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ing year at Pharsalus, and after-
wards was murdered in Egypt. At
the battle of Thapsus in Africa, 46
b.c, Caesar defeated the remaining
leaders of the party, Cato and Scipio.
This was the end of the war. He
returned to Rome and was made
imperator and perpetual dictator.
He inaugurated several important
reforms, among them a reform in
the calendar. He formed many
other plans which his death pre-
vented him from executing. Finally,
when it was thought that he was
aiming at the kingly power, a con-
spiracy was formed, and he was
assassinated on the fifteenth day of
March, 44 b.c

11 While other illustrious men
have been reputed great for their

Pages 57-59]



excellence in some one department
of intellect, the concurrent voice of
antiquity has declared that Caesar
was great in all. ' He had genius, 1
says Cicero, « understanding, mem-
ory, taste, reflection, industry, and
exactness.' " The Story of the
Romans, p. 176 ; Creighton, p. 74 ;
The Roman Triumvirates, Ch. 5.

imperavit : ' was emperor ' ; a
late meaning.

Page 58. 1- decreta est i for
the number and gender see H. 395, 1
(439, 1); M. 174,2, 178, 2; A. & G.

2. Helvetios . . . SequanI : Eu-
tropius, following the custom of his
day, unites the Helvetians and Se-
quanians. In Caesar's time they
were quite distinct. The Helvetians
lived in what is now Switzerland ;
the Sequanians were west of the
Jura mountains along the Rhone.

7. Britannia : twice he invaded
Britain. The first time it was a
mere reconnoissance. His conquest
was only partial.

11. quadringentigs : sc. centena
mllia sestertium ; about $1,640,000.

Germanos : twice Caesar crossed
the Rhine, but only for the purpose
of impressing the Germans with the
power of his forces. He fought no
battles there, but he inflicted terrible
defeats on two German bands that
had come over into Gaul.

Ch. 18. 17. M. Licinius Cras-
sus : there was no cause for war
against the Parthians, but Crassus
was anxious to make himself popu-
lar by winning military renown.


18. circa Carras : the overthrow
at Carrae was one of the gravest dis-
asters ever sustained by the Roman
arms : 20,000 were slain and 10,000
were carried into captivity. The
Romans who were made prisoners
were treated with indulgence by the
Parthians and were allowed to settle
in the land of their conquerors.
Creighton, p. 77.

Page 59. Ch. 19. 4. alterum
consulatum : this he demanded
in accordance with the agreement
formed between Pompey, Crassus,
and himself. He was now eligible
for a second consulship, as ten years
had passed since he was consul for
the first time.

5. aliqua: cf. aliqud, Bk. I, 3.

contradictum est : lit. ' it was
opposed ' = l opposition was made.'

8. iniuriam : "the 'injury' was
in depriving him of his military com-
mand, and leaving him without the
security the consulship would have
afforded." He was willing to dis-
band his army and return to Rome
if he could be elected to the consul-
ship in his absence, or if Pompey
would disband his army.

ab Arlmino ; he had crossed the
small stream known as the Rubicon
which separated his province from
Italy. The story is told that as he
crossed the stream he said, ' The die
is cast, let us go where the gods and
the injustice of our enemies call us.'

milites congregatos habebat :
' kept his troops collected.'

Ch. 20. 14. dictatorem : with
the exception of Sulla there had



[Pages 59-01

been no dictator since the time of
the Second Punic War.

15. exercitiis . . . superavit:
at first he met with serious reverses
at Ilerda, but he soon succeeded in
compelling the Pompeians to sur-
render, and enrolled most of them in
his army.

18. primo proelio: at Dyrrha-
cium in Illyria.

20. nee . . . superari : Indirect
Discourse depending on dixit.

