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tance from the place from which the
measurement was made, its name,
the name of the person who erected
the stone, and the name of the
reigning emperor. The phrase
means ' twelve miles from Rome.'

18. alii . . . alii: 'the one . . .
the other.' Eutropius uses alius
with the meaning of alter.

20. adiecto Caelio monte : lit.
'the Caelian Hill having been an-
nexed ' = ' by annexing the Caelian
Hill' ; cf. conditd clvitate, Ch. 2.

21. fulmine ictus : lit. 'having
been struck by lightning.'

arsit: drdeo.

Ch. 5. 22. ex filia : 'on his



108



NOTES



[Pagks 8,



daughter's side.' Note peculiarity
of filia, H. 80, 2 (49, 4) ; M. 33, jr. 2 ;
A. & G. 36, e ; G. 29, 4 ; B. 21, 2, e.

Page 9. 1« Ianiculum : Mons
Ianiculus, on the opposite side of
the Tiber, was united to the city by
the Pons Sublicius.

civitatem : this city, afterwards
called Ostia, was situated on the left
bank of the river, about sixteen miles
from Rome. It was used as a port
for Rome until the time of the
Empire.

3. morbo periit : cf . morbo de-
cessit, Ch. 3.

Ch. 6. 4. Priscus Tarquinius =
Tarquinius Priscus. When only the
nomen and the cognomen are written,
they are often reversed, especially
in late Latin. The legend of the
Tarquins is as follows : Demaratus,
their ancestor, fled from Corinth,
his native place, and settled at Tar-
quinii in Etruria. He married an
Etruscan wife, by whom he had
two sons, Lucumo and Aruns. At
his death Lucumo inherited all his
father's property. Although he had
married Tanaquil, a woman of the
highest rank, he was excluded from
all power and influence in the state.
Discontented with this he removed
to Rome with a large band of follow-
ers. He and his companions were
received with welcome, and were
admitted to the rights of Roman
citizens. He took the name of
Lucius Tarquinius, to which Livy
adds Priscus, to distinguish him from
L. Tarquinius. the seventh king
of Rome. At the death of Ancus



Marcius, the senate and people
unanimously elected Tarquinius to
the vacant throne. His reign was
distinguished by great exploits in
war and by great works in peace.

5. circum : the Circus Maximus.
It was in a valley between the Pala-
tine and Aventine Hills. Here the
Roman games were held. At first
the spectators sat on the hill side
and watched the games being cele-
brated in the valley beneath them.
Tarquinius is said to have been the
first to introduce seats. In the time
of Caesar the circus was 1800 feet
long and 300 feet wide, and capable
of seating 180,000 people. It was
enlarged many times, until in the
fourth century it was capable of
seating 385,000 people.

ludos Romanos : the Lwli Ho-
mdni, consisting of horse and chariot
races, were the oldest games, and
were- celebrated originally in honor
of Jupiter by victorious generals as
a part of a triumph. At first they
lasted only one day, but the time
was gradually increased until in the
age of Cicero they lasted fifteen days,
September 4-19.

0. ad nostram memoriam : ' to
our time. 1

7. vicit : emphatic position.
non pamm = mdgnum : ' a large

part ' ; cf. non coinparuisset, Ch. 2.

8. primus . . . intravit : ' and
he was the first to enter the city
celebrating a triumph. 1 A triumph
was a solemn procession in which a
victorious general entered the eit\
in a chariot drawn by four horses.



Page 9]



NOTES



109



He was preceded by the captives and
spoils taken in war, and was followed
by his troops ; and, after passing in
state along the Via Sacra, ascended
the Capitol to offer sacrifice in the
Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. The
following conditions had to be com-
plied with : (a) The general must
have been dictator, consul, or prae-
tor, (b) He must have actually
commanded in the battle and com-
menced it, himself taking the aus-
pices, (c) The battle must have
been decisive and ended the cam-
paign, (d) The foes must have been
foreigners, and at least 5000 of them
must have been slain.

0. muros fecit : he began to sur-
round the city with a stone wall, a
work his successor, Servins Tullius,
completed.

cloacas : the Cloaca Maxima is
a semicircular tunnel, 14 feet wide,
beneath the city. A part of this
sewer, about 1020 feet, is still in
existence, and after a lapse of 2500
years goes on fulfilling its original
purpose. Its opening into the Tiber
near the Temple of Hercules in the
Forum Boarium is still in a good
state of preservation.

