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night, nocturnal.

Nola, ae, f., a city in Campania in
Italy.

nolo, see vol5.

nomen, inis [nosco], n., a name;
account; pretense; authority.

NSmentanus, a, um, adj., pertain-
ing to N Omentum, a Sabine city.



VOCABULARY



211



nSmino, are, avi, atus [nomen],

to name, call, mention.
non, adv., not, no.
Nonae, arum, pi. f., the Nones, the

seventh of March, May, July, and

October, and the fifth of other

months,
nonagesimus, a, um [nSnaginta],

num. adj., ninetieth.
nonaginta, indecl. num. ad]., ninety.
nonnullus, a, um [n5n + nullus],

adj., some, several.
norms, a, um [novem], num. adj.,

ninth.
Norbanus, l, m. (C) Norbanus, con-
sul 83 B.C.
Noricum, I, n., a Roman province

south of the Danube,
nosco, ere, novi, notus, to come to

know, become acquainted with; in

perf. system, to know,
ad — agnoscS, ere, gn5vi, gni-

tus, to recognize.
con — cognosco, ere, cognSvi,

cognitus, to learn, perceive, under-
stand.
re + con — recognSsco, ere,

gnSvi, gnitus, to recall, recognize.
noster, tra, trum [nos], adj., our,

our own.
notabilis, e [noto, to mark], adj.,

noteworthy, conspicuous, notable.
notus, a, um [nosed], adj., well

known, familiar.
novem, num. adj., nine.
noverca, ae, f., stepmother.
novus, a, um, ad]., fresh, new, young,

recent; novae res, a revolution.
nox, noctis, f., night.
niibo, ere, nupsi, nuptus, to veil

one's self, marry.
nudo, are, avi, atus [nudus], to

make bare, strip, expose.
nudus, a, um, adj., naked, bare.
nullus, a, um [ne + ullus] (gen.



nullius, dat. nulli), adj., none, no ;
as subst., no one.

Numa, ae, m., see Pompilius.

Numantia, ae, f., a city in Spain.

Numantini, orum, pi. m., the in-
habitants of Numantia.

numen, inis [nu5, to nod], n., a
divinity, power.

numerosus, a, um [numerus], adj.,
in full numbers, numerous, mani-
fold.

Numerianus, i, m., the younger of
the two sons of the emperor Carus.

numerus, i, m., number, account;
character, rank.

Numidae, arum, pi. m., the Numi-
dians.

Numidia, ae, f., a country of north-
ern Africa, west of Carthage.

nummus, i, m., money; coin; ses-
terce (=4.1 cents).

numquam [ne+umquam], adv.,
never.

nunc, adv., at the present moment,
now.

nuncupo, are, avi, atus [nomen
+ capio], to call, call by name.

nuntio, are, avi, atus [nuntius],
to tell, announce, report.

de — denuntiS, are, avi, atus, to

announce, denounce, order, threaten.

pro — pro nuntio, are, avi,

atus, to tell, declare, recite, appoint.

nuntius, i, m., a messenger ; message

nusquam [ne + usquam] , adv., no-
where, in no place.

nuto, are, avi, atus, to nod; waver,
be ready to give way.



O,



ob, prep, with ace, to, towards; for

on account of, by reason of.
obe5, see eo.
obiciS, see *iacio.



212



VOCABULARY



obitus, us [obeo], m., destruction,

oboedio, sec audio. [death.

obscene [obscenus, ill-omened] ,
adv., sup. obscenissime ; immod-
estly, indecently .

obscenitas, atis [obscenus, ill-
omened], f., moral impurity, foul-
ness, unchastity, lewdness, obscenity.

obscure [obscurus], adv., comp.
obscurius, sup. obscurissime ;
obscurely.

obscurus, a, urn, adj., dark, obscure;
ignoble, mean, low.

obsecrS, see *sacro.

obsequor, see sequor.

obses, idis [obsideo], m. and f., a
hostage.

obsideS, see sedeS.

obsidio, onis [obside5], f., a siege.

obtempero, are, avi, atus [tem-
pers, to soften], to submit.

obtineo, see teneS.

obvius, a, um [ob + via], adj., in
the way, meeting ; with esse, fieri,
or venire, to meet.

occasio, onis [occido, to happen],
f., an occasion, opportunity.

