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king of Numidia. He served under
Scipio in Spain, and there made the
acquaintance of the dissolute patri-
cians who were serving in the army.
On the death of his uncle, he put
Hiempsal to death and seized the
kingdom. He besieged Adherbal in
the town of Cirta, and, having taken
the town, he put him to death with
savage torture. In the capture of
Cirta several Roman citizens were
slain. This compelled the senate to
make an investigation ; but many
of its members had been bribe.d by
Jugurtha, and it resulted in nothing.

J Finally war was declared against
him. The army, however, was
poorly equipped and badly organ-

| ized. Nothing but defeat resulted.

: Metellus, on taking command in 109

j b.c, reformed the army, won sev-
eral victories, and seemed on the

i point of bringing the war to an end
when he was succeeded by Gaius

| Marius, his lieutenant. Marius
speedily brought the war to a
close. Jugurtha, however, was sur-

I rendered to Sulla, Marius' lieuten-
ant, by the Moors, with whom he
had taken refuge. After gracing
the» triumphal procession of Marius,



[Pages Il-I<j

he was strangled in the Mamertine
prison. He is said to have ex-
claimed as he touched the water at
the bottom of the prison, ' How
cold are thy baths, O Hercules ' !

25. fratres suos : Eutropius is
incorrect. They were his cousins,
not brothers.

Page 45. 2, quae . . . impro-
bata est : probably the senate
would have approved of it, but
such an outcry was raised by the
people that they were forced to re-
ject the peace and order the war to
be continued.

Cn. 27. 6. Q. Caecilius Metel-
lus: he was the son of Lucius
Caecilius, mentioned in Chs. 21, 23.
He received the name of Numidicus
for his campaign against Jugurtha.
In an age of growing corruption his
integrity remained unsullied, and
he was distinguished for his abili-
ties in war and peace. Creighton,
p. 61.

12. successum est ei : lit. ' it
was succeeded to him' = 'he was

C. Mario : see Bk. V, 1. Marius,
who had accompanied Metellus,
gained his consulship by appealing
to the credulity of the people and
by misleading them with the most
unfair misrepresentations of the
conduct of Metellus.

Bocchum: king of Mauretania,
father-in-law of Jugurtha.

16. Cornglium Sullam : set' Bk.
V, 4. The fact that Sulla was an
aristocrat was very annoying to
Marius. •

Book V
Page 46. Ch. 1. 2. Cimbris et
Teutonibus: the Cimbri and Teu-
tones were Germanic tribes who had
migrated from their homes and had
come into Gaul. They defeated the
Romans in several engagements.
In the battle of Arausio, 105 b.c,
three Roman armies were' cut to
pieces. Then they turned their
course towards Spain and gave the
Romans a respite of two years. In
102 b.c. they returned from Spain
and prepared to invade Italy. Be-
fore their entrance they divided.
The Cimbri and the Tigurini crossed
the Rhone, intending to enter Italy
by the eastern Alps. The Teutones
and the Ambrones tried to come in
by the Maritime Alps, intending to
join their countrymen in the valley
of the Po. Marius met them at
Aquae Sextiae, modern Aix, 102 b.c,
and the mighty host of the barba-
rians was annihilated. The next
year the united armies of Marius
and Catulus met the Cimbri near
Vercellae in Cisalpine Gaul and
utterly defeated them. Those who
survived the battle were either
killed or sold in the slave market at
Rome. "The human avalanche
which for thirteen years had alarmed
the nations from the Danube to the
Ebro, from the Seine to the Po,
rested beneath the sod, or toiled
under the yoke of slavery."
Mommsen, History of Home, Vol.
Ill, p. 203. Creighton, i>. *;:; ; The
Story of the Romans, p. loo.

Pages 46, 47]



7. quantus . . . tempore :
' barely was it as great in the time
of Hannibal.'

