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The Age of the Antonines, Ch. I.

22. operam dante : ' giving him
aid, assisting him.'

Fetronio Secundo, PartheniS :
Nerva could not prevent the Praeto-
rian soldiers from putting them to

Page 74. 3. aetatis . . . anno :
Eutropius is mistaken. He was
sixty-five years old when he died.



[Pages 74, 75

4. inter Divos relatus est: cf.
Dlvus appellatus, Bk. VII, 10.

Ch. 2. 5. Traianus : Marcus
Ulpius Traian was born at Italica
near Seville in Spain, September 18,
52 a.u. He was trained to arms,
and rose through the various offices
to the rank of praetor. He was
adopted by Nerva in 97 a.d. After
Nerva's death he became emperor,
being the first Roman emperor who
was born out of Italy. He was a
great soldier and a good adminis-
trator. Good sense, a knowledge of
the world, and" sound judgment
characterized him. Just and sin-
cere in his desire for the happiness
of the people, he was one of the
best emperors that governed Rome.
He crushed the Dacians, success-
fully waged war against the Par-
tisans, and brought peace and
prosperity to the whole Roman
world. Creighton, p. 99 ; The Age
of the Antonines, Ch. II.

13. Daciam : Trajan conducted
two campaigns against the Dacians,
101-103 a.d. and 104-106 a.d. On
his return from the second cam-
paign he celebrated a triumph and
entertained the people with games
lasting 123 days. "It is said that
11,000 animals were slaughtered
during these amusements, and that
10,000 gladiators fought in the

10. tenuit = habnit.

Ch. 3. 17. Armeniam : Trajan
began this campaign in 1 14 a.d. The
winter of the same year he spent at
Antioch. During the next two years

he conquered the greater part of the
Parthian empire, taking the capital
city Ctesiphon.

Page 75, Ch. 4. 3. amicos . . .
frequentans : ' going often to his
friends to salute them.'

4. festos dies habuissent :
1 they were celebrating feast days.'

indiscreta : ' with no distinction
of rank.'

6. nihil . . . agens : his finances
were prosperous, partly owing to
good management, and partly from
the success of certain mining opera-
tions in Dacia.

9. per orbem . . . multa : "He
constructed several good roads in
the provinces and Italy ; among
them was the road across the
Pomptine Marshes. At Ostia he
built a large new basin. At Rome
he constructed the aqueduct called
by his name, built a theater in the
Campus Mar this, and, above all,
made the Forum Traianum, with its
basilicas and libraries, and his
column in the center."

10. nihil non: the figure of Li-
totes, affirming a thing by denying
its contrary ; cf. non comparuisuct,
Bk. I, 2.

Ch. 5. 19. belli domique : II.
484, 2 (426, 2) ; M. 242, 2 ; A. & G.
258, d; G. 411, 2; B. 232, 2.

20. Seluciam: it is generally
stated that he lived to reach Selinus
in Cilicia, where he died in August,
117 a.d.

23. solus . . . sepultus est : he
was the only one of the emperors
who was buried within the city.

Pages 75-77]



This privilege was enjoyed by the
Vestal Virgins.

24. in foro : the Forum Traia-
num was probably the most mag-
nificent of all the Roman fora. It
occupied a large space between the
Capitoline and the Quirinal Hills,
the latter of which was cut away to
make room for it. Among the many
buildings it contained were two
libraries, one for Latin and the other
for Greek manuscripts . It contained
also the famous Column of Trajan.
This column, composed of huge
drums of white marble, is pierced
within. A bas-relief of the chief
events of the Dacian war winds
round the shaft. It is still standing.

25. CXLIV pedes : this was the
height of the Quirinal Hill that was
cut away.

26. habet = est.

huius . . . delatum est : so
much respect has been paid to his

Page 76. Ch. 6. 3. Aelius Ha-
drianus: Publius Aelius Hadrian
was with Trajan when the latter
died. With the consent of the
Syrian army he assumed the reins
of government and his act was rati-
fied by the senate. Although he
lost some of the territory that Tra-
jan had added to the Empire, he
strengthened and united the re-
mainder. He was, in general, a
just and able ruler ; yet at times he
showed himself revengeful, suspi-
cious, and cruel. He died of dropsy
atBaiae, 138 a.d., in the sixty-third
year of his life. Creighton, p. 100 ;

The Age of the Antonines, Ch.