Occidens, tis [occido], m. (sc. sol),
the setting sun.theWest, the Occident.

occido, see caedo.

occulo, ere, cului, cultus, to cover,
cover over ; hide, conceal.

occulto, are, avi, atus [freq. of
occulo], to hide, conceal; secrete.

occultus, a, una [occul5], adj., hid-
den, secret, concealed.

occupS, are, avi, atus [ob-f-
capio], to take possession of, seize,
hold, occupy; attack, employ.

occurrS, see currS.

Oceanus, i, m., the Atlantic and its
divisions in contrast with the Medi-
terranean Sea.

Octaviana, ae, f., sister of Octavi-
anus and wife of M. Antouius.



Octavianus, i, m., see Caesar, Au-
gustus.

Octavius, i, m., C. Octdvius, consul
87 b.c.

octavus, a, um [octo], num. adj.,
eighth.

octingentesimus, a, um [octin-
genti], num. adj., eight hundredth.

octingenti, ae, a [octo + centum],
num. adj., eight hundred.

octo, indecl. num. adj., eight.

octodecim [oct5 + decern] , indecl.
num. adj., eighteen.

octogesimus, a, um [octoginta],
num. adj., eightieth.

octoginta [octo], indecl. num. adj.,
eighty.

oculus, i, m., the eye.

Odenathus, i, m., ruler of Palmyra.
He checked the incursions of the
Persians, and was honored with the
title of Augustus by Gallienus.

odeum, i, n., a public building de-
signed for musical performances,
odeon.

odium, i [odi, to hate], n., hatred,
aversion.

odor, oris, m., odor, stench.

Oenomaus, i, m. , a leader of the gladi-
ators who revolted with Sparta; is.

offensa, ae, f., disfavor, offense, ha-
tred, enmity.

offero, see fero.

officium, i [opus -f-f acid], n., ser-
vice, favor ; duty, office.

Ogulnius, l, m., Q. Ogulnius, consul
809 b.c.

olim [ole, old form of ille], adv.,
formerly.

Olympias, adis, f., an Olympiad,
the space of four years intervening
between the games at Olympus.
The period was used in assigning
dates, the first Olympiad beginning
in 770 b.c.



VOCABULARY



213



Olympus, I, m. a city in Lycia in
Asia Minor.

omen, inis, n., a foreboding, prog-
nostication, omen.

omnino [omnis], adv., in all, alto-
gether, only, in general; at all.

omnis, e, adj., every, all.

opera, ae [opus], f., work, pains,
aid; operam dare, to attend to,
assist, aid.

opifex, ficis [opus + f acio] , m.,
workman, artisan.

opinor, ari, atus sum, to think, be-
lieve.

oppidum, I, n., a walled town.

Oppius, I, m., see Sabinus.

opprimo, see premo.

oppugnatio, onis [oppugno], f.,
an assault, attack, siege.

oppugno, see pug-no.

(ops), opis, f., power, help ; pi. opes,
um, wealth, resources.

optimus, see bonus.

opto, are, avi, atus, to hope,
desire.

ad — adopts, are, avi, atus, to
adopt.

opulentus, a, um [ops], adj., rich,
wealthy.

opus, operis, n., work, business,
need ; fortification.

orator, 5ris [5r5], m., an orator,
ambassador.

orbis, is, m., circle; orbis terrae or
terrarum, the world.

orbitas, atis [orbus, destitute], i.,
bereavement, orphanage.

Orchades, um, pi. f., a group of
islands north of Scotland, now Ork-
ney Islands.

ordinarius, a, um [ordino], adj.,
of order, usual, regular, ordinary.

ordino, are, avi, atus [ordo], to
arrange, regulate.

drdo, inis, f., an order, rank, row.



Orestes, is, m., Cn. Aufidius Orestes,
consul 73 b.c.