22. Palaeopharsalum : this bat-
tle is generally known as the battle
of Pharsalia.

Page 60. Ch. 21. 4. numquam
. . . neque . . . neque : " a gen-
eral negative may be subdivided by
neque . . . neque, or aut . . . awt"

7. pugnatum turn est : Pompey
would have refused battle, but was
urged on by his followers. The
knights and senators who fought in
the Pompeian ranks soon broke and
fled. At the first attack Pompey
fled to his camp, where he tried to
rally his routed forces, but he was
unsuccessful. Leaping on his horse
at the last moment, he escaped
through the rear gate of the camp,
nor did he draw rein until he reached
Larissa. Thence he hastened to
the coast, where he took ship for

9. a rege Aegypti : he was only
a nominal king. Egypt was made a
province by Augustus, Bk. VII, 7.

11. occidit: he caused Pompey
to be inveigled into a boat, where he
was murdered and his head severed
from his body. His corpse was flung

into the surf, where it was picked up
later and burned.

12. quo conspecto : ' and when
Caesar had seen it.'

14. generi quondam sul: Pom-
pey had married Julia, the daughter
of Caesar, in 60 b.c. It was her
death in 54 b.c. that tended to
loosen the bond existing between

Ch. 22. 17. victus : Caesar con-
quered the royal forces on the banks
of the Nile.

18. Alexandria: when Caesar
set fire to the royal fleet, the flames
consumed the great library of Alex-
andria, containing 400,000 volumes.
In this fire some of the greatest lit-
erary treasures of antiquity per-

Cleopatrae : the famous queen
who proved to be the ruin of Antony,
Bk. VII, 6, 7.

20. Pompeio in auxilium : Eu-
tropius seldom uses the double Da-
tive ; cf. Romanis fuisset avzilio,
Bk. IV, 3.

22. vicit acie : it was after this
battle that Caesar sent to the senate
the famous message vent, vidi, via,
1 I came, I saw, I conquered.'

Page 61. Ch. 23. 2. ei . . . dic-
tator! : ' while he was dictator ' ;
dictator! is in apposition with el.

6. hie etiam : • he also ' ; as well
as Caesar.

7. M. Porcius Cato : he was the
great-grandson of the M. Porcius
Cato mentioned in Bk. IV, 23.
He is known in history as Cato
Uticensis, from Utica, where he com-

Pages 61-63]



mitted suicide. He was famous for
the austerity of his manners and for
his studied imitation of the customs
of early days.

9. victor fuit: in the battle of

Ch. 24. 15. Cn. Pompeius : he
had gone into Spain and had gath-
ered around him adventurers of all
sorts. At first Caesar had sent of-
ficers to subdue the revolt, but find-
ing their efforts unsuccessful, he took
command in person. After encoun-
tering great personal danger, he
gained a complete victory. Thirty
thousand of the vanquished per-
ished. Gnaeus Pompey escaped
from the field, but was afterward
overtaken and slain. Sextus, the
younger son of Pompey, was the
only leader of the republican party

Page 62. Ch. 25. 1. honores:
' offices ' ; political honors.

3. regia ac paene tyrannica :
' like a king and almost like a
usurper.' Nepos defines a tyran-
nus as one ' who is in perpetual
power in that state which enjoyed

8. senatus die : ' on the day of
the senate ' ; on the day when the
senate met.

9. curiam: Caesar was slain in
the Curia in the Campus Martius.

Book VII
Ch. 1. 12. partium Caesaris :

'of Caesar's party.' Antony at
first pretended to favor the tyran-
nicides ; but after he had obtained

possession of the papers and treasure
of Caesar, he changed sides and en-
deavored to crush them.

16. Octavianus : he was the son
of Gaius Octavius and Atia, a
daughter of Julia, the sister of
Caesar. After his adoption he took
the name of Octavianus.

19. Augustus : this was a title
conferred upon him after the battle
of Actium, when he refused the
title of dictator.

rerum potitus : potior regularly
takes the Genitive in this phrase.
Cf. Alexandria potitus, Bk. VI, 22.

qui . . . tres duces : ' these three

20. vicerunt eum : in the battle
of Mutina, 43 b.c.

Page 63. 1- morerentur: they
were wounded in battle, but Augus-
tus was accused of having murdered

Ch. 2. 3. Lepidum : Marcus
Aemilius Lepidus, Bk. VI, 1, 5, 23.
He was in Gaul at this time, being
governor of Gaul and Spain. After
he received Antonius, they crossed
the Alps at the head of a large body
of troops and met Augustus in the
north of Italy.

