from the Scipio Africanus who
destroyed Carthage, 146 b.c.

11. quam coeperat : cf. quatn
venerant, Bk. II, 28.

Book IV

Ch. 1. 12. Macedonicum: sc.

bellum.

Ch. 2. 13. Philippum : Philip
V, king of Macedonia, began to
reign 220 b.c, was defeated by
Flamininus at Cynoscephalae 197
b.c, and died 179 b.c. The Story
of the Romans, p. 137 ; Creighton,
p. 47.

15. rem prospere gessit : in 196
b.c, at the meeting of the Isthmian
games, Flamininus caused a herald
to proclaim, "that the senate and
the people of Rome, and their com-
mander, Titus Quinctius, having
subdued Philip and the Macedoni-
ans, now restored the Corinthians,
Phocians, Locrians, Euboeans,
Thessalians, Achaeans, etc., to

HAZ. ETTROPITJS 9



their freedom and independence,
and to the enjoyment of their own
laws."

19. quaterna mllia : sc. libra-
rum ; note the force of the distribu-
tive.

pondo : cf. pondo, Bk. Ill, 21.

Page 37. 2 - Nabidem : Nabis,
the tyrant of Lacedaemon, had
seized the city of Argos.

quibua voluit condicionibus =
quibns voluit els condicionibus.

in fidem accepit : cf. in fidem
acceptae, Bk. II, 19. This is a mild
way of saying that he made the
king a subject of Rome.

Ch. 3. 6. Syriacum : sc. bellum.
Creighton, p. 48.

7. Antiochum: the most illustri-
ous of the family of the Seleucidae,
kings of Syria, was Antiochus, sur-
named the Great. After having con-
quered Caelo-Syria and Palestine,
he was urged by Hannibal, who had
taken refuge at his court, to make
war on the Romans. He invaded
Greece, but was defeated by L.
Scipio at Thermopylae in 191 b.c,
and again at Mt. Sipylus in Mag-
nesia in 190 b.c, when he was com-
pelled to sue for peace.

12. fuisset : cf. quia . . . fecis-
sent, Bk. II, 11.

Ch. 4. 14. L. Cornelio Sclpione :
cf. Bk. Ill, 1_6.

Scipio Africanus : although
Scipio Africanus was the legatus of
his brother, yet he practically acted
as commander, as his brother was
a man of no ability.

17. navali proelio : this battle,



130



NOTES



[Pages 37, 38



fought at the mouth of the Eury-
niedon, off Aspendus in Pamphylia,
4 ' was the first naval battle and
the last battle fought by Hannibal
against the Romans."

18. apud Magnesiam : "with
the day of Magnesia Asia was erased
from the list of great states ; and
never perhaps did a great power fall
so rapidly, so thoroughly, and so
ignominiously as the kingdom of the
Seleucidae under this Antiochus the
Great." Mommsen.

20. Eumenes: Antiochus had
offered one of his daughters in mar-
riage to Eumenes, the king of Per-
gamus, on condition that he assist
him against the Romans.

22. ex parte regis : ' on the side
of the king. '

24. data est : sc. pax.

25. recederet : cf. inferret, Ch. 2.
Page 38. 1- concitatorem belli :

' who had aroused the war ' ; often
it is best to translate nouns of
Agency by a clause.

6. et ipse : cf. et ipse, Bk. I. 8.

Asiagenis : the more usual title
is Asiatic us.

Ch. 5. 12. per T. Quintium Fla-
mininum : cf. per Jllids, Bk. I, 6.

13. tradendus esset : the bitter-
ness with which the Romans hunted
down Hannibal was unworthy of
such a man and such a nation.

venerium bibit : "Thus igno-
miniously ended the career of the
man who stood once at the head of
the commanders of the world, and
whose memory is still honored for
the magnificence of his ambition in



daring to attack and expecting to
conquer the most powerful nation
of his time."

Ch. 6. 19. rebellavit : on account
of the division of the conquered ter-
ritory after the fall of Antiochus,
Philip became indignant at the -Ro-
mans, and planned a revolt on a
large scale. His death in 179 b.c.
prevented him from putting his plans
into execution. His son Perseus at-
tempted to carry them out. Owing
to his lack of genius, he did not
act promptly and with energy when
the opportunity offered, and let it
slip by.

20. Thraciae : Thrace was the
name given originally to the whole
region north of the Aegean Sea.
Afterwards it was confined to the
valley of the Hebrus. It became a
Roman province in 46 a.d.