Oriens, entis [orior], m. (sc. s51),
the rising sun, the East, the Orient.

origo, inis [orior], f., an origin,
source, pedigree.

orior, iri, ortus sum, to rise, begin,
spring from.

oriundus, a, um [orior], adj., de-
scended, sprung from, originating,
born.

ornamentum, I [orn5, to fit out],
n., a preparation ; decoration, orna-
ment, jewel.

oro, are, avi, atus [6s, mouth], to
pray, beg, entreat.

ad — adoro, are, avi, atus, to
supplicate ; worship, reverence.

OrSdes, is, m., a king of the Parthi-
ans, conquered by Pompey.

os, ossis, n., a bone.

Osdroena, ae, f., Osroene, a district
in the west of Mesopotamia.

Osdroeni, orum, pi. m., the in-
habitants of Osdroena.

ostendo, see tendo.

ostiatim, adv., from door to door,
from house to house.

Sstium, i [os, mouth], m., the mouth
of a river.

Otacilius, i, m., (T.) Otdcilius Cras-
sus, consul 263 b.c.

Otho, onis, m., (M. Salvius) Otho,
Roman emperor from January 15 to
April 16, 69 a.d.

Stium, i, n., leisure; ease, idleness ;
rest, peace.

ovo, are, — , — , to exult, rejoice ; re-
ceive an ovation, triumph.

P.

P., abbreviation of the praenomen

Publius.
paco, are, avi, atus [pax] , topacify,

make peaceful.



214



VOCABULARY



Pacorus, I, m., pon of OrodesI.,king
of Parthia.

Paellgni, 5rum, pi. in., a Sabine
people dwelling in central Italy.

paene, adv., almost, nearly.

Palaeopharsalus, I, f., a city in
Thessaly where Caesar defeated
Pompey 48 B.C. It is generally
written Pharsalus.

Palaestlna, ae, f , Palestine.

palam, adv., openly, publicly.

Palatums, I (sc. mons), adj., the
Palatine Hill.

Palatium, I, ii., the Palatine Hill;
the imperial palace, which was on
the hill.

pallium, I, n., a Grecian cloak,
mantle.

palus, udis. f., a marsh, fen.

Pamphylia, ae, f., a division of Asia
Minor.

Pannonia, ae, f., one of the most im-
portant provinces of Rome, lying
between the Danube and the Alps.

Pannonicus, a, um, adj., pertaining
to Pannonia.

Pannonii, orum, pi. m., the inhab-
itants of Pannonia.

Pansa, ae, m. (C. Vibius), Pdnsa,
consul 43 B.C.

Panticapaeum, I, n., a city in the
modern Crimea.

Paphlagon, onis, m., a Paphlago-

n id li.

Paphlagonia, ae, f., a division of
Asia Minor on the Black Sea.

Papirius, I, m., the name of a Roman
gens. See Carbo, Cursor.

parens, entis [pario], m. and f., a
father or mother, parent; relative
(late).

pared, ere, ui, — , to appear; obey,
serve.

ad — appareo, ere, ui, — , to be-
come visible, appear; serve.



con — compared, ere, ui,— , to
appear, show one's self.

*pario, ere, peperi, partus, to give
birth to, bring forth.

ab — aperio, ire, ui, tus, to un-
cover, bare ; open, disclose.

con — comperio, Ire, peri, per-
tus, to find out, learn.

re — reperiS, Ire, repperl, re-
pertus, to find (again), meet with,
discover.

paro, are, avl, atus, to make ready,

prepare ; resolve, plan ; get, acquire.

con— comparo, are, avl, atus,

to make ready, prepare ; obtain,

procure.

prae — praeparS, are, avl,
atus, to make ready beforehand,
provide.

re — reparo, are, avl, atus, to
renew.

parricldium, I [pater + caedo], n.,
murder of a father, parricide.

pars, partis, f., apart, number; dis-
trict ; side, direction ; party, faction.

Parthenius, I, m., the slayer of
Domitian.

Parthenopolis, is, f ., a city in Lower
Moesia on the Black Sea.

ParthI, 5rum, pi. m., a Scythian peo-
ple southeast of the Caspian Sea.

Parthicus, a, um, adj., belonging to
Parthia, cognomen of Septimius
Severus.