6. pacem . . . fecit : this was
known as the • Second Triumvirate.'
Antony, Augustus, and Lepidus di-
vided the Roman world among

8. vicesimo anno : he was far
below the legal age, 43.

9. senatum proscripsit : 300
senators and 2000 knights were in-
cluded in the proscription. " Each



[Pages 63, 64

marked his victims' names upon the
fatal list, and each consented to give
up adherents of his own to the greed
or hatred of his colleagues."

11. Cicero orator occisus est:
Augustus tried to save him, but
Antony, whose hatred Cicero had
incurred, demanded his death, and
Augustus was forced to yield.

Ch. 3. 17. Philippos: the bat-
tle of Philippi was fought in Novem-
ber, 42 b.c. Creighton, p. 82 ; The
Boman Triumvirates, p. 210.

19. Cassius : Cassius was routed
and committed suicide.

Brutum : after his forces were
routed, Brutus was compelled to kill
himself to prevent capture.

Infmitam nobilitatem : ' very
many of the nobility.'

21. divisa est res piiblica:
Lepidus took the province of Af-
rica, Augustus the West, and An-
tony the East.

23. belhim civile : after the cap-
ture of Perusia, Antony threatened
war, but he made a truce with
Augustus, whose sister Octavia he

Page 64. Ch. 4. 1. Sex. Pom-
peio : the son of Pompeius Magnus,
cf. Bk. VI, 24. He had collected a
band of pirates and had made him-
self master of the Mediterranean.

5. pax postremo convenit :
the agreement at Misenum. In ac-
cordance with this, Pompey was to
retain his command over the sea
and the islands of Sicily, Sardinia,
and Corsica.

Ch. 5. 6. M. Agrippa : Marcus

Vipsanius Agrippa had been a fel-
low-student with Augustus. He
was a gallant soldier and a devoted
friend. It was largely by his aid
that Augustus secured his power
and retained it.

7. Persas : i.e. the Parthians.
Eutropius used Persae for the Par-
thians who claimed descent from
the old Persian kings.

10. Crassum occiderat : Bk.
VI, 18.

11. triumphum Romae egit:
several of the Roman standards lost
at Carrhae were restored by the
Parthians, and were carried in the
triumphal procession.

Ch. 6. 12. navali proelio : at
the battle of Naulochus, 36 b.c.
The Roman Triumvirates, p. 219.
Shortly afterward Lepidus set up the
standard of revolt. He was de-
feated by Augustus and his power
was taken from him, but his life
was spared.

16. ipse piignavit : he lacked
the engines necessary for reducing
the strongly fortified cities of the
enemy, and besides he was very
anxious to return to Alexandria.

17. fame . . . laboravit : his
retreat has been compared to the
flight of Napoleon from Moscow.

18. pro victo : for conquered '
= ' as if conquered.'

Ch. 7. 20. dum . . . optat = op-
tans, ' hoping. ' The world could not
endure two masters. It was natural
that they should disagree, and that
the stronger should conquer.

22. apud Actium : September 2,

Pages 64-66]



31 b.c. Antony had collected a
large naval and land force, but his
ships were too large to be handled
easily, and many of his land forces
deserted. In the midst of the fight
Cleopatra fled in her galley, and
Antony basely deserted his forces
and followed her. Creighton, p. 82 ;
The Boman Triumvirates, p. 225.

23. ex qua : the antecedent of
qua is pugnd.

25. exstincta est : she was too
proud to be carried to Rome to
adorn the triumphal procession of
her conqueror.

Page 65. Ch. 8. 7. duodecim
annis = per annos above : the Abla-
tive makes the limits of the time
more prominent than the duration.

8. principalis : * leadership ' ;
afterwards the ' sovereignty ' of
the emperors ; cf . princeps, English
• prince.'

10. morte communi : ' a natural
death ' ; cf . morbo decessit, Bk. I, 3.
There was a report that he was
poisoned by Livia, his wife.

11. Atella: it is generally agreed
that he died at Nola, near Naples.

sepultus est : the ruins of his
mausoleum still exist.