8. Marius: Gaius Marius was
born near Arpinum 157 b.c. of an
obscure family. By his valor and
his energy he worked his way up in
the army, winning distinction in the
siege of Numantia in Spain. In
119 b.c. he was elected tribune of
the plebs. He now became a
marked man. He acquired influ-
ence and importance by marrying
into the family of the Caesars. In
109 b.c. he went to Africa as lieu-
tenant of Metellus. In 107 b.c he
was elected consul and brought the
war with Jugurtha to an end, Bk.
IV, 27. After his return from
Africa he was elected consul the
second time in 104 b.c and took
command of the war against the
Cimbri and Teutones. Again in
103, 102, and 101 b.c he was elected
to the consulship, and crushed the
barbarians in the two famous bat-
tles of Aquae Sextiae and Vercellae,
102, 101 b.c, Chs. 1, 2. In 100 b.c
he was elected consul for the sixth
time. The Social war again called
him into active service. He de-
feated the Marsi in two successive
engagements, Ch. 3. That he might
gratify his. ambition and be sent to
the war with Mithradates, he pro-
cured the passage of a law removing
Sulla from the command of the
army and conferring it upon him-
self. Sulla refused to give up his
command, marched upon Rome, and
forced Marius to flee. After having

arranged matters at Rome to his
satisfaction Sulla left for the East,
Ch. 4. While he was away, Marius
returned to Italy, besieged Rome,
and entered the city as a conqueror.
" The most frightful scenes followed.
The guards of Marius stabbed every
one whom he did not salute, and the
streets ran with the blood of the
noblest of the Roman aristocracy."
Ch. 7. Without the formality of an
election he became consul for the
seventh time, 86 b.c But he did
not long enjoy his honor.. On the
eighteenth day of his consulship he

15. absens : this was unusual.
The law provided that a man must
be present to stand for the consul-
ship, and that at least ten years
must elapse before he could be re-

Cn. 2. 18. dimicatum est: this
battle was fought in the Campi
Raudii, near Vercellae. Before the
battle, the Cimbri demanded that
lands should be given them for
themselves and the Teutones. ' The
Teutones,' replied Marius, 'have all
the land they need on the other side
of the Alps.'

a Catuli parte : ' on the part of

Page 47. Ch. 3. 7. gravissimum
bellum : this is known as the Social
or Italian war. It was waged by the
Italian allies of the Romans. For
nearly thirty years the hope of ob-
taining Roman citizenship had been
held out to them, but no measure
had been carried to better their con-



[Pages 47, 48

dition. The burdens that Rome had
imposed upon them had been stead-
ily increased. Finally, in despair
of securing any reforms, they ap-
pealed to arms. At first they were
successful, but in the end the Ro-
mans conquered. However, they
were compelled to grant nearly all the
Italians had demanded. Creighton,
p. 64.

12. alius : for alter.

15. a Romania : ' on the side of
the Romans ' ; cf. a Catul'% parte,
Ch. 2.

Ch. 4. 24. bellum civile : the
First Civil war, called also the
Civil war of Marius and Sulla. See
Chs. 7-9. The Story of the Bomans,
pp. 160-164; Creighton, p. 66.

Pack 48. I. Mithradaticum :
sc. bellum commotum est.

bello civili : in classical Latin
probably a Genitive would have
been used.

2. cum Sulla : Lucius Cornelius
Sulla was born of a patrician fam-
ily in 138 b.c. After having secured
a good education, he passed his early
life in the pursuit of pleasure, squan-
dering the small fortune left him by
his father. He served under Marius
in Africa (Bk. IV, 8), and received
the surrender of Jugurtha. During
the war with the Cimbri and Teu-
tones, he served under Marius and
Catulus with distinction. When the
Social war broke out he again en-
tered the service and won fresh
laurels (Ch. 3). In 88 b.c. he was
elected consul and received the
command of the war against Mith-

| radates (Chs. 5-7). When he had
concluded peace with Mithradates,
j he returned to Italy in 83 b.c, and
prepared for the campaign against
the leaders of the Marian party.
His efforts were crowned with suc-
cess. In 82 b.c he brought the con-
flict to a close with the decisive
battle of the Colline gate (Ch. 8).
Sulla was now master of Italy. He
resolved to take the most ample
vengeance upon his enemies, and
utterly to crush the popular party.
He inaugurated a proscription, in
which as many as 47,000 are said to
have perished. He was chosen dic-
tator by the senate, and made vari-
ous reforms in the constitution of
the state, all tending to strengthen
the power of the aristocracy and to
weaken that of the commons. In
79 b.c he resigned his office and re-
tired to his estate at Puteoli, where
he died in 78 b.c. "None of his
friends ever did him a kindness, and
none of his enemies a wrong, with-
out being fully repaid."