7. gloriae invidens more prob-
ably he saw that the Empire had
become too large to be governed

Ch. 7. 17. orbem Romanian
circumiit: he visited every prov-
ince in the Empire, correcting
abuses, and examining the adminis-
tration of government.

18. multa aedificavit: among
other famous buildings the Mauso-
leum of Hadrian, now called the
Castle of St. Angelo.

Ch. 8. 27. T. Antoninus: his
full name was Titus Aurelius Ful-
vius Boionius Antoninus, called Pius
because he persuaded the senate to
grant to his adopted father Hadrian
the apotheosis and other honors
usually paid to deceased emperors.
11 His reign is almost a blank in his-
tory — a blank caused by a suspen-
sion for a time of war, violence,
and crime." Although he waged
no war for conquest, he defended
the provinces with vigor, warring
against the Moors and Britons, and
the untamed races of the Rhine and
the Danube. Creighton, p. 101 ;
The Age of the Antonines, Ch. IV.

Page 77. 6. bonis honorem
habens : ' paying respect to the

14. Lorium : in Etruria on the
Via Aurelia.

Ch. 9. 18. M. Antoninus Verus :
he is generally known as Marcus
Aurelius. He was the adopted son
of Antoninus Pius. When only



[Pages 77-79

twelve years old he assumed the
philosophic mantle and gave him-
self up to the study of philosophy,
attaching himself to the Stoic school.
After he became emperor he asso-
ciated Lucius Antoninus Verus, his
brother, with him in the govern-
ment. Although they were entirely
different in character, they reigned
conjointly with no disagreement.
His * Meditations ' have survived.
Creighton, p. 101 ; The Age of the
Anto nines, Ch. V.

23. singulos . . . Augustos :
' one Augustus (emperor) at a time.'

Ch. 10. 28. contra Parthos :
Lucius Verus nominally had the
guidance of the war, but it was car-
ried on by his lieutenants while he
lingered in Antioch.

Page 78. Ch. 12. 21. Apollo-
nium Chalcedonium : called Apol-
lonius Dyscolus. " He is the father
of scientific Grammar, being the first
to reduce it to a systematic form."

24. Fronto : Marcus Cornelius
Fronto. He acquired great reputa-
tion as a rhetorician and grammarian
at Rome in the reign of Hadrian.
Some of his letters to his pupils,
Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus,
were found in the present century.

hie . . . egit : ' he treated all at
Rome with equality.'

26. provincias . . . tractavit :
he did not visit the provinces, but
kept himself thoroughly informed of
the details of their administration.

Page 79, 1. eo prlncipe : 'dur-
ing his reign ' ; cf. his regnantibus,
Bk. I, 2.

bellum . . . Marcomannicum :

the Marcomanni, ' men of the
marshes,' were a German tribe
that threatened destruction to the
Roman Empire. For thirteen years
Marcus Aurelius with difficulty held
them in check. He built many for-
tresses and a great wall to restrain

2. quantum . . . fuit : ' it was
greater than any in the memory
of man'; i.e. there had been no
war with the Germans equally for-

5. pestilentiae : the plague broke
out in 167 a.d. and lasted for sev-
eral years, despite all efforts to
check its ravages. It was probably
brought to Rome by the soldiers re-
turning from the expedition against
the Parthians.

Ch. 13. 10. Quadi: a powerful
people who dwelt in the southeastern
part of Germany. They had been
taken under the protection of Rome
by Tiberius. In 174 a.d. Marcus
Aurelius defeated them in a fierce
battle. They appear again during
the reign of Gallienus (Bk. IX, 8).
Towards the end of the fourth century
they disappear from history. The
Age of the Antonines, pp. 106-108.