12. ex maxima parte : ' in very
many respects.'

15. civilissime : ' in a manner
most becoming a citizen' ; cf.
civlles, Bk. I, 9.

16. ut . . . suo : ' that he placed
them almost on a level with his own

17. aequaret: sc. eds. Aequare
may also take cum with the Ablative.

Page 66- Ch. 9. 6. quod nulll

antea : sc. dederunt.

8. Crasso victo : « from Crassus
when he was defeated.'

Ch. 10. 14. in honorem eius :
the compliment was not in the
founding, but in the naming.

18. DIvus appellatus : i.e. he
was deified and became the object
of a national worship. In the
provinces he was worshiped before
his death.

Tiberio : Tiberius Claudius Nero
was the son of Tiberius Nero and
Livia, the third wife of Augustus.
He first married the daughter of
Agrippa, whom he divorced at the
command of the Emperor and
married Julia, Augustus' daughter
and the widow of Marcus Agrippa.
After the death of Gaius and
Lucius Caesar, the sons of Agrippa
and Julia, Tiberius was given the
tribunician power and was adopted
by Augustus as his successor.

Ch. 11. 21. ingenti socordia
. . . libidine : probably the char-
acter of Tiberius was maligned by
the Roman historians. The people
disliked him on account of his
• ' dark and gloomy temper, with
no grace or geniality of manner,
shunning the pleasures of the peo-
ple, and seldom generous or open-
handed." But we must note the
many marks of bias and exaggera-
tion in the common story, and we
may well believe that the ancient
writers formed too harsh an opinion
of his motives in some cases, and
reported scandalous gossips too



[Pages 66-68

lightly. Creighton, pp. 89-91 ;
The Early Empire, Ch. II.

25. Archelaum : he was sum-
moned to Rome soon after the ac-
cession of Tiberius and accused of
treason. His life was spared, but
he was obliged to remain at Home,
where he died in 17 a.d.

Page 67, 1. Caesarea: called
Caesarea ad Argaenm to distin-
guish it from other cities of the
same name. It was situated at the
foot of Mt. Argaeus and was a place
of great antiquity, its foundation
having been ascribed to Mesech,
the son of Japhet.

Ch. 12. 5. C. Caesar: Gaius
Caesar Augustus Germanicus was
the son of Germanicus and Agrip-
pina. He was born in the camp,
probably in Germany, and was
reared among the soldiers. He re-
ceived the surname of Caligula from
his being arrayed in a mimic uni-
form and wearing a pair of caligae
or soldiers' boots. At first he ruled
well ; but his sense of power turned
his head, and the latter part of his
reign was marked by excesses of all
sorts. Creighton, p. 92 ; The Early
Empire, Ch. III.

Ch. 13. 13. Claudius : Tiberius
Claudius Drusus Nero Caesar Ger-
manicus was the second son of
Drusus and Antonia, the brother
of Germanicus, the father of Ca-
ligula. In early life he had been
weak in mind and body, and had
been despised or neglected. As
emperor he was ruled by his
wives and favorites, Narcissus and

Pallas. He was poisoned by his last
wife, Agrippina, who was anxious
that her son Domitius Ahenobarbus
by her former husband might suc-
ceed to the empire. Suetonius in
his • Lives of the Caesars ' gives a
very dark picture of the reign of
Claudius. Creighton, p. 93 ; The
Early Empire, Ch. IV.

22. Britannic! : the son of
Claudius and Messalina, his first
wife. On the accession of Nero,
Britannicus was poisoned.

Page 68. Ch. 14. 1. Nero :
Claudius Caesar, surnamed Nero,
was the son of Domitius Aheno-
barbus and Agrippina. His early
youth was spent in study under the
philosopher Seneca, who remained
his counselor for several years.
During the first five years of his
reign he was mild and just. The
later years were filled with all sorts
of excesses, and were marked by
great cruelty. Creighton, p. { X\ ;
The Early Empire, Ch. V.

