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and fastening a third on top. To
pass under the yoke was a sign
of subjection, and is equivalent to
our expression ' laying down arms.'
Livy, Bk. IX, VI, describes the

21. pax . . . soluta est: a Ho-
rn an general could not make peace
with the enemy without the ratifica-
tion of the senate and the people.

22. ipsis : see note on ipsos, Bk.
I, 20.

facta fuerat : see note on facta
fuisset, Bk. I, 8.

Page 19, 8. aquam Claudiam
induxit : i.e. he built the aqueduct
named after him. It was more com-
monly called 'Aqua Appia.' Be-
tween seven and eight miles in
length, chiefly under ground, it was
the beginning of the magnificent
system of water works that distin-
guished ancient Rome. Four of
these old aqueducts still furnish the
water supply of modern Rome.
Lanciani, Ancient Borne, p. 58.

4. viam Appiam : "the Appian
road was made in 312 B.O. to join
Rome to Capua, and was afterwards
carried as far as Brundisium. This
1 queen of roads,' as it was called,
was a stone causeway, constructed
according to the nature of the coun-
try, with an embankment either
beneath or beside it, and was of
such a width that two broad wagons
could easily pass each other."

Q. Fabium Maximum : called
Gurges, the son of Q. Fabius Maxi-
nms, mentioned in Ch. 8.

6. datus fuisset : cf . questa fuis-
set, Bk. I, 8.

7. ipsorum : cf. ipsis, above.

10. per annos : cf. per annum,
Bk. I, 10.

11. actum: ' waged' ; agrees with

Ch. 10. 13. se . . . iunxerunt :
cf. coniunxerunt se, Bk. I, 19.

15. deletae sunt : The Story of
the Bomans, p. 114.

Ch. 11. 17. Tarentinis : the people
of Tarentum, a rich and luxurious
city in southern Italy. It played
an important part in the war with
Pyrrhus. The whole of southern
Italy was known as Magna Graecia,
on account of the number of cities
founded there by the Greeks.

in ultima Italia : ' in the most
remote part of Italy ' ; H. 497, 3
(440, n. 1); M. 423 ; A. & G. 193 ;
G. 291, r. 2 ; B. 241.

19. Pyrrhum . . . auxilium po-
poscerunt : ' asked aid of Pyrrhus.'
Pyrrhus was regarded as one of the
greatest generals that had ever lived.
With his daring courage, his mili-
tary skill, and his kingly bearing,
he might have become the most
powerful monarch of his day. But
he never rested satisfied with any
acquisition, and was ever grasping
at some fresh object. For an account
of the war see The Story of the Bo-
mans, pp. 115-121 ; Creighton, p. 31.

20. originem trahebat i ' was
claiming descent ' ; it was the cus-
tom of royal families to claim descent
from heroes or gods.

21. primum : ' for the first time.'



[Pages 19-21

24. cepisset: cf. latrocindretur,
Bk. I, 1.

duel : cf. the construction with
praecepit, Ch. 8.

Page 20. 2. auxilio : cf. fulmine,
Bk. I, 4.

vlcit: although the loss of the
Romans was nearly equaled by that
of Pyrrhus, the value of winning the
first battle was at once shown by the
fact that the Lucanians, Bruttians,
Samnites, and all the Greek cities
joined Pyrrhus.

0. quos . . . vidisset: 'and when
he saw them lying ' ; quos = et eos ;
cf. quo morbo mortuo, Bk. I, 10.

adverso vulnere : ' with their
wounds in front'; i.e. they died
facing the enemy.

8. hac voce : lit. ' this voice '
= ' these words. '

Ch. 12. 10. sibi : cf . Tuscis Sam-
riitibitsque, Ch. 10.

13. terrore exercitxis: 'on ac-
count of his fear of the army ' ; note
the difference in meaning between
the Subjective and Objective Geni-
tive ; H. 441), 2 (390, III); M. 216, 1 ;
A. &G. 217; G. 303, 2; B. 200.

14. se recepit : lit, ' he took him-
self back* = * he withdrew. 1 This
march was merely a feint on the
part of Pyrrhus.

15. honorifice : the Romans al-
ways regarded Pyrrhus as an honor-
able enemy. Their feelings towards
Hannibal were entirely different.

