BOOK 266.3. AN24H c 1
ANOERSON-MORSHEAD # HISTORY OF
UNIVERSITIES MISSION TO CENTRAL A
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THE HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES'
MISSION TO CENTRAL AFRICA
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2009 with funding from
Boston Library Consortium IVIember Libraries
tibe Ibistor^ of the
xnnivevsities' fiftission \A^\
to Central Eftica
A. E. M. ANDERSON-MORSHEAD
NEW AND REVISED EDITION
OFFICE OF THE UNIVERSITIES' MISSION TO CENTRAL AFRICA
9 DARTMOUTH STREET, WESTMINSTER, S.W.
" From earth, the censer at His feet,
Mounts to the Lord the savour sweet
Of that which once for all
He gave upon the Cross, and we
Give daily, earth's release to be
From daily use and thrall.
* * * *
Then mourn we not with drooping heart
Though half the globe may seem to part
Our prayers from home and friends.
Our mattins meet their evensong
And the dread Offering, all day Jong,
All prayer, all duty blends."
First Edition, 3,000, April 6. 1897.
Second Edition (revised and enlarged), 2,000, March 6. 1899.
Third Edition, 5,000, November, 1902.
Fourth Edition, 2,000, February, 1905.
Fifth Edition, 5.000, May, 1909.
TO THE BLESSED MEMORY
OF ALL THOSE
CHARLES FREDERICK MACKENZIE.
HAVE PASSED TO THEIR REST
IN THE SERVICE OF THE MISSION,
THIS RECORD OF FAITHFUL WORK
IN the mediaeval pictures of the Adoration of the Magi,
one king is usually represented with African features.
By the wonderful instinct that guided those old Italian
painters to teach truths in advance of their times, the
African is seen to have his gift to offer at the cradle-
throne of Christ. And surely no less precious than the
gold of Asia, or the incense of European worship, is
the myrrh which embalms the thousands of years of
African suffering, and makes it meet for the Altar
This history aims at giving a simple account of how
Central Africa has come forward in the last fifty years
to make her offering in the Temple of the Most High.
Fifty years have passed since, at the call, first of
Livingstone and then of Bishops Gray, Wilberforce, and
others, the net was cast in African waters by heroic hands.
" Cast after cast, by force or guile,
All waters must be tried."
And we shall see how, when for a time the waters of the
Shire failed of a harvest, those of Zanzibar were swept
for many a year, until at length " the Fishermen of
Jesus " cast their nets in the blue waters of Lake Nyasa.
Here we attempt to portray the days and nights of wait-
ing in utter patience, in many an up-country station.
in Bondeland, on the Rovuma, or among the Yao Hills,
the Lakeside stations, or in the great heathen city of
Zanzibar. It is hoped that some who read of the noble
lives laid down for Africa, of those who form our Roll in
Paradise, and of the tremendous work which remains to
be done by those devoted men and women who still
labour at the task to which Africa called and England
sent them, may be themselves inspired to hear, amid the
rush and roar of the ceaseless activities of the world's
work and pleasure, the cry of those who, in Africa or
elsewhere, call to the Father of all for Bread, and there
is none to give it them.
The twofold lesson of all history is to teach us to
remember and forget. Remember our famous men,
remember the trials and difficulties and the mistakes of
the way, only to learn how they were surmounted and
cleared away ā only to give hope and courage for the
future, and then " forgetting the things that are behind,"
the weariness, the falls and rising again, and even the
splendour of the past, ' ' to press towards the mark." If this
history helps to draw any to offer themselves for the
work in Africa or elsewhere, it will have accomplished its
aim. The night indeed is far spent, the breaking of the
morning has come, and that which Livingstone, Gray, and
Mackenzie saw darkly has come to pass, however im-
perfectly, and the following pages tell the story of the
drawing of the net, often broken, sometimes feebly
drawn, but ever bringing to the Master's feet
" The souls He died to win."
A. E. M. Anderson-Morshead.
Octave of All Saints, 1908.