3. gestiirus : the Future Parti-
ciple is not used by* prose writers of
the classical period to denote pur-

9. primus . . . armatus : a gen-
eral with his army could not enter
the city, except when celebrating a
triumph, without losing his com-

11. in futurum annum : ' for the
next year.'

Cn. Octavio et L. Cornelio
China: in apposition with consuli-

Pages 48-50]



Ch. 5. 13. Mithradates: Mith-
radates V was king of Pontus, a
state of Asia Minor. He is one of
the most striking characters of Ro-
man history. Possessed of a large
and powerful frame, he was en-
dowed also with a mind of great
strength and alertness, indomitable
courage, and consuming ambition.
It was the desire to extend his realm
that brought him into collision with
the Romans. In 88 b.c. he over-
ran Bithynia, Cappadocia, and the
greater part of the Roman province
of Asia. In 84 b.c. peace was con-
cluded with Sulla. In 83 b.c. he
again began war. This was brought
to an end two years later (Chs. 6, 8).
For the third time he began to wage
war in 74 b.c This was the last
and most important war, and, owing
to mismanagement on the part of the
Romans, was not concluded until 63
b.c, when he was driven from his king-
dom and forced to take his own life
(Bk. VI, 14). Creighton, pp. 66, 71.

16. ei : the antecedent is Nico-

18. faceret: Subjunctive in In-
direct Discourse representing the
Future Indicative in Direct.

quod . . . pateretur : this use of
quod with the Subjunctive after a
verb of speaking, instead of the In-
finitive with subject Accusative, is
late. For the usual construction,
cf. Bk. Ill, 11.

et ipse: 'he too.'

23. Ephesum : Ephesus at the
mouth of the Cayster in Lydia, was
the chief city in Asia Minor. It was

especially famous for its temple of

24. uno die occiderentur : on
that day over 80,000 Italians were
put to death.

Page 49. Ch. 6. 1. Ai is tone :
he was a celebrated philosopher.

3. Archelaum : Archelaus was
a distinguished general of Mithra-
dates. At first he met with some
success, but was twice defeated by
Sulla in the battles of Chaeronea
and Orchomenos in Boeotia.

11. commisit : sc. proelium.

15. iussit . . . agl: lit. 'ordered
it to be treated concerning peace '
= ' ordered a truce to be made.'

Ch. 7. 18. partim : contrasted
with alio*.

22. pax . . . ordinata est : by
the terms of the peace arranged
Mithradates abandoned all his con-
quests in Asia Minor, confined him-
self to the dominion he had held
before the war, paid an indemnity
of 3000 talents, and surrendered
80 ships of war fully equipped.

Page 50. 2 - proscripserunt :
' outlawed.' This was the first pro-
scription in Roman history. It was
so called from the list of the names
of the persons who were outlawed.
They might be killed by any one
with impunity, even by slaves.
Their property was confiscated to
the state and was sold at public
auction. Their children and grand-
children lost their votes in the
Comitia and were excluded from all
public offices.

6. Norbanum et Scipionem:



[Pages 50-52

Lucius Norbanus and Gaius Scipio
were elected consuls for the year
83 b.c.

7. contra Norbanum : the bat-
tle was fought at Mt. Tifata in Cam-
pania. After the battle Norbanus
shut himself up in Capua.

10. totum . . . accepit: by
means of Sulla's emissaries the
whole army deserted Scipio, who
was forced to retire from the war.