17. Fabricium: G. Fdbricius Lu-
srhms. He was consul for the first
time 283 B.C., when he triumphed
over the Boii and Ktrurians. He

was noted for his extreme frugality
and simplicity, as well as for his in-
tegrity. He is cited by Cicero and
Horace as a type of the Roman citi-
zens of the best days of the Com-

18. cognovisset : cf. latrocina-
retur, Bk. I, 1.

19. voluerit : cf . habuerit, Bk. I,

Ch. 13. 25. pax displicuit : it is
said that at first the senate wavered ;
but by the energy of the blind and
aged Appius Claudius, who caused
himself to be carried into the senate
house, their courage was revived.

remandatum est : ' word was
sent back.'

Page 21. 1 • nisi . . . posse : this
answer passed into a maxim of state.

4. ante . . . quam : note the fond-
ness of the Latin for separating the
parts of this and other compounds
of the same nature.

veterem: ' former.'

binorum : ' two apiece.'

0. qualem : predicate to Eomam ;
' what sort (of a city) he had found
Rome (to be).'

7. comperisset, ef. agerentur.
Ch. 11.

Cn. 14. 18. occisurum: cf. note
on promittentes . . . implewhtm.
Bk. I, Ch. 10.

si . . . aliquid: 'if something.'

polliceretur : Imperf. Subjunc-
tive representing the Future Indi-
cative in Direct Discourse; H. 574.
04(5 (507, I, 527, I) ; M.363, 1. 402 ;
A. & G. 307, 1, 3::;. a, :: ; (;. 596,
R. 1 ; B. 310, B.

Pages 21-23]



19. dominum : indicating that
the physician was a slave, as was
usual at that time.

23. Lucanis et Samnitibus:
they, with the Bruttii, had joined
Pyrrhus against Rome. This was
the second triumph of Fabricius ;
cf. note on Fabricius, Ch. 12. He
was consul the third time two years

Page 22. 2. primus: 'he was
the first to.'

3. apud Argos : it is said that he
perished ingloriously in a street
fight, 272 b.c.

Ch. 15. 6. urbis conditae : cf .
ah urbe condita, Bk. I, Ch. 18.

8. petierant for petiverant: the
shorter forms are more usual in this

Ch. 16. 11. de his: cf. de his,
Bk. I, Ch. 11.

12. civitates = urbes : see note
on condita cwitdte, Bk. I, Ch. 2.

Beneventum : its name is said to
have been originally Maleventum,
and to have been changed because
of the evil omen it contained. The
name Beneventum was given it in
271 b.c. Here Fabricius defeated
Pyrrhus 275 b.c It remained a
possession of the Romans during
the whole of the Second Punic War
and was thanked by the senate for
its faithfulness during that critical

Ch. 17. 16. Brundisini: the peo-
ple of Brundisium, -the modern
Brindisi. It was a seaport of Ca- \
labria, the chief naval station of the
Romans on the Adriatic Sea, and |

their regular port of departure for

Ch. 18. 17. anno : sc. ab urbe

18. extra Italiam : • the Roman
power was now dominant through-
out the peninsula to the river Aesis ;
the valley of the Po, however, was
still reckoned a part of Gaul.'

24. contra Afros : i.e. Cartha-
ginians. Carthage was one of the
first cities of the ancient world. It
was situated on the north coast of
Africa, and was said to have been
founded by Phoenicians from Tyre
under the leadership of Dido.
Carthage had been the ally of
Rome in the war against Pyrrhus.
But the growing commercial activity
of Carthage caused jealousy to arise
which resulted in the three wars
for the supremacy of the West, —
known as the Punic wars. The first
was from 264 b.c to 241 b.c The
second 218-202 b.c and the third
149-146 b.c It resulted in the cap-
ture and destruction of Carthage by
the Romans under P. Cornelius
Scipio Africanus. Creighton, Ch.

26. rege Siciliae Hierone :
Hiero was the king of Syracuse and
its dependencies. Nearly all the
rest of Sicily was in the power of
the Carthaginians.

Page 23. Ch. 19. 2. res mag-
nae : ' great operations.'

3. in fidem acceptae : sc. sunt;
' were taken under their protection ' ;
i.e. they were made tributary.

Ch. 20. 11. Liburnas : sc. naves;



[Pages 23-25

these were light vessels built after a
model taken from the Liburnians,
a sea-faring people that lived on
the east coast of the Adriatic Sea.