Capitolium : the Temple of Jupi-
ter on the Capitoline Hill. Its foun-
dations were laid by Tarquinius
Priscus. Its walls were raised by
his successor Servius Tullius, and
Tarquinius Superbus completed it,
although it was not consecrated until
the third year after the expulsion of
the kings. It consisted of three
parts, a nave sacred to Jupiter, and



two wings, the right sacred to Mi-
nerva and the left to Juno. The
magnificence and richness of this
temple are almost incredible. It
was burned in the time of Sulla, who
rebuilt it. After being destroyed
several times it was raised for the
last time by Domitian, who made it
more grand and magnificent than
had any of his predecessors.

10. per . . . fflios : Eutropius
occasionally substitutes per with the
Accusative for the Ablative or Da-
tive of agent ; cf. per eum multa a
consulibus prospere yesta sunt, Bk.
IV, 10.

11. regis eius : apposition with
A nci.

cm : cf. hide sitccesmt, Ch. 4.

Ch. 7. 12. Servius Tullius: the
legend of Servius Tullius is as fol-
lows : Ocrisia, his mother, was one
of the captives taken at Corniculum,
and became a slave of Tanaquil, the
wife of Tarquinius Priscus. Servius
was born and reared at the palace
of the king. As Tanaquil by her
power of divination had foreseen
the greatness of the child, she per-
suaded Tarquinius to give his daugh-
ter to Servius in marriage. At the
death of Tarquinius, by the aid of
Tanaquil, Servius became firmly
fixed in the royal power. The
great deeds of Servius were deeds
of peace, and he was regarded by
posterity as the author of all their
civil rights and institutions. Three
important events are assigned to him.
He reformed the constitution of the
state. He extended the boundary



110



NOTES



[Pages 9, 10



of the city and surrounded it with a
wall. He established an important
alliance by which Rome and the
Latin cities became members of one
great league.

genitus : lit. ' bom ' = • the son.'
13. quoque : as well as Tar-
quinius Priscus. Quoque must not
be confounded with quoque, the Ab-
lative of the pronoun quisque.

15. fossas circum milium : por-
tions of the Servian wall still
exist.

16. censum : the number of Ro-
man citizens was ascertained every
five years, though not always with
perfect regularity, for the assess-
ment of taxes and the arrange-
ment of military service. Originally
the kings took the census. After the
establishment of the republic the
duty was performed by the consuls.
After 444 B.C., special officers, called
censors, had charge of it. The cen-
sus was concluded with the solemn
ceremony of reviewing the newly
constituted army, called a lustrum.

orbem terrarum : lit. ' the circle
of lands ' = ' the world.'

18. capita : ' souls ' ; cf. our ex-
pression ' head of cattle. '

19. in agris : others than inhabi-
tants of Rome possessed Roman citi-
zenship.

21. uxorem : ' as his wife.'
Ch. 8. 22. L. Tarquinius Su-
perbus : L. Tarquinius, called Su-
perbus, ' the Overbearing,' from his
haughty manner and conduct, com-
menced his reign without any of the
forms of election. One of his first



acts was to abolish the rights that
Servius Tullius had conferred upon
the plebeians. All the senators
whom he mistrusted and all whose
wealth he coveted he put to death
or banished. He surrounded him-
self with a bodyguard, by means
of which he was enabled to do what
he liked. After several successful
campaigns his tyranny caused the
people to depose him and drive him
from the city.

23. euntibus ; lit. ' for those go-
ing ' = ' as you go.'

24. Gabios : • the city Gabii ' ;
the name of the town, though plu-
ral, is in apposition with civitdtem.

Page 10. 1- Capitolio : here the
Capitoline Hill.

2. oppiignans : ' while besieging
the city ' ; a clause with cum or dum
would have been more usual.

4. eius : antecedent is L. Tar-
quinius.

et ipse Tarquinius iunior : ' also
a Tarquin (but) younger ' — ' who
was also called Tarquinius ' ; his
praenomen was Sextus.

5. Luci etiam : for the interest-
ing story of Lucretia, see The Story
of the Romans, p. 62.

eandemque : ' who was also ' ;
H. 508, 8 (451, 3) ; M. 446, 1 ; A. &
G. 195, e ; G. 310 ; B. 248.