Parthomaslris, is, m., king of Ar-
menia.

partim [pars], adv., partly.

partus, us [pario], m., a bringing
forth, delivery, birth ; progeny.

parum, adv., too little, riot enough;
comp., minus, less, by no menus,
not; sup., minime, least of all, by
no means, not at all; as a subst.,
parum, indecl. n., too little, not
enough.



VOCABULARY



215



parvus, a, um, adj., little, small;

comp., minor, smaller, less ;

younger (sc. natu) ; sup., mini-
mus, smallest, least.
pasco, ere, pavi, pastus, to feed ;

of animals, to graze, browse.
passus, us [passus from pando,

to spread], m., a step, pace;

mille passuum, pi. milia pas-

suum, a Roman mile = 4854 Eng-
lish feet.
patefaciS, ere, feci, f actus [pateS

+ facio], to- lay open, disclose,

bring to light.
pateS, ere, ui,— , to be open, extend,

be manifest.
pater, tris, m., a father, ancestor.
paternus, a, um [pater], adj.,

fatherly, of a father.
patior, pati, passus sum, to suffer,

bear, endure ; experience ; allow,

permit.
per— perpetior, i, pessus sum,

to endure, be patient under.
patria, ae [pater], f., fatherland,

country, home.
patrimonium, i [pater], n., inhei'it-

ance, patrimony, property.
patro, are, avi, atus, to carry out,

perform, execute.
patruelis, e [patruus], adj., of a

father's brother, child of a father's

brother ; as subst., a cousin.
patruus, i [pater], m., of a father's

brother, paternal uncle.
paucus, a, um, adj.,/ew, little.
paulisper [paulum, by a little],

adv., a short time.
paulus, a, um, adj., little, small; as

subst., paulum, i, n., a little, trifle ;

abl., paulo, by a little.
Paulus, I, m., the name of a Roman

family.
1. L. Aemilius Paulus, consul

216 8.0.



2. L. Aemilius Paulus, surnamed
Macedonicus, consul 168 B.C.

3. M. Aemilius Paulus, consul 255

B.C.

pauper, eris, adj., poor.

pax, pacis, f., peace.

pectus, oris, n., the breast.

pecunia, ae [pecus, cattle], f.,
money.

pedes, itis [pes] , m. ( a foot soldier,
infantry.

pello, ere, pepuli, pulsus, to drive
out or away, expel; defeat, rout.

ad — appello, are, avi, atus, to
call, address, name ; appeal to ; ac-
cuse.

con— compello, ere, puli, pul-
sus, to drive together, collect ; force,
compel.

ex — expellS, ere, puli, pulsus,
to drive out or away, expel, dis-
lodge.

in— impellS, ere, puli, pulsus,
to urge on, incite, impel.

pendeo, ere, pependi, — , to hang,
be suspended ; rest, depend.

penetrS, are, avi, atus [penitus],
to enter, penetrate.

penitus, adv., inwardly, loithin;
deeply, completely.

per, prep, with ace. (1) of place,
through, across, over, throughout;
(2) of time, through, during ; (3) of
means or agency, by means of, by
the agency of, through.

percussor, oris [percutio], m., a
stabber, murderer.

percutio, ere, cussi, cussus [per
-fquatio, to shake], to thrust
through, strike, kill.

perdS, see do.

perdomo, see domo.

pereS, see eo.

perferS, see fer5.

perficio, see faciO.



216



VOCABULARY



perfidia, ae [perfidus, faithless],
f., treachery.

perfuga, ae [perfugio, to flee for
refuge], m., a fugitive, deserter, ref-
uge.

Pergamum, I, n., a city in Mysia in
Asia Minor.

pergo, see rego.

perlculum, I, n., trial ; danger, peril.

perimo, see emo,

perinde [per + inde], adv., in the
same manner, just as, equally.

peritus, a, um, adj., skillful, experi-
enced, familiar with.

permaneo, see maneo,

permitto, see mitto.

permutatio, onis [permuto, to
change], f., change, exchange.

pernicies, el [per + nex], f., de-
struction, ruin.

perniciose [perniciosus], adv., dan-
gerously, destructively.

perniciosus, a, um [pernicies],
adj., dangerous, destructive.