Ch. 8. 12. Marius : Gaius Marius
the younger was elected consul with
Gnaeus Papirius Carbo, though he
had not yet attained the legal age
for the office.

14. dimicavit: at Sacriportus,
between Signia and Praeneste.
Marius was driven to Praeneste,
and when the town was captured
was slain.

19. portam Collmam : one of the
gates of Rome on the Quirinal Hill.
The battle raged so fiercely and the
result was so long in doubt, that
Sulla is said to have invoked the
aid of PytHian Apollo. With this
battle the resistance of the Marian
party in Italy was at an end.

Page 51. Ch. 9. 4. null! Roma-
norum : this was the first time that
any one who had not held the office
of consul was permitted to celebrate
a triumph.

9. XXIV : sc. milia with all
these numbers,, except the last.


Book VI
1. 14. Sertorius: Quintus

Sertorius, a Sabine by birth, served
under Marius in the war against the

Teutones. Before the battle of
Aquae Sextiae he entered the camp
of the enemy in disguise. In 83 b.c
he went to Spain and became the
leader of the Lusitanians. For sev-
ral years he waged war successfully
against the Romans. Finally he
was assassinated by one of his offi-
cers who was jealous of his power.
The Story of the Romans, p. 165 ;
Creighton, p. 69.

Page 52. Ch. 2. 5. levia proe-
lia : ' skirmishes.'

Rhodopam provinciam : a small
division of Thrace.

Ch. 3. 10. P. Servnius: Publius
Servilius Vatia was consul in 79 b.c.
The next year he was sent to clear
the sea of pirates. He waged war
successfully against them, conquered
Cilicia and organized it as a province.
He took a leading part in the public

ex consule = proconsale ; a late
expression ; cf. our expression ' ex-

Ch. 5. 20. M. Aemilius Lepi-
dus: Lepidus and Catullus were
consuls in the year after the death
of Sulla. They quarreled over some
trifling matter. In 77 b.c Lepidus
marched to Rome with an army. He
was met by Pompey near the Mul-
vian Bridge and defeated. Shortly
afterwards he died in Sardinia.

23. Metelli : Genitive, depending
on triumpkus supplied from tri-
umplii above.

Ch. 6. 25. anno urbis con-
ditae : a variation for the usual ex-
pression ah urbe condita. The year

Pages 52-54]



is conceived of as belonging to the
city. Cf. anno a conditd urbe, Bk.
Ill, 10 ; anno . . . ab urbe con-
ditd, Bk. IV, 22.

Page 53. 1- Nicomedes: Nico-
medes III, surnamed Philopater,
was the son and successor of Nico-
medes II mentioned in Bk. IV, Chs.
8, 20. He had been aided by the
Romans, and was encouraged by
them to encroach on the territories
of Mithradates. Having no chil-
dren, he left his kingdom to the

2. Mithradates : see note on
Bk. V, 5.

4. apud Chalcedona : the de-
feat was both by land and sea.

7. Lucullus : Lucius Licinius
Lucullus fought in the Civil war on
the side of Sulla, was praetor in 77
b.c, and consul in 74 b.c. For
eight years he carried on the war
against Mithradates with success ;
but on account of the mutinous
spirit of his soldiers and the jeal-
ousy of certain Romans, he was un-
able to bring the war to a close.
On his return to Rome he gave him-
self up to a life of indolence and
luxury. He died in 57 b.c.

10. Byzantium : the city of By-
zantium was founded by the Me-
garians in 658 b.c, and was a
place of great importance. Con-
stantinople was founded on the
same site by the Emperor Constan-
tine the Great in 330 a.d. It re-
mained the capital of the Roman
Empire of the East until its capture
by the Turks in 1453.

13. centum fere milia : sc. Iwmi-

Ch. 7. 17. novum bellum: see
The Story of the Romans, p. 167 ;
Creighton, p. 70.