Illyrici: Illyricum was on the
east coast of the Adriatic Sea. Its
rocky coasts were infested with
pirates until it was conquered by the
Romans in the second century b.c.
It was made a province afterwards
and known as Dalmatia.

21. Romanis . . . auxilio : cf.
auxilio . . . Iiomrinls. Ch. 4.

24. utrisque . . . praebuit : lit.
' furnished himself equal to both ' a
'remained neutral.'

25. P. Licinius : sc. OrassHS. He
was utterly incompetent and thor-
oughly unscrupulous.

26. gravi proelio victus : near
Larisa. If Perseus had possessed
the energy to follow up this victory,
the result might have been different.



Pages 39, 40]



NOTES



131



Page 39. 1- mox missus contra

eum : Eutropius does not mention
the two campaigns under Aulus Hos-
tilius and Quintius Marcius Philip-
pus, in both of which the Romans
were unsuccessful.

2. L. Aemilius Paulus : he was
the son of the consul who fell at
Cannae, Bk. Ill, 10. He was one
of the best specimens of the sturdy
Roman character. He was noted
for his discipline in the army, and
maintained throughout life a pure
and unspotted character.

6. ante . . . quam : cf. note on
ante . . . quam, Bk. II, 13.

Ch. 7. 8. Ill Nonas Septem-
bres : the full expression would be
ante diem tertium Nonas Septem-
bres; cf. XI Kal. Maids, Bk. I, 1.

9. vicit: at the battle of Pydna
in Macedonia, 168 b.c. "It was in
fact the last battle in which a civil-
ized state confronted Rome in the
field on a footing of equality with
her as a great power. . . . The
whole civilized world henceforth
recognized in the Roman senate the
supreme tribunal whose commis-
sioners decided in the last resort
between kings and nations."
Mommsen, History of Borne, Vol.
II, p. 330.

14. honorem . . . habuit : ' held
him in honor' = 'honored him.'

victo : in apposition with el.

15. sibi : sibi and se refer to
Paulus.

23. convivii apparatu : • in his
entertainments.'

Ch. 8. 25. praedam . . . dis-



tribuit : this act of cruelty was
commanded by the senate.

Page 40. 2. triumphavit au-
tem magnificentissime : never
before had Rome seen so grand a
triumph. It lasted for three days.

3. cum duobus illiis : Q. Fa-
bius Maximus and P. Scipio Afri-
canus Minor, both of whom had
been adopted into other families.

9. Bithyniae : supply rex from
reges above.

Ch. 10. 15. tertium . . . Kar
thaginem : The Story of the Romans,
p. 139 ; Creighton, p. 50 ; Rome and
Carthage, Ch. XIX. The Romans
encouraged their ally Masinissa to
encroach on the territories of Car-
thage and to harass her in every
way. They were seeking a pretext
for war, having fully decided to
utterly destroy their hated rival.
The story is told that every speech
that Cato the Censor made was con-
cluded with the words ' Delenda est
Carthago,'' 'Carthage must be de-
stroyed.'

16. L. Manlio CensorinS et
M. Manilio : they were utterly in-
competent. On several occasions
they were saved from destruction
only by the skill of Scipio.

19. Karthaginem oppugnave-
runt: the Carthaginians tried in
every way to avert the war. Em-
bassy after embassy was sent to
Rome, offering everything that could
be asked. When the Romans de-
manded the surrender of the arms
of the city, they were given. But
when it was demanded that they



182



NOTES



[Packs 40, 41



should leave their city and should
settle somewhere else at a distance
of ten miles from the sea, they re-
fused and prepared for the struggle
that was inevitable.

21. Scipio : "Publius Cornelius
Scipio was the youngest son of
Aemilius Paulus, the conqueror of
Macedonia. When quite a youth
he had fought at his father's side
at Pydna, and he was afterwards
adopted into a still more illustrious
family, that of the Scipios. Like
his grandfather, the great African us,
he had early shown a taste for other
arts than that of war ; and his fond-
ness for literature was cemented by
the friendship which he formed,
while still a youth, with the histo-
rian Polybius. He was inferior in
all respects to his grandfather by
adoption, the elder Africanus." He
is chosen by Cicero in the De Ami-
citia as one whose friendship was
worthy of immortality.

24. consultissimus : ' most fer-
tile in council.'

per eum : cf. per And fllios,
Bk. I, 6.