12. Duilius : the victory of Dui-
lius was due to a device by which he
turned a naval battle into a land
contest. His ships were furnished
with grappling irons, by means of
which he seized the ships of the
enemy and then boarded them,
when the Roman soldiers easily
proved themselves superior to the
Carthaginian mercenaries. It was
the first naval victory the Romans
had ever gained, and in honor of it
a column was erected to the memory
of Duilius.

17. possent : cf. pug ndsset, Ch. 8.

19. inde — ex, his locis : 'from
these places.'

20. triumphum egit : ' he cele-
brated a triumph.'

Ch. 21. 23. pugnatum : sc. est ;
• they fought.'

victus est : 'he (Hamilcar) was

24. retro se recgpit : cf. se re-
cepit, Ch. 12.

Page 24. 1- m deditionem ac-
cepgrunt : ' they received in sur-

2. usque ad: lit, 'even up to'
= ' as far as. '

6. decern et octo : cf. decern et
octo, Bk. I, Ch. 1.

8. in fidem accepit : cf . in fidem
accejHoe, Ch. 19.

11. 5 Lacedaemoniis I cf. P>jr-
rhum . . . auxilium poposcerunt,
Ch. 11. The Spartans were called

Lacedaemonii from Lacedaemon,
another name for Sparta.

Ch. 22. 22. ingenti praeda :
after a victory a portion of the
booty generally was divided among
the soldiers.

23. subacta . . . fuisset: cf.
questa fuisset, Bk. I, 8.

30. neque . . . infr&ctus fuit :
lit. ' neither in any one was courage
broken by these ' = ' and no one's
courage was broken by these (mis-
fortunes) . '

his: sc. cdsibtis.

Page 25. Ch. 23. 4. continuae :
1 repeated ' ; one following another
without any break.

6. receder§tur : lit. ' it should
be withdrawn ' = ' they should with-
draw. '

Ch. 24. 8. Metello : a coin was
struck to commemorate this battle,
having the head of Metellus on the
one side and an elephant on the
other. Metellus was consul a second
time in 249 B.C., and was elected
Pontifex Maximus in 243 u.c. In
241 b.c. he rescued the Palladium
when the Temple of Vesta was on

10. venientem : k on his arrival * j
in Sicily from Africa.

12. in auxilium : lit. l for aid' =
k as auxiliaries.'

13. ingenti pomp a : cf. ultiind
per n trie, Ch. 21.

Ch. 25. 17. obtinSret i -obtain ' :
a late meaning.

18. nihil . . . ggit : 'did not act
at all ' ; i.e. he made no use of the
privileges enjoyed by Roman citi-





zens, but acted as a foreigner on the
ground that he had lost his citizen-
ship when he had been captured by
the enemy. It was so provided by
Roman law, but there was also the
provision that when a prisoner re-
turned he recovered his former
status. The story of the return of
Regulus is more than doubtful.

20. uxorem : according to the
view he took she had ceased to be
his wife.

Page 26. 1 • obtinuit : ' he gained
his point. 1

2. nullus admisit : 'no one ad-
mitted (to the senate)'; i.e. the
Romans refused to admit the am-

3. negavit as dixit non.

4. mansurum : sc. esse.

Cn. 26. 8. contra auspicia :
nothing was undertaken by the Ro-
mans without consulting the will of
the gods. In this case the sacred
chickens refused to eat, this being
an unfavorable omen, yet Claudius
persisted in fighting.

11. alius: in classical Latin alter
would have been used ; cf . alii . . .
alii, Bk. I, 4. L. Junius is meant.

Ch. 27. 15. trecentis navibus :
this fleet was not raised by the state,
but by private subscription. The
number is generally given as 200.

18. navem aeger ascendit : ' em-
barked with difficulty. 1

vulneratus . . . fuerat : cf .
questa fuisset, Bk. I, 8.

22. infinitum : ' a very great
(amount). 1

auri : cf. arqenfi, Ch. 19.

24. VI Idus Martias : the full
expression would be ante diem sex-
tain Idus Martias; cf. XI Kal.
Jlriias, Bk. I, 1.

25. tribiita . . . pax : peace
was granted finally on these terms :
Carthage was to evacuate Sicily, to
give up the Roman prisoners with-
out ransom, and to pay a war indem-
nity of 3,200 talents,— $4,000,000,
— one third down and the remain-
der in ten annual payments.