I. The Call to the Work .
II. The Shire Highlands .
III. War, Famine, and Pestilence
IV. New Ground, 1863-70
V. A Fellow-worker
VI. The Church in the Slave Market
VII, Daily Work in the Island and on the Mainland
VIII. On the Edge of the Wilderness
IX. Lake Nyasa
X. Last Days of Bishop Steere
XL The Mission on the Lake
XII. Christian Villages on the Rovuma
XIII. Magila in the Bonde Country
XIV. The Usambara Group of Missions
XV. Ten Years in Zanzibar
XVI. Two Chief Pastors
XVII. The Mission on Lake Nyasa and River Shire
XVIII. War and Peace at the Mainland Stations
XIX. Half a Century of Work. The Last Decade
XX. Slavery ......
I, Constitutional History
11. Home Organization .
III. The African Ministry .
IV. Synodical Action
V. English Members of the Mission
[The publishers desire to thank Mr. John Murray, Messrs, Maulli & Fox,
and Elliott S- Fry for permission to reproduce photographs ; to several
metnbers of the Mission for the loan of photographs, and specially to Miss
M. M. Mine, for several sketches.]
Abdallah, Rev. Yohana
Atlay, Rev. G. . . .
Building Native Houses
Burrup, Rev. H. de W. .
Cape Town, St. George's Cathedral
Chambers, Rev. P. R. H.
Charles Janson, s.s.
Chauncy Maples, s.s.
ā ā at Monkey Bay
Chiponde, Rev. Samwil
Fort Jameson Church
Glossop, Rev. A. G. B.
Hainsworth, Rev. J.
Harrison, Rev. W. G.
Hornby, Bishop .
Howard, Dr. R. .
Janson, Rev. Charles
Johnson, Archdeacon . . . . . . .136
Key, Canon Sir J. .
King, Rev. Walter
Kjrk, Sir John
ā ,, Interior
Kota Kota Church
Kwa Makau ....
Ley, Dr. Herbert .
ā ā East end
ā ā Nave
ā ,, Choir stalls
ā ā Ground plan
Limo, Rev. Petro .....
Livingstone, Dr. .....
Luwatala Church .....
Machina, Rev. Daudi ....
Mackenzie, Bishop ....
ā ,, Grave
Hut in which he died
Madan, A. C.
Majaliwa, Rev. Cecil ....
Malindi, Patients at . .
Mangoche, Class at . . .
Maples, Bishop .....
Map showing Field of Universities' Missior
,, ,, Dioceses of E. C. Africa
Masasi Station .....
ā Church .....
Mbweni Dispensary and Patients ..... 366
Misozwe Church ....
Mkunazini, Old Mission House
Mponda's Church .
Procter, Rev. L. J.
Rowley, Rev. H. .
Scudamore, Rev. H. C. .
Sehoza, Rev. Samwil
ā ,, near Liwonde
ā ,, Cutting weeds
Sim, Rev. A. F. .
Slave Dhow ,
Smythies, Bishop .
Theological Students, Zanzibai
Tozer, Bishop j
Waller, Rev. H. .
Weston, Bishop .
,, First Church
Zachary, Rev. F. E.
Zanzibar, Christ Church Cathedral
ā ā ā ,, Interior
ā¢> Ā»Ā» iĀ» >)
Zanzibar Hospital . . :
Old Slave Market .
ā Palace after bombardment
Coloured Map of Central and South Africa.
Bishop Selwyn's sermons at Cambridge stir an interest
in Mission work, and influence Mackenzie . . 2
Dr. Livingstone appeals to the Universities at Senate
House, Cambridge ...... 3
Bishop Gray's visit, and formation of Committees and
of the " Oxford and Cambridge Mission to Central
Africa "........ 4
Cambridge Committee formed ..... 4
Oxford Committee formed ..... 4
Meeting Sheldonian Theatre, Oxford . . . .4
The great Zambezi meeting in Senate House, Cambridge,
and appointment of Mackenzie as head . . . 5-6
Farewell Service at Canterbury for first band of workers 8-9
The first workers sailed ...... 8-9
Rev. H. Rowley sailed ...... 15
Charles Frederick Mackenzie consecrated first
Bishop in Cape Town Cathedral
Sailing of the Lyra with Mission party
Ascent of the Rovuma attempted
The Zambezi entered ....