27. committere: sc. proelium;
the omission is late and rare.

Page 41. Ch. 11. 1. per idem
tempus : equivalent to the Abla-
tive of Time within which.

Masinissa : see note on S>ji>hd-
cem, Bk. Ill, 20.

Ch. 12. 6. iuvenis ; see note on
annorum, Bk. II, 6. Scipio was
about thirty -seven years old, and
had held the office of military tri-
bune only.



6. consul est factus : as in the
case of his grandfather by adoption,
there was the tacit understanding
that his office was to be continued
until he had brought the war to an
end. The Romans by this time had
learned the advantage of retaining
in office in times of danger a man
who showed himself adapted to the
place.

9. quae sua recognoscebant :
' which they recognized as their
own.'

10. Karthago . . . deleta est :
"Thus happened what, happily, has
rarely happened in history before
or since. An ancient seat of civili-
zation with the race which inhabited
it, with its arts and its sciences, its
laws, its literature, and its religion,
was swept away at a single stroke,
leaving hardly a wrack behind ; and
with it vanished the last rival whom
Rome had to fear, the one state
which ever met her on equal terms.
and therefore alone stood between
her and universal empire." Rome
and Carthage, p. 260.

quam = postquam.

11. avus eius: his grandfather
by adoption, P. Cornelius Scipio
Africanus Maior, the conqueror of
Hannibal.

12. Africanus iunior : etiam
ipse can, of course, refer only to
Africanus, iunior being adversative ;
'Africanus (but) younger'; cf.
note on Tarquiniw iunior, Bk. I. B.

Ch. 13. 14. Pseudophilippus :
" A pretender, calling himself Phil-
lip, the son of Perseus, met with



Pages 41-43]



NOTES



133



Support from Thrace and Byzan-
tium, and was accepted as king by
the Macedonian nation. He even
extended his rule over Thessaly by
his victory over the Roman praetor
Juventius." Mommsen, p. 219.

15. praetorem: the praetor was
one of the chief magistrates at
Rome, next, to the consuls. The
number varied at different times.
After Sulla's time there were eight.
The duties of the praetor were to
administer justice, and in the ab-
sence of the consuls to act in their
place. Praetors were also sent to
govern provinces subject to Rome.

1(3. ad internecionem : ' to the
point of destruction.'

Ch. 14. 22. cepit: after the
battle of Leucopatra, in which the
Achaeans were utterly defeated.

dirait : M With Corinth fell the
liberties of Greece ; a Roman prov-
ince took the place of the state that
for six centuries had been the home
of art and eloquence, the intellec-
tual sovereign of antiquity ; but
though overcome and despoiled, she
became the guide and teacher of her
conqueror." The light of Greece
was extinguished.

27. pictae tabulae : 'pictures.'

Page 42. Ch. 15. 3. haberet :
H. 598 (515, HI) ; M. 378, 6 ; A. &
G. 313, d ; G. 587 ; B. 309, 3.

quaestore : the quaestor was an
officer in charge of the treasury.
Two remained in the city while the
others accompanied the provincial
governors and managed the finances
of the provinces.



Ch. 16. 5. Metellus: Q. Cae-
cilius Metellus, called Macedonicus,
was the son of Caecilius mentioned
in Bk. Ill, 19. He was consul in
143 b.c, and received the province
of Hither Spain, where he carried
on war with success for two years
against the Celtiberi. His brother,
L. Caecilius, was consul in 142 b.c
Chs. 21, 23.

8. Viriathus : it is said that
Caepio procured his assassination.

9. quo metu = cuius metu : for
the case of metu, cf. metu, Ch. 3.

12. adsertor : ' restorer of lib-
erty.'

Ch. 17. 17. pacem ignobilem
fScit: but fearing the reckoning
that awaited him at home for con-
cluding peace, he denied before the
senate the agreement he had made
with the people of Numantia. The
total incompetency of Pompeius
and of his successor, Mancinus, and
the demoralization of the army,
caused the war to drag on with dis-
grace and disaster for three years.
Creighton, p. 49.

20. Mancinum hostibus tradi:
they refused to receive him, as the
senate knew they would.

24. consul factus: sc. est; this
was in 134 b.c He was then at
the legal age for the consulship.

25. militem : ' the soldiers ' ; a
collective noun.