Vandall I a confederacy of Ger-
man peoples, who dwelt originally
on the northern coast of Germany.
Later they settled north of the
Marcomanni, whom they joined.
They invaded Spain, and later
Africa. Under their king Gense-
ric they invaded Italy, and took
and plundered Rome, 455 a.d.

Pages 79-81]



Suevi : an important confederacy
of German tribes. Their name sur-
vives in the modern Suabia.

13. Caesarem fecerat : the title
of Caesar was now given to the per-
son next in rank to the emperor,
and who was intended to succeed

15. indicere . . . aliquid : ' to
make any demands on the provinces
or the senate.'

16. instrumentum regii cultus :
4 royal furniture. '

22. comparata : ' their purchases.'

Ch. 14. 28. obiit: he died at
Vindobona, now Vienna.

29. vltae LXI : it is generally
said that he died in the fifty-ninth
year of his life.

Page 80. Ch. 15. 1. L. Anto-
ninus Commodus : he was the
son of Marcus Aurelius, but like
him in no respect. After conclud-
ing a disgraceful treaty with the
Germans, he hastened to Rome,
where he gave himself up to the
grossest vices. Creighton, p. 102.

6. in amphitheatro : he was the
conqueror in 735 combats. Nothing
delighted him more than to be called
the « Hercules of Rome.'

7. strangulatus vel veneno : he
was poisoned and afterwards stran-
gled by his favorite Marcia.

Cm. 16. 11. Pertinax: Creigh-
ton, p. 103.

Ch. 17. 18. perpetuum compo-
suit edictum : this was a digest of
the mass of edicts that had been
issued by the praetors and the pro-
vincial governors. It was the basis

of the Corpus Iuris G Wilis of Jus-

19. Mulvium pontem : about
two miles north of Rome, on the
Via Flaminia. Here the ambassa-
dors of the Allobroges, that had
been tampered with by the fellow-
conspirators of Catiline, were ar-
rested, 63 b.c. The foundations of
this bridge still remain and are
built into the Ponte Mollo at the
same place.

Ch. 18. 21. Septimius Severus :
Lucius Septimius Severus was com-
mander in chief of the army in
Pannonia and Illyria at the death
of Pertinax, 193 a.d. He was pro-
claimed emperor by the army. For
nearly a hundred years the emperors
were made and unmade at the will
of the soldiers. Creighton, p. 104.

23. omm memoria : • in all
time. '

24. fisci advocatus : a Roman
officer appointed to look after the
interests of the imperial treasury.

Page 81. Ch. 19. 16. vallum . . .
deduxit : the celebrated wall of
Severus, extending from the Solway
Frith to the mouth of the Tyne.
It was erected to prevent incursions
of the Caledonians.

17. Eboraci : the modern York.

22. Geta . . . periit : he was
murdered by order of Caracalla.

Ch. 20. 23. Caracalla : the name
of Caracalla was derived from a
species of Gallic cassock he intro-
duced at Rome.

24. momm . . . rait : his whole
life was only one series of cruelties



[Pages 81-84

and acts of extravagant folly.
Creighton, p. 105.

25. thermae Antoninianae :
these accommodated about 1600
persons at once. The ruins are
still to be seen.

Page 82. Oh. 22. 9. M. Aure-
lius Antoninus : known in history
as Heliogabalus. He was the grand-
son of Maesa, sister-in-law of Sep-
timius Severus, and the son of
Symiasera. He was priest in the
temple of the Sun at Emesa in
Syria when Caracalla died. Through
the instrumentality of his grand-
mother he was proclaimed emperor
by the soldiers and acknowledged
by the senate. He was the most
profligate of the Roman emperors.

Ch.23. 16. Aurelius Alexander :
Marcus Aurelius Alexander, gener-
ally known as Alexander Severus.
He had been adopted by Heliogaba-
lus and had been created Caesar.
'* He was distinguished by justice,
wisdom, and clemency in all public
transactions, and by the simplicity
and purity of his private life."
Creighton, p. 106.

20. adsessorem : ' legal adviser.'