Perperna, ae, m., (M.) Perperna,
consul 130 B.C.

perpetior, see patior.

perpetuus, a, um, adj., continuous,
uninterrupted; in perpetuum,
forever.

Persae, arum, pi. m., the Persians.

persequor, see sequor.

Perseus, ei, m., the last king of
Macedonia, 178-168 B.C.

persevero, are, avi, atus, to persist,
persevere.

Persis, idis, f., Persia.

Pertinax, acis, m., (Helvius) Perti-
nax, Roman emperor from January
1 to March 28, 193 a.d.

Perusia, ae, f., an ancient town in
Etruria in Italy.

perveniS, see venio.

pes, pedis, m., afoot; pedem re-
ferre, to retreat.



Pescennius, I, m., see Niger.

pestilentia, ae [pestis, plague], f.,
a pestilence, plague.

pets, ere, Ivi (ii), Itus, to strive for,
seek; beg, ask, request; assail, at-
tack.

ad — appetS, ere, Ivi (ii), Itus,
to strive for, reach after; assail,
attack; long for, desire; draw nigh,
approach, be at hand.

re — repeto, ere, Ivi (ii), Itus,
to seek again, try to get back, de-
mand back ; recall, repeat ; attack.

Petreius, I, m., M. Petreius, a par-
tisan of Pompey ; fought against
Caesar in Spain, Greece, and Africa.

Petronius, I, m., Petrdnius Secundus,
a partisan of Nerva.

Pharnaces, is, m., Gr. ace. Phar-
nacen, the son of Mithradates,
who succeeded his father as king
of Pontus.

Phaselis, idis, f., a city of Lycia in
Asia Minor.

PhilippI, orum, pi. m., a city in
Macedonia where Brutus and Cas-
sius were defeated by Octavian
44 B.C.

Philippus, I, m.,

1. Philip V., king of Macedonia
220-178 B.C.

2. (M. Iulius) Philippus I., Ro-
man emperor 244-249 a.d.

3. (M. Iulius) Philippus II., son
of (2).

4. L. Mdrcius Philippus, consul

91 B.C.

5. Q. Mdrcius Philippus, consul

18() B.C.

philosophia, ae, f., philosophy.

philosophus, I, m., a philosopher.

Phoenlce, es, f., Phoenicia, a coun-
try of Syria.

Phrygia, ae, f., a division of Asia
Minor.



VOCABULARY



217



PIcentes, ium, pi. m., the inhabitants
of Picenum.

PIcenum, I, n., a division of Italy on
the Adriatic Sea, north of Latiuin.

pilum, I, n., a heavy javelin; pike.

ping-5, ere, pinxl, plctus, to paint ;
represent, delineate, portray.

Piraeus, I, m., the chief harbor of
Athens.

pirata, ae, m., a pirate.

plraticus, a, urn [pirata], adj., per-
taining to pirates, piratical ; Plra-
ticum bellum, war against the
pirates.

piscis, is. f., a fish.

piscor, arl, atus sum [piscis], to
fish.

pius, a, um, adj., reverent, pious.

placeo, ere, ul, — , to please, be
agreeable to; seem best to; impers.,
placet, placuit, placitum est, to
be resolved by.

dis— displiceo, ere, ui, — , to
displease.

placidus, a, um [placo, to soothe],
adj., calm, quiet, tranquil.

Plautius, I, m., A. Plautius, sent by
the emperor Claudius in 43 a.d. to
subdue Britain.

plebs, plebis, and plebes, el, f.,
the common people, populace, ple-
beians.

plenus, a, um [pleo], a,d]., full.

*pleo, ere, plevi, pletus, to fill.
con — compleo, ere, plevi, ple-
tus, to fill (to the brim) ; com-
plete.

ex — expleo, ere, plevi, pletus,
to fill up, fill.

in — impleS, ere, plevi, pletus,
to fill up, finish.

plerlque, aeque, aque, adj., very
many, most.

plerumque, adv., mostly, generally,
very often.



Plotlna, ae, f., the wife of the em-
peror Trajan.

plurimus, see multus.