6. stuprasset : ' had offered vio-
lence to.' Stuprasset for stuprd cis-
set, cf. regndsset, Ch. 4.

7. questa fuisset : for questa es-
set. Eutropius generally uses essem,
etc., in the Pluperfect Passive Sub-
junctive. For other exceptions see



Pages 10, 11]



NOTES



111



Bk. II, 9, 22. He ordinarily uses
fucram, etc., for eram in the Plu-
perfect Passive Indicative.

8. parens et ipse : ' a relative
likewise,' i.e. as well as Collatinus.
He was the son of Marcus Iunius
and Tarquinia, the second daughter
of Tarquinius Superbus. He was
called 'Brutus,' i.e. 'the Stupid,'
on account of the mental imbecility
he feigned to deceive Tarquinius.
Parens, ' relative,' a late meaning.

10. eum : refers to the king.

qui : antecedent is exercitus.

13. regnatum est : lit. ' it was
ruled ' = ' the dynasty lasted.'

14. annis : Eutropius and some
other post-classical writers use the
Ablative of Time within which for
the Accusative of Duration of Time.
The Ablative makes prominent the
limits that mark the time.

15. ubi plurimum: lit. 'where
most ' = ' at the most,' at the place
of the widest extent.

Ch. 9. 17. nine : ' from this time. '
consules : at first they were
called praetores, ' leaders. ' The con-
suls were elected by the Comitia
Centuriata, the new assembly or-
ganized by Servius Tullius.
coepere = coeperunt.
18. alter eum : note the fond-
ness of the Latin for antitheses. It
tends to place contrasted words near
each other. Often the observance
of this is of assistance in determin-
ing the meaning of a passage.
20. annuum : ' lasting one year. '
haberent : the clause ne . . .
haberent is the Subject of placuit.



21. redder entur : cf. coerceret,
above.

civlles : lit. • like citizens ' =
' good citizens.'

23. ab expulsis regibus : ' after
the expulsion of the kings ; ' cf. post
reges exactos, Ch. 11.

24. maxime . . . pelleretur :
'had done the most to drive out
Tarquinius. '

25. Tarquinio : cf. isdem, Ch. 6.
Note the emphasis.

Page H, 1. maneret : cf. habe-
rent, above.

3. L. Valerius Publicola : Livy,
Bk. II, 2, calls him Publius Valerius.
Owing to his efforts to secure the
rights of the plebeians and for his
popular measures he was called Pub-
licola, 'the Partisan of the People.'
He secured the passage of the Vale-
rian law giving to every citizen con-
demned on a capital charge the right
of appeal to the people.

Ch. 10. 7. in vicem se : ' each
other in turn. ' As the Latin has no
reciprocal pronoun it is compelled to
resort to various circumlocutions ;
cf. Caesar, Bk. I, 1 , inter se, Bk. II,
10, alius alium circumspectant.

8. taraen : although both the
leaders were slain.

10. per annum : cf. annum luxe-
runt, Ch. 11.

11. quo morbo mortuo : 'and
when he had died.' The Latin rela-
tive is very often best translated by
' and ' with a personal pronoun. For
the case of morbo, cf. morbo, Ch. 3.

12. iterum : construe with sump-
sit.



112



NOTES



[Pages 11,12



Ch. 11. 18. Porsenna: Lars Por-
senna, king of Clusiuin in Etruria.
He aided the Tarquins as they had
come from Etruria. See Macaulay's
Lays of Ancient Borne, Horatius.

Romam paene cepit : I line
(p. 89) thinks that by this is meant
that the Etruscans conquered the
city.

22. Tusculum : said to have been
founded by Telegonus, the son of
Ulysses. It was always one of the
most important of the Latin towns,
and was a favorite resort of the
Roman aristocracy. Cicero had a
villa there.

24. consenuit : lit. ' he grew old '
= ' lived to be an old man.'

2G. de his : ' over them ' ; the
regular expression used ' f < >r a
triumph celebrated for a victory
over an enemy.

Page 12, 2. fataliter : lit. « by
fate ' = ' a natural death ' ; cf. morbo
decessit, Ch. 3,

3. nummis : ' money ' ; particu-
larly small coins.

sumptum habuerit sepulturae :
'had the cost of a burial, 1 i.e. was
buried at public expense.

quem : note its position.