21. Ulpianum: Domitius Ulpia-
nus was one of the most celebrated
Roman lawyers. His works are
often quoted in the Corpus Iuris
C Wilis of Justinian. He was assas-
sinated in a mutiny of the soldiers
caused by his strict discipline.

Book IX
Page 83. Cn. 1. 1 . Maximums :

his full name was Gains lulius Verus

Maximinus. He was born of barbaric
parentage, his father being a Goth
and his mother a German. He was
famous for his gigantic size and his
marvelous feats of strength. His
government was characterized by
oppression and excesses.

Ch. 2. 9. Gordianus : Marcus
Antonius Gordianus was the grand-
son of the elder Gordianus. He
was a mere boy, probably not more
than twelve years old, when he
was proclaimed emperor by the

Page 84. Ch. 3. 1. Philippi:
Marcus lulius Philippus I was an
Arabian by birth. After the death
of Misithus, the father-in-law of
Gordianus, he became praetorian
praefect, and caused the soldiers to
revolt, to slay Gordianus, and to
proclaim himself emperor. He pro-
claimed his son of the same name
Caesar, though he was only seven
years old.

3. millesimus annus : this anni-
versary was marked by the celebra-
tion of the Saecular Games with
unusual magnificence, 248 a.d.

Ch. 4. 8. Decius : his full name
was Gaius Messius Quintus Tra-
ianus Decius. He was sent by
Philippus to Moesia to crush an
insurrection, and was compelled by
the soldiers to proclaim himself
emperor. His reign was occupied
chiefly with warring against the
Goths. He persecuted the Christians
with great severity.

Ch. 6. 21. exstinctus est: he
was slain by the soldiers.

Pages 84-£



Ch. 7. 23. Gallienus : the son of

Page 85. 6. superatus est : at

first Valerianus was successful ; but
he followed the enemy too rashly.
He was captured, near Edessa. After
his death his skin was stuffed and
long preserved as a trophy in the
chief temple of the nation.

Ch. 9. 22. Postumus : this
period is known as the ' Rule of the
Thirty Tyrants.' These men, who
revolted from Gallienus and set up
separate governments for them-
selves, were noted in the main for
their courage. They repelled the
invaders and established govern-
ments that gave peace and secu-
rity to their provinces.

28. vilissimus opifex : he is said
to have been a smith, Jerri opifex.

Page 86. 3. matrimonia : here
has a concrete meaning, ' wives.'

Ch. 10. 10. Odenathum : he was
the ruler of Palmyra. He checked
the incursions of the Persians and
drove Sapor out of Syria. In re-
turn for these services Gallienus
honored him with the title of Au-

Ch. 11. 16. occlsusest: he was
slain by his soldiers while besieging

18. Gothos . . . vicit: he con-
quered the Goths at Naisus in Dar-
dania and received the surname
Gothicus in consequence.

Page 87. Ch. 13. 3. Aureli-
anus : his reign presents a succes-
sion of brilliant exploits, and it
seemed for a time that he would

restore Rome to her former posi-
tion. The Goths, Vandals, and the
Alemanni were conquered. Zenobia,
who had succeeded her husband as
ruler of Palmyra, was captured and
carried to Rome. Tetricus was
crushed near Catalauni. Aurelian
commenced many works of public
utility, including a new city wall.
He was on his way to chastise the
Persians when he was killed by
some of his officers, a conspiracy
having been formed against him.
Creighton, p. 109.

11. 'Eripe me': Aeneid, VI,

12. Zenobiam : she was not con-
tent with the power she had, but
tried to extend her sway over all
Syria, Asia, and Egypt. Aurelian
captured Palmyra in 273 a.d., and
took her prisoner. After adorn-
ing his triumphal procession, her
life was spared and she lived near
Tibur for several years.

occiso Odenatho : it is said that
he was assassinated and that Zeno-
bia had a hand in it.

Page 88. Ch. 15 - 2 - Daciam
. . . intermisit : he made the Dan-
ube the boundary of the empire, as
Augustus had done.

8. servi : the private secretary of
the emperor. He is generally said
to have been a freedman.

13. mors . . . fuit : Tacitus had
the assassins put to death soon after
the beginning of his reign.