Page 27. 1- liceret : ' it might
be permitted 1 ; the subject is rediml

4. redirent: iubed generally takes
the Accusative and Infinitive, but in
poetry and in late prose it sometimes
takes tit with the Subjunctive.

5. ex fisco : ' from the treas-
ury 1 ; a late meaning.

Ch. 28. 6. Q. Lutatius: Cerco.
A. Manlius : Torqitdtus.
8. quam venerant : ' after they,
had come.'

Book III

Ch. 1. 12. Ptolemaeum : this
was the famous Ptolemy Philadel-
phus. He was engaged in war with
Antiochus II, king of Syria, for a
long time, but finally concluded
peace with him and gave him his
daughter in marriage. He was
noted for his patronage of litera-
ture and science.

14. Antiochus: this was the
name of several kings of Syria. The
one referred to here was Antiochus
II, called Theos.

gratias . . . §git : ' gave thanks. '



[Pages 27, 28

16. Hiero : more properly the
king of Syracuse (See Bk. II, 18,
19). During his reign the cele-
brated mathematician Archimedes
lived. He became the firm ally of
the Romans, and when the Second
Punic War broke out he remained
true to his alliance. After the battle
of Lake Trasiinenus he sent a fleet
with provisions and other gifts to
the Romans and also furnished them
with a body of light troops.

18. exhibuit: lit. 'held out' =
' presented.'

Ch. 2. 19. quibus : sc. minis;
cf. tempore, Ch. 1.

20. Ligures : they inhabited the
upper part of the Po valley. They
were of small stature, but strong,
active, and brave. In early times
they served as mercenaries in the
armies of Carthage. They were not
subdued finally by the Romans until
a.fter a long and fierce struggle.
Genua was their chief city.

21. d§ his: cf. de his, Bk. I, 11.
Page 28. *• Sardinienses: when

a revolt occurred in Sardinia, Rome
took advantage of the exhausted
condition of Carthage, and de-
manded the surrender of the island
and an additional indemnity of
1200 talents (81,500,000). Corsica
was obtained in a similar manner.
This was the beginning of the Ro-
man provincial system. Each prov-
ince was governed by a praetor and
paid taxes to the Roman people.
Homt and ( 'arthage, p. 102 ; Creigh-
ton, p. 39.
3. impellentes : nominative

agreeing with Karthaginienses and
governing Sardinienses.

Ch. 3. 7. nullum bellum habue-
runt : at Rome there was the so-
called Temple of Janus, the gates of
which were open in time of war and
closed in time of peace. The gates
were closed only three times from
the building of the temple by Numa
to Augustus, viz. by T. Manilas, 235
b.c, and by Augustus in 29 and 25


8. semel tantum : 'only once.'

Numa Pompilio regnante : cf.
conditd civitate, Bk. I, 2.

Ch. 4. 10. Illyrios: the Illyri-
ans lived on the eastern side of the
Adriatic Sea. They were a nation
of pirates, and made the whole Adri-
atic and Ionian seas unsafe for com-
merce. Even the towns on the
coast were not safe from their
ravages. The Romans sent a force
against them and compelled them to
give up their conquests and to make

11. ex Illyriis: d'e Jllyriis would
be more common.

Ch. 5. IS. Gallorum : the Ro-
mans, recalling the terrible battle
of Allia, Bk. I, 20, were panic-
stricken at first. A large army was
raised and stationed at Ariminum,
where the first attack was expected.
But the Gauls passed around the
Roman army, and, falling in with a
small reserve force, utterly defeated
it. Instead of hastening to Home,
they resolved to pal their plunder in
I place of safety. The Roman army
following them met them finally

Pages 28, 29]



near Telamon, where the decisive
battle was fought, and the Gauls
were annihilated.

14. consensit : 'united.'

15. Fabio : Q. Fabius Pictor, the
earliest of the annalists. He wrote
in Greek an account of the early
history of Rome. He is frequently
quoted by Livy.

17. tantum : 'alone.'