9. urbem Romam incendit: it
is very improbable that Nero was
guilty of this crime. Rome was
almost destroyed- in this conflagra-
tion. Of the fourteen districts into
which the city was divided, only four
remained untouched by the flames.
The fire raged for six days and
seven nights ; and, after it was
thought to have been extinguished,
it burst forth again, and continued
for two days longer. On this occa-
sion Nero appears to have acted
with great liberality and kindness.
He caused provisions to be sold at a

Pages 68-70]



very low price and the imperial gar-
dens to be opened to the people,
and temporary shelters to be erected
for their accommodation. That he
might remove suspicion from him-
self, Nero caused it to be reported
that the Christians had set fire to
the city, and a number of them was
seized and put to death. This was
the first persecution of the Chris-
tians by the Romans, 64 a.d.

Ch. 15. 22. a saxo : sc. Tarpeid.

23. liberti : his name was Phaon.
Salariam : the Via Salaria ran

north from Rome to Ancona on the

24. interfecit : "At last comes
Phaon's courier with the news that
the senate had put a price upon his
head ; the tramp of the horses tells
him that his pursuers are on his
track, and fear gives him the nerve
to put the dagger to his throat,
while, true to the passion of his
life, he mutters, ' What a loss my
death will be to art ! ' " The Early
Empire, p. 127.

25. Neronianae : the ruins of
the bath may still be seen near the

Page 69. Ch. 16. 1. Serv. Galba :
Servius Sulpicius Galba was born in
the reign of Augustus of a patrician
family. He was in Spain when
Julius Vindex, the proconsular gov-
ernor of Gaul, rose against Nero.
Galba joined him, and Otho, gov-
ernor of Lusitania, followed his ex-
ample. He was saluted as emperor
by the soldiers, and the senate was
forced to ratify their choice. The

emperors from this time on were
set up and overthrown at the will
of the army. He was very parsi-
monious in his dealings and so lost
the good will of the soldiers, who
were ready to aid any revolt against
him. He ruled for only seven
months. Creighton, p. 96 ; The
Early Empire, Ch. VI.

Ch. 17. 12. Otho: Marcus Sal-
vius Otho was Roman emperor
from January 15 to April 16, 69
a.d. He was the husband of the
beautiful but infamous Poppaea
Sabina, whom Nero took from him
and made his own. He was after-
wards sent to Lusitania, where he
governed with justice and modera-
tion. Creighton, p. 96 ; The Early
Empire, Ch. VII.

14. mollis: 'effeminate.'

22. voluntaria morte obiit : he
put an end to his life at Brixellum
in Cisalpine Gaul.

23. nonagesimo et quinto im-
peril die : Eutropius is slightly mis-

Page 70. Ch. 18. 1. Vitellius :
Aulus Vitellius was Roman emperor
from January 2 to December 22, 69
a.d. When the news of Galba's
death reached Upper Germany,
where Vitellius was in command,
his legions proclaimed him emperor
at Cologne. He immediately sent
his generals, Fabius Valens and
Caecina, at the head of a large
force, to Italy, and, having defeated
Otho's troops, obtained the undis-
puted command of all the West.
He was moderate in his rule, dis-



[Pages 70, 71

turbing no one in the enjoyment
of what had been given by Nero,
Galba, or Otho. He was a glutton
and an epicure, spending enormous
sums on his table. Creighton, p. 96 ;
The Early Empire, Ch. VIII.

10. id . . . ferret : ' aimed so
openly at this.'

13. cum Capitolio : " In the con-
fusion of the fight the famous temple
of Jupiter caught fire. All were too
busy to give time or thought to stay
the flames, and in a few hours only
ruins were left of the greatest of
the national monuments of Rome,
which, full of the associations of the
past, had served for ages as a sort
of record office in which were treas-
ured the memorials of ancient his-
tory, the laws, the treaties, and the
proclamations of old times. The
loss was one that could not be re-
placed. ' ' The Early Empire, p. 146.

17. inTiberim . . . sepultura :
Eutropius is mistaken. His body
was recovered and buried by his
wife, Galeria Fundana.