Ch. 17. 21. Probus: his full
name was Marcus Aurelius Probus.
He was as just and virtuous as h6



[Pages 88-94

was warlike, and is deservedly re-
garded as one of the greatest and
best of the Roman emperors.

27. apud Sirmium : it was his

Page 89. 4. tumultu militari:
the soldiers mutinied because he
had employed them in laborious
public works.

Ch. 18. 14. oculorum dolore
correptus : ' affected with a dis-
ease of the eye.'

Ch. 19. 24. matrimonia: cf.
matrimonia, Ch. 9.

Page 90. 4. Diocletianum : he
was born near Salona in Dalmatia.
He rose in the army from one posi-
tion to another until on the assassi-
nation of Numerianus he was chosen
emperor. He made a great change
in the system of government. In
286 a.d. he associated Maximianus
with himself as a colleague and gave
him the title of Augustus. Six
years later, 292 a.d., Constantius
Chlorus and Galerius were pro-
claimed Caesars, and the govern-
ment of the Roman world was
divided among four men, Diocletian
taking the East, with Mcomedia as
his residence ; Maximianus taking
Italy and Africa, with Milan as his
residence ; Constantius taking Brit-
ain, Gaul, and Spain, with Treves
as his residence ; Galerius taking
Illyricum and the whole line of the
Danube, with Sirmium as his resi-
dence. This division was natural
and possessed many advantages. It
was the only way that the falling
empire could be preserved, and

a semblance of union retained.
Creighton, p. 109.

Ch. 21. 22. strenuae militiae 6r-
dine : ' by a course of active service.'

24. accepisset : sc. imperhtm.

29. Britannias occupavit ; in
287 a.d.

Page 91. Ch. 22. 5. Constan-
tium : surnamed Chlorus, ' the pale.'

6. nepos Claudi : 'the grand-
nephew of Claudius.' He was the
son of Eutropius, a Dardanian no-
ble, and Claudia, daughter of Chris-
pus, the brother of Claudius.

14. pax convenit : Carausius was
recognized as a colleague.

Page 92. Ch. 25. 18. extrmse-
cus S3 praetered, a late usage.

Ch. 26. 28. regiae consuetu-
dinis formam : Diocletian intro-
duced the customs of an Oriental
monarch. He wore the diadem, the
robes of silk and gold, and replaced
the republican form of salutation by
the adoring prostration of the East.

Ch. 27. 9. ingravescente aevo :
he was sixty years old, being born
in 245 a.d., and abdicating in 305 a.d.

17. pompa ferculorum inlustri :
' with a famous succession of pic-
tures.' Fercula&re representations
of cities, rivers, and other objects
in the conquered countries, carried
in procession at a triumph.

Ch. 28. 24. post natos homi-
nes : ' since men were created.'

Book X
"Page 94, Ch. 1. 11. ade5 . . .

modici : ' of so modest a mode of

Pages 94-97]



13. argento : ' silver plate.'
triclinia : properly a couch for

three persons reclining at meals.
Here it means the table, which was
square, and surrounded on three
sides by one-armed couches, while
the fourth side remained open for
convenience in serving. Each couch
accommodated three persons, who
reclined upon the left arm.

14. Gallis : he had reserved Gaul
for his peculiar province.

17. Eboraci: he was on an ex-
pedition against the Picts.

Page 95, Ch. 2. 1. Constanti-
nus : known in history as Constan-
tine the Great. The most important
change he introduced was the adop-
tion of Christianity as the state re-
ligion. The story is told that while
marching from Gaul at the head of
his legions, he saw in the heavens a
luminous cross with this inscription,
'By this conquer.' In 313 a. d. he
issued the famous Milan decree that
gave imperial sanction to the religion
of the Christians. Although he
openly acknowledged Christianity,
his religion was a strange mixture of
Christianity and Paganism. Creigh-
ton, p. 112.

6. in villa public a : a building
in the Campus Martius, intended for
a lodging house or hotel for foreign

11. quas . . . habuit: 'which
he utterly disregarded. '

Ch. 3. 18. nudare: 'to deprive
of his power.'