Ch. 12. 5. gener Tarquini :
Manilius Octavius of Tusculum.

7. dictatura : at times of great
danger, when it was necessary for
one man to hold the supreme power,
a dictator was appointed by one of
the consuls on the nomination of
the senate. The office was for six
months ; but in case the specific
object for which the dictator was



appointed was accomplished before
that time, he resigned. Ihne, p. 118 ;
Tighe, p. 05.

8. magister equitum : he was
aid-de-camp to the dictator and was
appointed by him. In the absence
of the latter he became the repre-
sentative of the dictator.

9. neque . . . potestati : ' neither
can anything be said to be more
similar than the ancient dictatorship
to the imperial power which,' etc.
Imperium was the regular term for
the power possessed by the magis-
trates. Here it refers to the power
of the emperor.

Eutropius explains for the benefit
of his readers the ancient dictator-
ship, which had long since fallen
into disuse, by comparing it to the
power possessed by the emperor.

11. TranquillitasVestra: l Your
Serene Highness' ; Valens, Emperor
of the East, 304-378 a.d. "Other
titles used of the emperors were
Aeternitds Tua, Clementia Tua,
SerT'nitds Tua, Mdgnitudo Tua,
Mdiostds Tua."

Vestra : in Latin of the classical
period tua would have been used, as
only one person is referred to. In
late Latin the pronouns of the second
person plural take the place of the
singular, just as 'you' has taken
the place of ' thou.'

13. sub dictaturae nomine: in
45 buc. Caesar was made perpetual
dictator.

Ch. 13- 17. populus=;>/< t>8 here.
Popnhts is a collective noun, and so
lakes a singular verb.



Pages 13*14]



NOTES



113



tamquam : ' on the ground that ' ;
a late meaning.

18. tribunos plebis i these magis-
trates, elected by the plebeians in
an assembly of their own (Comitia
Tributa), were invested with the
right of 'intercession,' by which
they could stop all legislation that
they judged to be harmful to the
plebeians. To make their interces-
sion effective they were declared to
be sacrosancti, i.e. ' inviolable,' and
the curse of outlawry was pronounced
against any one who harmed them.
The First Secession of the Plebeians,
as this was called, was the beginning
of a long struggle between the orders,
and terminated in the complete polit-
ical equality of the plebeians. Ihne,
Ch. XIII ; Creighton, p. 12 ; Tighe,
p. 91.

19. per quos = ut per eos.
Page 13. Ch. 14. 2. quam habe-

bant optimam = optimam quam
habebant.

Ch. 15. 5. Q. Marcius : called
Corioldnus from the city Corioli,
which he had conquered. Ihne,
p. 155 ; Creighton, p. 21.

8. oppugnaturus : the Participle
= oppugnavisset.

9. patriam suam : ' his native
city.'

12. secundus : really the first
after Tarquinius, but the second in
order. In an enumeration of a
series the Latin generally includes
the starting point.

Ch. 16. 14. C. Fabio et L. Vir-
ginio consulibus : lit, ' C. Fabius
and L. Virginius being consuls ' = ' in

HAZ. EL'TROPIUS 8



the consulship of,' etc. One of the
regular ways of dating events in
Latin is to give the names of the
consuls for that year. Another is
to reckon the time from the found-
ing of the city ; cf. ab urbe condita,
Ch. 18.

15. qui . . . erant : 'who be-
longed to the Fabian household ' ;
cf . centum ex senioribus, Ch. 2.

16. promittentes . . . implen-
dum : sc. esse ; ' promising the sen-
ate and the people that the whole
contest would be completed by them-
selves.' Promitto regularly takes
the Future Infinitive.

18. qui singuli: 'each one of
whom.'

deberent : cf. esset, Ch. 15.

19. funis omnino superfuit i see
Ihne, p. 163.

Page 14, Ch. 17. 1. sequent!
tamen anno : in the year after the
consuls mentioned in the last chap-
ter.

3. Qulntius : generally written
Quinctius. He held the dictatorial
power for fourteen days only, and
having completed his work returned
to his farm. Later he was again
appointed dictator, and again proved
himself to be the deliverer of his
country.