Plutarchus, I, m., a Greek philoso-
pher and biographer.

pSculum, I, n., cup.

poema, atis, n., a poem.

poena, ae, f., compensation, punish-
ment, penalty.

Poeni, orum, pi. m., the Carthagini-
ans.

Polemo, 5nis, m., king of Pontus
39-62 a.d. /

Polemdniacus, a, um, adj., belong-
ing to Polemo.

polliceor, erl, itus sum, to promise,
volunteer.

pompa, ae, f., a procession, parade,
pomp.

Pompeius, I, m.,

1. Cn. Pompeius, consul 89 B.C.

2. Cn. Pompeius, surnamed Mag-
nus, the triumvir, consul 70 B.C.

3. Cn. Pompeius, son of the tri-
umvir.

4. Q. Pompeius, consul 141 b.c.

5. Sex. Pompeius, younger son of
the triumvir.

Pompilius, i, m., Numa Pompilius,
the second king of Rome, 715-072 B.C.

pondo [pondus], adv., by weight.

pondus, eris [pendo, to weigh], n.,
weight.

pono, ere, posui, positus, to put
down, place, set, deposit; serve (at
meals) ; spend; set up, build; pitch.
ad — apponS, ere, posui, posi-
tus, to put before, place near ; serve
(at table).

con — compono, ere, posui,
positus, to arrange, settle; con-
clude, finish.

de — depon5, ere, posui, posi-
tus, to lay down or aside, put down ;
stop ; arrange, establish.



218



VOCABULARY



dis — disponS, ere, posui, posi-
tus, to arrange, array, dispose.

in — impono, ere, posui, posi-
tus, to place or put upon or in;
establish.

prae — praepono, ere, posui,
positus, to set over, put in charge of.
re — repSno, ere, posui, posi-
tus, to put back, replace, restore.
pons, pontis, m., a bridge.
Ponticus, a, urn, adj., pertaining to
Pontus; Ponticum (mare), the
Black Sea.
pontifex, ficis, m., priest.
Pontius, I, m., see Telesinus.
Pontus, i, m.,

1. Pontus Euxinus, the Black
Sea.

2. A country of Asia Minor on the
Black Sea.

populo, are, avi, atus, to plunder,
ravage, lay waste.

de — depopulor, ari, atus sum,
to lay waste, ravage, plunder, pil-
lage.

populus, i, m., a people, nation.

Porcius, i, m., the name of a Roman
gens. See Cato.

porro [pro], adv., forward, hence-
forth, furthermore, again.

Porsenna, ae, m., Lars Porsenna,
king of Clusium in Etruria.

porta, ae, f., a city gate, gate.

*porto, are, avi, atus [porta], to
bear, carry.

ex — exporto, are, avi, atus,
to carry out, export.

re — reports, are, avi, atus,
to car rii buck, report.

porticus, us, f., a colonnade, arcade,
portico.

posco, ere, poposci, — , to ask, de-
mand.

possideo, ere, sedi, sessus [sedeo],
to occupy, hold, possess.



possum, posse, potui, — [potis,
a&/e + sum], to be able, can; plu-
rimum posse, to have great power .

post, (1) adv., after, later, after-
wards; (2) prep, with ace, after,
behind.

postea [post + is], adv., after-
wards.

posterus, a, um [post], a,d].,folloio-
ing, next; comp. posterior, us,
gen. oris, later; sup. postremus,
last, lowest ; ad -posterum., finally ;
as suhst., posteri orum, pi. m.,
descendants, posterity.

postquam or post . . . quam [post
-f-quam], conj., after, ivhen.

postremo [posterus], adv., at last,
.finally.

Postumius, i, m., see Albinus.

Postumus, i, m., (M. Cassiunus)
Postumus, one of the Thirty Ty-
rants.

potens, entis [possum], adj., power-
ful.

potestas, atis [possum], f., power,
might ; opportunity, permission ;
authority, sovereignty .

potior, iri, itus sum [potis, able],
to get possession, acquire.

potius [comp. of potis, able], adv.,
sup. potissimum; rather, more,
sooner.

prae, prep, with abl., before, in front
of, in comparison with.

praebeo, see habeo.

praecedo, see cedo.

praeceps, cipitis [prae + caput],
adj., headlong, hasty; steep, pre-
cipitous.

praecipio, see capio.

praecipito, are, avi, atus [prae-
ceps], to throw headlong,cast down ;
rush down.

praecipuS [praecipuus], adv.,
chiefly, principally, especially.