Ch. 19. 20. Vespasianus : Titus
Flavius Sabinus Vespasian. He was
proclaimed emperor at Alexandria
on the 1st of July, 69 a.d., although
it was a year before he entered
Rome. He lived more like a pri-
vate person than like the emperor
of Rome. The many stories that
are told of his avarice and his meth-
ods of raising money are probably
exaggerated. Although he was fru-
gal in his personal expenditures, he
spent large sums in adorning the
city. He was the first of the Fla-

vian dynasty. The others were his
two sons and successors. He died
on the 24th of June, 79 a.d. " His
last words were characteristic of his
somewhat cynical humour, ' Me-
thinks I am becoming a god.' "
Creighton, p. 96 ; The Early Empire,
Ch. IX.

Page 71. 8. Hierosolyma : Ves-
pasian was besieging Jerusalem when
the war broke out between Otho and
Vitellius. When he started for
Rome he left Titus, his son, in charge
of the war against the Jews. Titus
captured the city after a stubborn
siege of five months, September 8,
70 a.d., and despite his efforts the
Temple was burned. Thousands of
Jews perished in the siege.

11. egerant =fuerant.

Ch. 20. 15. coercitor i « en-
forcer ' ; the word is apax lego-

hie . . . triumphavit : in 71 a.d.
when Titus returned to Rome.

20. genituram .... habuit : ' he
so knew the horoscope of his sons. '

Ch. 21. 25. Titus I Titus Flavius
Sabinus Vespasian. His early years
were spent in military service in
Britain and Germany. He won
great credit as a general and a sol-
dier. When he returned to Rome
after the fall of Jerusalem, he con-
ducted himself in such a manner as
to cause a fear that his rule would
resemble that of Nero. But after
he became emperor he changed his
manner of living, and his whole
reign was marked by a sincere desire
for the happiness of his people. The

Pages 71-74]



year 79 a.d. is memorable for the
great eruption of Vesuvius, attended
by the destruction of Pompeii and
Herculaneum. He completed the
Colosseum, often called the Flavian
Amphitheater. When he died, after
a reign of only two years, there was
a suspicion that he had been poi-
soned by his brother Domitian.
Creighton, p. 98 ; The Early Em-
pire, Ch. X.

26. omnium . . . mirabilis : ' re-
markable for every species of virtue.'

Page 72. Ch. 22. 17. tamquam
. . . orbitate : mourned as for a
loss in their own families.'

Ch. 23. 21. Domitianus: Titus
Flavius Domitian. Vespasian was
aware of his son's disposition and
put no confidence in him. When
Vespasian died, Domitian tried to
arouse the soldiers against his brother
Titus. After his brother became
emperor, Domitian was treated with
great kindness, and several offices
were shared with him. At first mild
and just, he soon became suspicious
and cruel. In Britain alone were
the Roman arms successful during
his reign. In all other places defeat
and disgraceful compromises with
the enemy marked his campaigns.
Finally his cruelty became unbear-
able, and a conspiracy was formed
by the officers of the guard, several
of his intimate friends, and even his
wife Doinatilla, and he was slain
after a desperate struggle. Creigh-
ton, p. 98 ; The Early Empire, Ch. XI

27. dominum : here it has the
New Testament meaning, ' Lord.'

Page 73. 13. Palatio : in the

Flavian Palace on the Palatine Hill.
Extensive remains of this structure
still exist. At first the word Pald-
tium was applied only to the hill,
but from the time of Augustus it
meant a 'palace,' especially the im-
perial palace of the Caesars.


Ch. 1. 20. Nerva : Marcus Coc-
ceius Nerva was born at Narnia in
Umbria in 32 a.d. He was consul
with Vespasian in 71 a.d. and with
Domitian in 90 a. d. After the assas-
sination of Domitian he was declared
emperor by the Roman people and
the soldiers, and his administration
restored tranquillity to the troubled
state. He stopped proceedings
against those accused of treason
and permitted many exiles to re-
turn. Though he was virtuous and
humane, he did not possess the
necessary vigor for checking the
many abuses that existed. He
adopted as his son and successor
Marcus Ulpius Traian, who was
then at the head of the army in Ger-
many. He died suddenly on the 27th
of January, 98 a. d. Creighton, p. 99 ;

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