Page 96. Ch. 4. 1. Licinius:
his full name was Publius Flavius


Galerius Valerius Licinianus Licin-
ius. By birth he was a Dacian
peasant, and an early friend and
companion of the Emperor Gale-
rius. He was invested with the
command of the Illyrian province
in 307 a.d. After the death of
Galerius he concluded an arrange-
ment with Maximinus, by which
the Hellespont and the Bosporus
were to form the boundary of the
two empires. After his marriage
with the sister of Constantine, he
and Constantine strove with each
other for the undivided sovereignty
of the Roman world.

Ch. 5. 20. apud Cibalas : this
was in the great battle of Adrian-
ople, July, 323a.i)., and was followed
by the reduction of Byzantium.'

Ch. 6. 25. apud Nicomediam :
this victory, September, 823 a.d.,
made Constantine the sole ruler of
the Roman Empire. Licinius was
made a prisoner, and although his
life was spared for a time, Constan-
tine had him put to death in 324 a.d.

27. tribus Caesaribus : they
were the sons of Constantine the
Great, Constantine, Constans, and

Page 97. 20. urbem nominis:
Constantinople, a city which he
built on the site of ancient Byzan-
tium. This he aimed to make his
capital city. Here he had a second
senate, a praefect of the city,
regiones, and even largesses ; all of
which showed that the supremacy
of Rome was at an end.

24. in villa publica : a building



[Pages 97-102

similar in character to the one at
Rome, Ch. 2.

Page 98. Ch. 10. 15. Con-
stant! : he ruled from 337 to 301 a.i>.
He was the third son of Constantine
the Great. Under him the whole
empire again became subject to one
ruler. But in 355 a.d. he was com-
pelled to make Julian Caesar and to
send him into Gaul to oppose the

Page 99. Ch. 14. 24. Iulianum :
called the Apostate, because, al-
though he had been brought up a
Christian, later he rejected Christi-
anity and returned to Paganism.
He was a brave soldier and a good
general. Forced by his soldiers to
assume the purple, he hesitated to
begin a civil war, but was relieved
of the necessity by the opportune
death of Constantius in 301 a.d.
"Julian was an extraordinary char-
acter. As a monarch, he was inde-
fatigable in his attention to business,
upright in his administration, and
comprehensive in his views ; as a
man, he was virtuous in the midst
of a profligate age, and did not yield
to the luxurious temptations to
which he was exposed." Many of
his literary works are extant.
Creighton, p. 110.

Page 100. Ch. 16. 21. cui
. . . interfui : what part Eutropius
took in this expedition is not

24. remeans victor : in the last
battle fought on the 20th of June,
Julian was mortally wounded by an
arrow and died the same day.

Page 101. Ch. 17. 15. Iovi-
anus : his full name was Elavius
Claudius Jovian. His short reign is
remarkable only for the disgraceful
peace he made with the Persians.
Although he was a Christian, he pro-
tected the pagans.

20. finibus: he agreed that the
Romans would surrender their con-
quests beyond the Tigris and would
give up several fortresses in Meso-

24. Pontium Teleslnum : it is
generally stated that Gavius Pontius
was the leader of the Samnites in
the battle of Caudine Forks. Per-
haps Eutropius confuses him with
Pontius Telesinus, the leader of the
Samnites in the Social war.

Page 102. Ch. 18. 8. nimia
cruditate : ' violent indigestion.'

21. quam . . . reservamus:
whether he ever fulfilled his inten-
tion and wrote another book is



= ablative.


= imperfect.


= absolute.


. = impersonal.


= accusative.


= inceptive.


= active.


= inchoative.


= adjective.


= indirect.


= adverb.


= indeclinable.


= compare (confer).


= indefinite.


= comparative.


= intensive.


= conjunction.


= iterative.


= contraction.


= masculine.


= dative.


= neuter.


= demonstrative.

nom .

= nominative.


= desiderative.


= numeral.


= diminutive.


= passive.


= discourse.


= personal.


= for example {exempli


= plural.

gratia) .


= preposition.


= enclitic.

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