4. in opere et arans: the post-
classical writers seem to strive al-
most as much to avoid uniformity
in expression as the classical writers
strive for it.

5. togam praetextam: by me-
tonomy the badge of office is put for
the office itself. The toga praetexta



114



NOTES



[Pages 14-16



had a red border woven in it. It
was the badge of office of the higher
magistrates and priests. It was
worn by boys also until they reached
the age of manhood and by girls
until they married.

Ch. 18. 7. altero = secundo.

ab urbe condita: 'from the
founding of the city.'

9. decemviri: the laws, which
the decemvirs codified, known as
the Twelve Tables, remained the
foundation of Roman law for a
thousand years. They were en-
graved on twelve bronze tables and
were set up in the Forum that all
might read them. Every school-
boy was required to commit them
to memory. For an account of the
decemvirs and their legislation, see
Ihne, p. 167 ; Creighton, p. 16 ;
Tighe, p. 05.

10. ex his: cf. ex senioribus,
Ch. 2.

11. Virgin! . . . flliam : seeMa-
caulay's Lays of Ancient Home,
Virginia; Ihne, p. 173 ; Creighton,
p. 16.

13. quara = sed earn.

Ch. 19. 17. Fidenates: the town
of Fidenae is said to have been colo-
nized by Romulus. It frequently
revolted and was as frequently re-
taken by the Romans. After its
destruction in 437 b.c. it was re-
built.

20. coniunxerunt se : 'united. 1

Page 15. 2. victi . . . perdi-
derunt : they were conquered and
also lost their king.'

Ch. 20. 4. Veientani s they were



engaged in almost unceasing hos-
tilities with the Romans for more
than three centuries and a half.

5. ipsos = eos. Eutropius often
uses ipse for is.

6. acie : note the difference of
meaning between exercitus, agmen,
acies, and copiae.

diu obsidens: the siege is said
to have lasted ten years.

8. etFaliscos: in classical prose
etiam would have been used.

9. quasi : ' on the ground that ' ;
a late meaning.

dlvisisset: cf. premeretnr, Ch.
13.

11. Galli Senones : see Ihne,
Ch. XXI; Creighton, p. 25; The
Story of the Bomans, p. 104.

12. apud flumen Alliam : the
fight occurred on July 16, which
was henceforth considered as an un-
lucky day.

secut! . . . occupaverunt : cf.
victi . . . perdiderunt, Ch. 19.

15. obsiderent : cf. sustineret,
Ch. 18.

21. et ipse : * he too,' as well as
Romulus.

Book II

Page \Q, Ch. 1. 3. tribuni mili-
tares consular! potestate : six
military tribunes with consular pow-
ers and consular duration of office
were elected by the Comitia Centu-
riata. The office was open alike to
patricians and plebeians. This was
a compromise measure on the part
of the patricians when they were
forced to yield to the demands of



Pages 10, 17]



XOTES



115



the plebeians to be admitted to the
consulship. All the rights of the
consulship were given to them by
this means without the honorary
privileges the holding of the office
of consul conferred. Each year the
people determined whether consuls
or military tribunes with consular
power should be elected. From the
time of the creation of the tribunes
with consular power until the open-
ing of the consulship to the ple-
beians in 367 b.c, the tribunes were
elected fifty times and the consuls
twenty-three. The plebeians wen-
kept out of the office until 400
b.c. Mommsen, p. 63 ; Tighe, p.
100.

4. hinc : cf. Mftc, Bk. I, 9.

7. tres . . . egit : i.e. a triumph
for each of the cities.

Ch. 2. 11. sub ipsis :■ under the
direction of these ' ; i.e. the citizens
of Praeneste.

12. Romanis : note the name of
the people lor that of the city.

14. decretus : sc. est from the
sunt preceding.

Ch. 3. 16. placuit: lit. 'it was
pleasing' = 'they determined.'

17. ita fluxit : lit. ' it flowed so '
= ' there was such disturbance.'

Ch. 4. 21. L. Genucio . . . con-
sulibus : cf. C. Fabio . . . consu-
libus, Bk. I, 16.

22. honor . . . delatus est : lit.
'honor second after Romulus was
conferred upon him ' = ' honor sec-
ond to that of Romulus,' etc.

Page 17, Ch. 5. 2. mlliario :
cf. ni'ilidrio, Bk. I, 4.