Ch. 6. 20. M. Claudio Mar-
cello : he was five times consul.
This was his first consulship. He
was one of the chief generals of the
Romans in the Second Punic War.
He captured Syracuse after a siege
of two years (Chs. 12, 14). He fell
in battle 208 B.C., and was buried
by the enemy with military honors
(Ch. 16).

24. Mediolanum : the modern

expugnavit : note the difference
between expugno and oppugno.

26. spolia : called op'ima, were the
arms taken from a hostile general
by a Roman general commanding
under his own auspices. They were
hung in the Temple of Jupiter
Feretrius on the Capitol. This
temple is said to have been built
by Romulus, who inaugurated the
custom. They were won on only
two subsequent occasions, when
A. Cornelius Cossus killed Lars
Tolumnius, king of the Veii (Bk. I,
19), and the time mentioned in this

Pace 29. Ch. 7.4. bellum Puni-
cum secundum : immediately after
the end of the First Punic War the

Carthaginians began to prepare for a
renewal of the struggle against Rome.
Hamilcar, the father of Hannibal,
crossed over into Spain and con-
quered a large part of it. Probably
it was his intention to make this
province the basis of operations
against Italy. But death prevented
the realization of his plans. Has-
clrubal, his son-in-law, took com-
mand of the empire Hamilcar had
founded in Spain, and organized and
enlarged it. He founded the city of
New Carthage, which from its situa-
tion seemed destined to become a
second Carthage in commercial im-
portance. In 221 b.c. he was assas-
sinated. At his death the command
was turned over to Hannibal, the
idol of the army and the sworn
enemy of the Romans. Active
preparations were made. Forces
were assembled, supplies were pre-
pared, and when all was ready Han-
nibal gave the signal for war by be-
sieging Saguntum.

per Hannibalem : cf. per filios,
Bk. I, 6.

5. Saguntum : a town on the
southern coast of Spain, said to have
been founded by the Greeks as a
trading post. It was in alliance
with the Romans, although by the
terms of the last treaty with the
Carthaginians independence was
secured to the Sagun tines by both
parties. The capture of this town
was the first hostile act of the war.
Rome and Carthage, p. 112 ; Creigh-
ton, p. JO.

7. annum . . . aetatis:lit. 'pass-



[Pages 29, 30

ing the twentieth year of his life ' =
' being twenty years of age ' ; cf .
decern et octo annos natus, Bk. I, 1.

10. miserunt : sc. legatds.

ut mandaretur : lit. ' that it might
be commanded ' = ' that instructions
might be given.'

11. dura responsa : the story is
told that when Q. Fabius, the chief
of the embassy, held up his toga,
saying, 'I carry here peace and
war : choose ye which ye will have.'
'Give us which ever you please,'
replied the Carthaginians. ' War,
then,' said Fabius ; and the decision
was greeted by the short-sighted
acclamations of the masses.

13. adficiuntur: historical Present.
Cn. 8. 15. in Hispaniam : cf.
Bomam, Ch. 2.

16. Ti. Sempronius : sc. Longns.

17. Alpes: there is a disagree-
ment as to the pass by which Han-
nibal entered Italy. Probably he
crossed by the Little St. Bernard
pass, and came into Italy near the
present town of Aosta. Creighton,
p. 41 ; Borne and Carthage, p. 118.

19. LXXX milia peditum : the
number of the forces of Hannibal
given here is taken from L. Cincius
Alimentus, a Roman annalist. He
was captured by Hannibal, and so
had excellent opportunities for gain-
ing information.

21. Sempronius Gracchus: a
mistake of Kutropius. It was Ti.
Sempronius Longns. In the next
chapter it should be Sempronius Lon-
gns instead of Semproniut Qracchu*.

Ch. 9. 23. P. Cornglius Scipio :

at the beginning of the war he set
out for Spain, Ch. 8, but finding
that Hannibal had already left and
was on his way to Italy, he went to
Gaul to encounter the Carthaginian
before he should cross the Alps.
Hannibal was too quick for hi in.
Scipio returned to Italy and awaited
the arrival of the Carthaginians in
Cisalpine Gaul. Near the river Ti-
cinus, one of the northern tributaries
of the Po, the first engagement of
the war took place. The Romans
were defeated ; Scipio received a
severe wound, and was only saved
from death by the courage of his
son Publius, the future conqueror of
Hannibal. P. Scipio and his brother
Gnaeus were killed in Spain, Ch. 14.
Borne and Carthage, p. 127; Creigh-
ton, p. 43.