VOCABULARY



219



praecipuus, a, um [praecipiSJ,
adj., special, particular ; eminent,
prominent.

praeclarus, a, um [prae + clarus],
adj., very bright or brilliant, excel-
lent, distinguished.

praeda, ae, f., booty, spoil, plunder.

praefecttira, ae, f., the office of over-
seer, superintendence ; praefecture.

praefectus, I, m., overseer, superin-
tendent ; praefect.

praeferS, see fero.

praeflcio, see faciei.

praemium, I [prae + emo], n., re-
ward, prize.

Praeneste, is, n., a town in Latium
east of Rome, modern Palestrina.

Praenestini, orum, pi. m., the in-
habitants of Praeneste.

praeparo, see paro.

praepono, see pono.

praesens, entis [praesum], adj., a*
hand, present.

praeses, sidis [praesideo], m., a
protector, guard, defender; presi-
dent.

praesidium, I [praesideo], n., help,
aid, defense; defensive force, garri-
son ; fort, station, post.

praesto, see sto.

praesum, see sum.

praeter, prep, with ace, past, be-
yond; contrary to, against; besides,
except.

praeterea [praeter + is], adv., in
addition to this, besides, moreover.

praetermitto, see mitto. •

praetexo, ere, ui, tus [tex5, to
weave], to provide with a border;
toga praetexta, a (purple) bor-
dered toga, worn by magistrates
and freeborn children till the six-
teenth or seventeenth year, when
they became of age and assumed
the toga virilis, which was wholly



white; the girls wore the toga
praetexta until they married.

praetor, oris [orig. praeitor, from
prae + eo], m., a leader, com-
mander ; praetor, magistrate, judge.

praetorianus, a, um [praetSrium] ,
adj., belonging to the bodyguard ;
praetorian ; assubst., praetoriani,
orum, pi. m., the praetorians.

praetorium, i, n., the imperial body-
guard.

praetSrius, a, um [praetor], adj.,
of or belonging to the praetor or
commander ; as subst., praetorius,
I, m., a man of praetorian rank, an
ex-praetor.

praevenio, see venio.

prandium, i, n., lunch.

pravus, a, um, adj., crooked, wrong ;
perverse, wicked.

*prehendo, ere, i, hensus, to grasp.
de — deprehendd, ere, i, hen-
sus, to seize, catch ; surprise, de-
tect, discover.

re — reprehends, ere, I, hen-
sus, to hold back, check; blame,
criticise, reprove.

prem5, ere, pressi, pressus, to
press ; press hard, crush.

ob — opprimo, ere, pressi,
pressus, to crush utterly, over-
power, overwhelm.

pretium, i, n., price, value; reivard,
money, ransom.

primo [primus], adv., at first.

primum [primus], adv., first.

primus, see prior.

princeps, cipis [primus + capio],
adj., first, foremost ; as subst. m.,
leading man, chief, leader.

principatus, us [princeps], m., a
chief authority (in the state) ; head-
ship, leadership ; reign, sovereignty.

principium, i [princeps], n., begin-
ning, origin.



220



VOCABULARY



prior, us, gen. prioris, comp. adj.,
former, previous, first, prior ; sup.
primus, first, foremost.

priscus, a, um [prius], adj., former,
elder; primitive, strict.

Priscus, 1, m., see Tarquinius.

pristinus, a, um [prius], adj., for-
mer, old.

prius [prior], adv., before, sooner,
previously, first of all.

privatim [privatus], adv., privately,
as a single individual.

privatus, a, um [privo, to set
apart], adj., private, individual; as
subst., privatus, i, m., a man in
private life, a private citizen.

privigna, ae, f., a stepdaughter.

privignus, i, m., a stepson.

pro, prep, with abl., in front of, be-
fore; in behalf of; in comparison


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