3. Anienem : the Anio, a tribu-
tary of the Tiber. Anienem is Ac-
cusative from the old Nominative

i Anien.

nobilissimus : lit. ' of highest
| birth.' VGNO, cf. nosed.

de senatoribus : cf. ex seniori-
: bus, Bk. I, 2.

4. L. Manlius : his name is gen-
' erally given as Titus. The Story of

the Bomans, p. 106.

5. sublato . . . imposito : ' hav-
ing taken off his (the Gaul's) golden
necklace and having placed it on his
own neck ' ; cf. conditd civitdte, Bk.
T, 2.

6. in perpetuum : 'forever.'

7. fugati sunt : note the differ-
ence in form and meaning between
fugdre and fugere.

8. non multo post : lit. ' not
I after by much ' = ' not long after.'

9. milia captivorum : it was
customary to adorn the procession
of the victorious general, when he
was celebrating a triumph, with the
captives he had taken in the cam-
paign. When the procession passed
up the Capitoline Hill to the Temple
of Jupiter, the captives were led
aside to the Maine r tine prison at the
foot of the hill and were strangled.

Ch. 6. 11. Latin! : Creighton,
p. 27.

12. mllites praestare : it was
the custom of Rome to compel the
states she had subdued to furnish
soldiers for the Roman army. These
were used as auxiliary forces.

ex Romanis : cf. ex senior ibus,
Bk. I, 2.



116



NOTES



[Pages 17, 18



13. qui modus = modus qui ; ' a
force which.'

14. parvis . . . r§bus : ' although
up to this time the Roman state was
small. '

16. quae = eae legiones.

duce L. Furio : lit. 'L. Furius
being the leader' = 'under the
leadership of L. Furius.'

17. qui esset optimus : ' who-
ever was the best.'

18. se . . . obtulit : ' offered him-
self.'

Valerius : see The Story of the
Romans, p. 111.

20. commissa . . . pugna : cf.
condita civitdte, Bk. 1, 2.

21. alis et unguibus : cf. ful-
mine, Bk. T, 4.

25. annorum : by a law passed
in 181 b.c, the legal age of the
consulship was fixed at forty-three.
There were exceptions made, as in
the case of Cn. Pompeius, who was
elected consul when he was thirty-
six years old.

Page 18. Ch. 7. 1. Latin! :
Creighton, p. 28.

2. ex eorum : sc. populo.

4. pugna: see The Story of the
Romans, p. 113.

5. dS his perdomitis : ' a tri-
umph was celebrated on account of
their defeat.'

6. rSstrls : the Rostra or speaker's
platform in the Forum. From it the
speaker could command the entire
Forum and the Comitium. In 42
b.c. it was removed and set up again
at the west end of the Forum. An-
other rostra was constructed about



the same time at the opposite end.
in front of the new Temple of Divus
Iulius.

7. Alexandro Macedone : Al-
exander the Great.

Ch. 8. 9. Samnitas : a Greek
form of the Accusative. The Sam-
nites were offshoots of the Sabines,
occupying the hilly country between
the Nar, the Tiber, and the Anio.
Their bravery made them the most
formidable rival of Rome in Italy.
In 290 b.c they were subjected to
Rome.

12. Q. Fabio Maximo : called
Rullidnus. This Fabius was five
times consul and dictator twice. He
triumphed over the Samnites, Marsi,
Gauls, and Etrurians. He was the
great-grandfather of Q. Fabius Maxi-
mus, the hero of the Second Punic
war.

14. se absente : ' while he (Pa-
plrius) was absent. '

16. capitis damnatus : lit. ' hav-
ing been condemned of the head ' =
'having been condemned on a
capital charge ' ; cf . our expression
' capital punishment. '

se vetante : cf . parvis . . . rebus,
Ch. 6. Se ; the antecedent is Pap'i-
rius.

(ii. 9. 19. T. Veturio . . . c6n-
suiibus : cf. C. Pabtd . . . cdnsutU
bus, Bk. I, 16.

20. vicSrunt : at the battle of
the Caudine Forks, a narrow p&SS
east of Campania. The commander
of the Samnites was Gavins Pontius.
See The Story of the Romans, p. 113.

sub iugum i the yoke was formed



Pages 18, 19]



NOTES



117



by sticking two spears in the ground


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