Page 30. 1- apud Trebiam am-
nem : the Trebia is a small stream
flowing into the Po from the south.
For an account of the battle see
Borne and Carthage, p. 130 ; Creigh-
ton, p. 43.

2. multi . . . dediderunt i it was
Hannibal's policy to encourage the
communities subject to Rome to
revolt and to attach themselves to
his standard. Everywhere he pro-
claimed himself to be the ' Liberator
of Italy.'

3. Flaminio . . . occurrit : this
battle took place in the following
year, 217 B.C. Hannibal wintered
in the plains of Lombardy, and at
the approach o! spring attempted to

cross the Apennines. He was driven
back by a violent storm, and was

Page 30]



forced to return to his winter quar-
ters. Later in the year he passed
the mountains and marched into
Etruria, where he was met by the
Romans under Flaminius, who had
been elected consul for that year, in
the battle of Lake Trasimenus, in
which the Romans were utterly de-
feated, and almost the whole force
was annihilated. Borne and Car-
thage, p. 138 ; Creighton, p. 43.

(5. Q. Fabius Maximus: was
the great-grandson of the Q. Fabius
Maximus mentioned in Bk. II, 8,
and grandson of the Q. Fabius men-
tioned in Bk. II, 9. He was one of
the greatest generals of Rome. He
was chosen dictator in 217 b.c.,
after the battle of Lake Trasimenus.
The policy he adopted is well known.
By following Hannibal from place to
place, by watching for any error or
neglect on his part and immediately
taking advantage of it, and by avoid-
ing a general engagement, he earned
for himself the name of Cunctator,
'delayer,' but he saved the state.
In 216 b.c. he was elected consul
again, and again employed the same
tactics. In 210 b.c, when he was
consul for the fifth time, he recap-
tured Tarentum by stratagem (Ch.
16). He opposed the sending of
Scipio to Africa, saying that Italy
ought to be rid of Hannibal first.

eum . . . fregit = ab impetu cum
prohibuit; ' prevented him from at-
tacking in force.'

differendo pugnam : ' by post-
poning battle': i.e. by avoiding a
decisive engagement.

Ch. 10. 8. quadragesimo : Eu-

tropius is mistaken in the date ; it
was 210 b.c

9. L. Aemilius Paulus: father of
the L. Aemilius Paulus mentioned in
Bk. IV, 6, 7. He had distinguished
himself in his former consulship
in the war against the Illyrians.
Against his advice the battle of
Canae was fought, and, refusing to
fly from the field when the battle
was lost, he was slain. He was an
aristocrat, and was raised to the
consulship by that party to counter-
balance the influence of the plebeian
P. Terentius Varro.

13. impatientia Varronis : the
aristocracy laid all the blame of the
defeat on Varro.

14. Cannae : a town of Apulia to
the south of the Aufidus, about half-
way between Canusium and the sea.
This was one of the most important
battles of the war. Although the
Romans greatly outnumbered the
Carthaginians, by the skillful ma-
neuvers of Hannibal, they were
surrounded on all sides and were
cut down without mercy. " For
eight hours the work of destruction
went on, and at the end 50,000
men lay dead upon the ground.
Aemilius Paulus, the Illyrian hero,
who, though wounded by a sling
early in the day, had clung to his
horse, heartening on his men, till he
dropped exhausted from his saddle,
the proconsul Servilius, the late
high-spirited master of the horse,
Minucius, both quaestors, twenty-
one military tribunes, sixty senators,



[Pages 30-32

and an unknown number of knights
were among the slain. Nearly 20,000
Roman prisoners were taken. Of
the rest, Varro, with a few horsemen
only, escaped to Venusia. Amid all
this slaughter the conqueror had lost
only 5500 of his infantry and but
200 of that matchless cavalry to
whom the victory was mainly due."
Borne and Carthage, \). 100; Creigh-
ton, p. 44.

16. pars de exercitu = pars ex-
ercitus ; a very rare usage.

18. accept! sunt : • were han-
dled' ; an ironical use of the word.

20. nSbiles viri : men whose an-
cestors had held high office.

22. mentionem habere : usually
mentibnem facere.

quod numquam ante : sc. fac-
tum erat.

23. manumissi : sc. sunt; they

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