Disembarkation at Chibisa's, on the Shire .
First release of eighty-four slaves by Dr. Livingstone
They are given to the Bishop ....
War with the Yao (Ajawa), and settlement at Magomero
Projected Church of St. Paul began at Magomero
HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES' MISSION
Rev. H. de Wint Burrup, Dr. Dickinson, and Mr. R. M.
Clark arrive .......
Death of Bishop Mackenzie, and burial by the Shire
Death of Rev. H. de Wint Burrup at Magomero .
The Mission leaves Magomero and settles at Chibisa's .
Rev. H. C. Scudamore died, and was buried by the Shire
Consecration of the Rev. William George Tozer,
IN Westminster Abbey, as Second Bishop
Dr. Steere and Mr. Alington sailed for Cape Town
Dr. Dickinson died, and was buried beside Mr. Scuda-
Bishop Tozer reaches the Mission, and decides to re-
move to Mount Morambala. ....
Procter, Rowley, and Waller return to England, the
latter removing children under his care to Cape Town 40-1
Bishop Tozer consecrates Mackenzie's grave . . 45
The Bishop and Dr. Steere land at Zanzibar . . 45
First Service of the Mission in Zanzibar ... 48
First five boys presented to Mission ... 48
Bishop and Dr. Steere remove from Consulate to Shan-
gani . . ...... 48
Koorjee's Shamba (since named Kiungani) bought
with Wells-Tozer Fund . . . . .51
Five boys and nine girls [given to Bishop Tozer from
slave dhow ....... 50
Miss Tozer and Miss A. Jones reach Zanzibar as the
first women workers ...... 50
First Public Baptism. Nine senior boys baptized, in-
cluding John Swedi ...... 50
Arrival of Dr. Livingstone at Zanzibar ... ā
Foundation of Kiungani House .... 52
Dr. Livingstone enters Africa for the last time . . ā
Bishop Tozer sails for England . . . -51
Miss Tozer sails for England . . . . .51
Rev. C. A. Alington's first visit to Usambara . . 54
First interview with Kimweri, Chief of Usambara . 55
Second visit to Usambara. Mr. Alington occupies
Magila ........ 59
Bishop Tozer returns from England ... ā
First Meeting of Mission Chapter .... ā
Dr. Steere sails for England ..... 65
Purchase of Shangani House, hitherto rented . . ā
Confirmation of the senior boys . . . .50
Bishop Tozer visits Magila ..... 58
The Rev. L. Eraser occupies Magila .... 57
Miss Jones returns to England .... 52
Baptism of eight boys and five girls .... ā
Cholera visitation ....... 52
Death of Rev. L. Fraser of cholera . . . .52
John Swedi and George Farajallah made subdeacons
by the Bishop ....... 52
Death of George Farajallah ..... 52
Rev. O. Handcock and Rev. R. L. Pennell visit Magila 58
Purchase of Mbweni ...... 53
Opening of Kiungani temporary Chapel ... 53
Dr. Steere and Miss Tozer land in Zanzibar . . 66
Hurricane wrecked the Mission House . . . 66-7
The Rev. Lewin Pennell died ; and Bishop Tozer,
broken in health, sails for the Seychelles . , 67
Sam Speare, John Swedi, Francis Mabruki, and Ben
Hartley start for Magila . . , . .68
XViii HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES' MISSION
The First Day of Intercession for Foreign
Missions is observed in England ... 83
Sir Bartle Frere's visit to Zanzibar .... 81
Bishop Tozer, having returned to England, resigns the
Bishopric ....... 67
Dr. Livingstone dies at Ilala ..... 73
Treaty for abolition of Zanzibar Slave Market, and for
restriction of Slave Trade, signed by the Sultan . 82
Part of Slave Market bought for Mission ... 83
Samuel Speare dies in England .... 73
Foundation stone of Christ Church, Zanzibar, laid by
Captain Prideaux ...... 84
Mail sailed with Livingstone's body .... 74
David Livingstone's funeral in Westminster Abbey . 74
Dr. Steere sails for England, leaving the Rev. A. N.