Page 43. 4. reliquam . . . ac-
es epit : "A senatorial commission
was shortly afterwards sent to
Spain, and the provinces were re-
organized. Spain gradually be-



134



NOTES



[Pages 13, 44



camu exceedingly prosperous, and,
despite the guerilla warfare ever
waged by the half-subdued native
tribes, it was the most flourishing
and best organized country in the
Koman dominions." Mommsen,
p. 215.

Ch. 18. 6. Attalus: the king-
dom of Attalus consisted of Lydia,
Phrygia, Mysia, and Caria, four
states on the coast of Asia Minor.

Ch. 19. 9. Callaecis: generally
written Gnllaecl. They were a
people inhabiting the northwestern
part of Spain, bordering on the
Atlantic. They were the most un-
civilized people of Spain.

Liisitanis : they lived a little
south of the Gallaeci.

10. P. Scipio . . . Numantims :
from the capture of the city of Nu-
mantia he received the name Nu-
mantlnns.

12. de Africa: i.e. de Kartha-
gine.

Ch. 20. 13. Aristonico : he was
a natural son of Eumenes II of
Pergamus. Upon the death of his
brother Attalus, who left his king-
dom to the Romans, Ch. 18, he
claimed the throne. At first he
met with considerable success.

15. P. Licinius Crassus : he
was consul for the year 131 b.c.
He was a good orator and jurist.

25. carcere : the Mamertine
prison at the foot of the Capitoline
Hill. This was the only prison in
Rome in early times. In it most
of the famous captives of the
Romans were strangled. It con-



sisted of an upper and lower cham-
ber. The term Tullianuin sometimes
applied to the prison as a whole is
more properly restricted to the lower
dungeon. Sallust in the ' Catiline '
gives an impressive picture of the
lower vault in which Jugurtha per-
ished. "There is," he says, "in
the prison a chamber named the
Tullianum, about twelve feet below
the surface of the earth. It is sur-
rounded by walls, and covered by a
vaulted roof of stone ; but its ap-
pearance is repulsive and fearful,
because of the neglect, the dark-
ness, and the stench."

27. diem obierat : lit. ' he had
met his day ' = ' he died.'

Ch. 21. 20. quae nunc manet :
Eutropius is in error. The Car-
thage of his time was founded by
Augustus. He was carrying out
the plans of Julius Caesar in this.

Page 44. 2. deduct! sunt: the
regular term for the founding of a
colony.

eo — ad, turn locum.

Ch. 22. 5. Gallis transalpine :
the Gauls of the modern France
and Switzerland were called trans-
alphii, to distinguish them from the
Gauls of northern Italy, who were
called cisalplnl.

Arvernorum : the Arverni were a
people of Aquitania, in the modern
Auvergne. In early times they were
the most powerful people in south-
ern Gaul. They still possessed con-
siderable power in Caesar's time, as
he refers to them several times in
the Gallic War.



Page 44]



NOTES



135



7. fluvium : a late word. The
regular term for river is flumen.

8. torquibus : cf. torque, Bk.
II, 5.

9. deductus est : i.e. from
Gaul.

Ch. 23. 12. Narbone : this was
the first colony of the Romans in
Gaul. Later it gave the name of
Narbonensis to the province. It
was situated on the river Atax, and
was of considerable commercial im-
portance.

13. L. Caecilio Metello : see
note on Metellus, Ch. 10.

Ch. 24. 17. Scordiscis : a people
of Pannonia. They were sometimes
classed with the Illyrians, but they
were remains of an ancient and
powerful Celtic tribe.

Ch. 25. 19. C. Caecilio Me-
tello : he was the son of Quintus
Caecilius Metellus, mentioned in
Ch. 16. He was consul in 113 b.c,
and carried on war in Macedonia
against the Thracians, whom he
subdued. He obtained a triumph,
in consequence, in the same year
and on the same day with his
brother.

20. alteram ex Sardinia : this
was Marcus Caecilius Metellus, a
brother of Gaius Caecilius men-
tioned above. He was consul in
115 b.c. In 114 he was sent to
Sardinia as proconsul, and while
there he suppressed a revolt in the
province. For this he was granted
a triumph, which he celebrated at
the same time with his brother.

22. Cimbros: see Bk. V, 1, 2,



Ch. 26. 23. P. Scipione Na-
sica : i. e. ' Scipio with the pointed
nose.' This name, which was given
in derision to one member of his
family, clung to all his descend-
ants.

24. Iugurthae . . . inlatum est :
Jugurtha is an interesting charac-
ter in Roman history. He was the
illegitimate nephew of Micipsa, the


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