18. Spartaco : Spartacus was a
Thracian by birth, and had been
taken prisoner and sold to a trainer
of gladiators. His character has
been maligned by the Roman
writers. "Accident made Sparta-
cus a shepherd, a freebooter, and a
gladiator; nature formed him a

19. ludo : ' the gladiatorial
school.' The gladiators were
mostly slaves, and were the prop-
erty of the individuals who trained
them and leased them for the
games. This school belonged to
Len talus.

20. paene non levius: 'not
much lighter.'

22. armatorum : many slaves
joined them.

23. victi sunt in Apulia : they
were conquered on the river Silarus,
which flows between Lucania and
Campania. Spartacus was slain in
the battle.

Ch. 8. 27. duo : nominative mas-
culine, agreeing with Luculll.

Page 54, 7. Mithradates fuga-
tus est : if the 'Roman soldiers had
been able to restrain their eager-
ness for plunder and had followed
Mithradates rapidly, he would have
been captured.

10. Tigrane : Tigranes, king of
Armenia, was the son-in-law of
Mithradates. Although at first he



[Pages 54, 55

refused to aid Mithradates, later the
insolence of Lucullus' envoys caused
him to change his policy and take a
hand in the war.

Ch. 9. 13. hostem fugatum:
4 the enemy who had fled. ' Often it
is best to translate a participle by a

14. Tigranocertam : the capital
of Tigranes.

16. clibanariis: this is the only
place in Eutropius where this word
is found. It is post-classical, and
is used by only two writers besides

19. Nisibin : he was directing his
march to Artaxata, but the mutiny
of his soldiers caused him to turn
aside to Nisibis, the capital of Meso-
potamia, and take up his winter
quarters there.

20. hi : his lieutenants, Fannius
and Triarius. They had been de-
feated at Cabira and Zela.

22. neglegenter . . . agentes :
4 conducting themselves carelessly
and greedily. 1

24. bellum renovatum est : the
Romans were now exactly where
they were at the breaking out of the
war, Pontus and Cappadocia were
overrun by Mithradates, and the
results of eight years' warfare were

Page 55. On. 11. 12. bellum
Crgticum: the war was in reality
directed against the pirates who
made Crete their headquarters.

Ch. 12. 20. Cn. Pompeio : by
the Gabinian law Pompey was in-
vested with absolute authority, both

by sea and by land, as far as fifty
miles into the interior, over the
whole eastern Mediterranean for
three years.

quod . . . confecit : in the
space of forty days he had swept
the whole western tract of the
Mediterranean Sea, and had driven
the enemy into the opposite quarter.
He drove the pirates from the sea,
and compelled them to take refuge
in their strongholds in the Cilician
coast. These he speedily surrounded
and captured. He burnt over 1300
of their vessels, and destroyed all
their hostile magazines and arsenals.
In ninety days he had terminated
the contest.

22. el . . . Tigranen: by the
Manilian law the authority he had
already wielded against the pirates
was extended over all the East.

24. nocturno proelio : Mithra-
dates at first attempted to procure
peace, but Pompey would hear of
nothing but unconditional surrender.
He started to retire slowly but was
pursued by Pompey, and was over-
taken in a narrow pass on the Lycus,
where the city of Nicopolis was after-
ward built. Mithradates escaped
with a few horsemen and fled to
Tigranes, who refused to receive

quadraginta milia : cf. centum
fere milia, Ch. 6.

27. Pharnacis : Pompey had been
active in fostering intrigues in the
family of Mithradates. He had
caused Pharnaces to revolt and to
ally himself with the Romans, and

Pages 55-57]



had proclaimed him king at Panti-

Page 56. 2 - venerium hausit :
Pharnaces was about to hand him
over to the Romans. The story is
that he was so inured to poisons
that he was compelled to end his
life with a sword.

Ch. 13. 7. ab Artaxata : Pom-
pey was following him, and was plan-
ning to capture his capital city.

11. Syria, Phoenice : also Gala-
tia, Cappadocia, and a part of Cilicia
which Lucullus had taken away
from him, Pompey refused to return.

12. Sophanene : Pompey made
the son of Tigranes the king of

14. commovisset : Subjunctive,
giving the reason of the Romans.