West in charge ...... 74
Aug. 24. Dr. Steere consecrated, in Westminster Abbey, as
Third Bishop of the Mission .... 74
ā ā Thirty-nine children baptized in Zanzibar. . . ā
Sept. I. Girls' School opened at Mbweni . . . . ā
Dec. 25. Rev. Arthur N. West died ..... 83
[Note. ā Some time early this year the Colony of Freed
Slaves was planted at Mbweni.]
Mar. 4. Bishop Steere returns to Zanzibar with the Rev. E,
Randolph and Miss Josephine Bartlett . . 91
April. The Rev. J. P. Farler, Mr. H. W. Woodward, and several
others join the Mission . . . . .91
July 7. The Bishop takes the Rev. J. P. Farler, Mr. Moss, and
Acland Sahera to Magila ..... 92
Aug. 24. Consecration of Cemetery at Kiungani ... 94
,, 31. Bishop Steere and party sail for Lindi, en route for
Sept. 19. Service discontinued in old Consulate Chapel, and held
in Town School ......
Dec. 10. Bishop reaches Mataka's .....
ā 13. Hospital work begun by Miss Allen at Mkunazini
Peace made in Usambara, and Headquarters of Town
Mission removed to Mkunazini during this year
May 3. Rev. Chauncy Maples and Messrs. Yorke and Williams
join the Mission ......
Sept. 29. Rev. C. Maples receives Priest's Orders, and W. P.
Johnson, Deacon's, in Kiungani Chapel
Oct. 16. Bishop Steere, Rev. W. P. Johnson, and Mbweni people
start for Mainland ......
Bishop Steere and party arrive at Masasi
Bishop Steere saUs for England
Baptism of fourteen converts at Magila
Rev. C. Maples and J. Williams reach Masasi
The Rev. F. and Mrs. Hodgson arrive at Zanzibar
Bishop returns, bringing Miss Thackeray .
Stanley and his men return from the West Coast
First Service (Swahili Mattins) said in Christ Church
Foundation of Newala under the Rev. Herbert Clarke 119
First baptism of sixteen adults at Masasi . , .119
Treaty of the Rovuma between the Sultan's Agents,
the Makua and Maviti, made by Rev. H. Clarke . 119
Complete Swahili Liturgy first used ... ā
First Communion of Masasi folk in Zanzibar . . ā
Rev. C. Maples goes to England, and Rev. W. P. John-
son takes his place at Masasi, helped by Rev. H.
Clarke . . . . . , , .120
John Swedi ordained Deacon ā goes to Masasi . 106 & 120
Rev. J. P. Farler appointed Archdeacon of Magila 106
XX HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES' MISSION
Dec. 8. Arrival of Miss D. Y. Mills 106
ā 25. Opening of completed building of Christ Church (no
Altar as yet) ....... 87
ā 29. Bishop starts for six days' tour in Zaramoland . .130
Jan. 6. Rev. C. Yorke dies at Umba ..... 107
Nov. 3. The Rev. W. P. Johnson settles at Mataka's, the first
station occupied in Yaoland . . . .131
ā Mtua occupied . . . . . . -171
Dec. 25. First Celebration in Christ Church, which now comes
into daily use ....... ā
Oct. II. Founding of Mission at Mkuzi . . . . .217
Nov. 22. Lindi occupied by Rev. H. Clarke .... 172
Dec. 24. Dedication of new Church at Masasi . . 121-2
Feb. 21. Death of the Rev. Charles Janson at Nyasa . . 133
Apr. 9. Magila temporary stone Church opened on Easter Day 192
Aug. 27. Edward Steere, Bishop, entered into rest . . . 143
Sept. 12. The Rev. H. A. Wilson died ..... 216
Dr, Petrie, first Medical Missionary of the Guild of St.
Luke, arrives . . . . . . .193
ā 14. Magwangwara raid on Masasi, killing some Christians,
and carrying others into slavery. Rev. W. C. Porter
subsequently visits the tribe to redeem captives 122-4
Dec. 25. First Celebration at St. John's, Mbweni . . .149
Jan. I. Central Africa (magazine) first issued . . .149
Magila rebuilt .190
June. Removal from Masasi to Newala . . . ā¢ i73
Sept. 14. Bishop Royston, of Mauritius, visits Zanzibar and
holds Confirmations ...... ā
Nov. 30. Charles Alan Smythies, Fourth Bishop, conse-
crated ........ 149
Rev. W. P. Johnson (after seven* years' work) returns
to England to appeal for a steamer . . -135
Mr. A. C. Madan prepares Swahili educational works 248
Susi becomes a Catechumen ....