Ch. 14. 22. Syiiam : Syria was
disturbed by fierce internal dissen-
sions. To put an end to the anarchy
that existed there, Pompey resolved
to annex it. He drove from the
throne Antiochus Asiaticus, who
had been acknowledged by the sen-
ate and by Lucullus.

Page 57, 2. Iudaeam : the Jews
alone refused to obey his orders, and
sustained a siege of three months at
Jerusalem. Although Rome had no
business to interfere with the affairs
in this part of the East, yet the
government she gave to the prov-
inces, formed from the conquered
territory, was stable and just in the
main, and was welcome after the
state of anarchy that had prevailed.

Ch. 15. 7. L. Sergius Catilina :
Catiline was a member of a patrician

family. By his dissolute habits and
his luxury he had squandered all his
property and had run into debt. The
only relief was to secure the consul-
ship, that at the expiration of his term
of office he might be sent to govern
some province, from the plunder
of which he might acquire another
fortune to be spent in riotous living.
Failing to secure the consulship, he
determined to overthrow the state.
He formed a band of dissolute nobles,
collected arms in various places,
stationed an armed force at Faesulae
in Etruria. and made all prepara-
tions for an outbreak as soon as the
i time was ripe. Meanwhile Cicero
j had ascertained all Catiline's plans
by the aid of the mistress of one of
the conspirators. Desiring to drive
| Catiline to some overt act, he assailed
i him in the senate on the 8th of
November. The oration he deliv-
ered has been preserved. Catiline
hastened from the city to the armed
force at Faesulae. The conspirators
who were left in the city were soon
caught in a treasonable act, and
| were arrested and strangled in
I prison by order of the senate.
| Afterwards Cicero was accused of
! having put Roman citizens to death
without a trial, and was condemned
to exile for a time. Creighton,
' p. 73.

12. Catilina ipse: it was not
until March of the next year (62
b.c.) that Catiline was surrounded,
while attempting to escape into
Gaul, and slain.

Ch. 16. 16. nulla . . . fuit: in



[Page 57

this triumph was displayed a list of
800 vessels, 1000 fortresses, and 300
cities captured, 39 cities repeopled,
and 20,000 talents of gold brought
to the treasury. "The great con-
queror had now celebrated his third
triumph. His first had been for
victories in Africa, his second for
the overthrow of Sertorius in Eu-
rope ; he had now completed the
illustrious cycle by inscribing on
the list the name of Asia. Each
section of the globe had succumbed
to his prowess. 1 '

Ch. 17. 23. C. Iulius Caesar:
Gaius Julius Caesar was born July
12, 100 n.c. He was of a patrician
family, but from the first sided with
the popular party. Many stories of
his early youth are told. He be-
came pontifex maximus, military
tribune, and quaestor in succession.
At this period he was noted chiefly
as a dissolute debtor and a dema-
gogue. In 62 b.c. he was elected
praetor, and the next year went as
propraetor to govern the province of
Further Spain. In 60 b.c. he re-
turned to Rome and formed a po-
litical coalition with Pompey and
Crassus, known as the * First Tri-
umvirate.' In 69 b.c he was elected
consul, and, after the expiration of
his year of office, entered on the
governorship of Gaul and Illyricum
for the period of five years. This
was afterwards extended for an-
other period of the same length.
While governor of the province he
conquered the Helvetians and a
wandering band of the Germans

who had come over into Gaul,
crushed a revolt of the Nervii, de-
feated the Veneti and the Aquitani,
and twice invaded Germany and
Britain. It was Caesar's intention
to stand for the consulship a second
time as soon as his term of office
as governor of Gaul should expire.
Pompey, meanwhile, had become
jealous of Caesar's power and had
gone over to the senatorial party.
A measure was passed by the senate
declaring Caesar to be an outlaw
unless he should disband his army
and come to Rome a private citizen
before a certain date. On Caesar's
refusal to do this, he was declared a
public enemy, and preparations for
war were made. Caesar advanced
to Rome. Pompey fled to Greece,
where he was defeated the follow-

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