Bishop Smythies lands in Zanzibar .
Bishop Smythies' first visit to Magila
New Station opened at Misozwe
First Synod of Zanzibar .....
H.M. Government grant Ā£^ for each slave received
Bishop Smythies' first visit to Newala
First five Catechumens made at Mkuzi
The Mission s.s. Charles Janson sent out in 380 packages
Rev. W. P. Johnson blind with ophthalmia, and re-
turned to England ......
A Theological branch started at Kiungani, and Arch-
deacon Jones-Bateman appointed Principal .
Jan. 28. Mlinga, the Spirit Mountain, ascended for the first time
by the Bishop and Mr. Woodward
Feb. 2. Bishop Hannington visited Zanzibar and Magila .
Aug. 18. Disastrous fire at Ma tope, burning stores to value of
ā 24. Bishop Smythies and Rev. G. H. and Mrs. Swinny
obtain permission to settle at Likoma .
Sept. 5. s.s. Charles Janson launched, and dedicated on follow-
ing day ........
,, 17. Bishop Smythies discovers source of Lujenda .
Oct. 24. Bishop's second visit to Newala ....
The Children's Tidings (now called African Tidings)
first issued .......
Jan. 15. TheRev.H.W.WoodwardtakesupresidenceatMisozwe
Mar. 25. Church of the Holy Cross, Magila, consecrated
Apr. 4. Ordination of Cecil Majaliwa, third native Deacon ā¢
June II. Death of the Rev. C. S. Buchanan Riddell at Magila
ā 13. Rev. Cecil Majaliwa put in charge of Chitangali
ā 18. Death of Rev. J. S. C'. Wood ....
July 21. Bishop Smythies discovered source of Rovuma .
HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES' MISSION
Bishop Smythies' second visit to Likoma . * .156
David Susi baptized at Zanzibar . . . ā¢ 151
Rev. G. H. Swinny dies at Bandawe . . . 157-8
Dedication of St. John Baptist Churcli at Umba . 221
Jubilee festivities in Zanzibar . . . . .240
Bishop Smythies' third visit to Lake Nyasa . .158
Bishop's fifth visit to Newala . . . . .179
Barnaba Nakaam confirmed . . . . .179
Great fire at Magila . . . . . .201
Opening of the Industrial Wing at Mbweni . 236-9
Churches begun at Misozwe and Msalaka opened 221, 225
The Sisters begin work at Magila .... 201
Dispensary in Zanzibar built ..... 240
Steere memorial studies built, Kiungani . . . 237
Second fire at Magila ...... 203
Tornado at Magila 204
Masai raid into Bonde ...... 204
Seyid Barghash, Sultan of Zanzibar, died, and was suc-
ceeded by Khalifa ...... 240
Mr. Johnson and Mr. Buchanan seized at Makanjila's
and held to ransom . . . . . .160
The s.s. Charles Janson stranded for eight months near
First number of Msimtdizi, African Magazine . .238
School Chapel enlarged at Kiungani . . . . ā
The coast blockaded by England and Germany. Bishop
Smythies left for Africa, was urged to withdraw
from Magila, but refused ..... 207
Archdeacon and Mrs. Hodgson leave Zanzibar . . 243
Women begin work at Nyasa . . . . .160
Archdeacon Hodgson completes the translation of the
Swahili Bible 243
Rev. Dr. Hine arrived in Zanzibar .... 281
Bishop Smythies' sixth visit to Newala . . . 181
The Ousel sailing boat launched on Nyasa . .291
Rev. Herbert Geldart died at Mkuzi . . . 209
First Celebration on Chizumulu Island, Nyasa . . 161
Archdeacon Goodyear died at Magila . . .210
Bishop Smythies' fourth visit to Likoma ... ā
Edicts issued by Sultan Khalifa freeing all children of
slaves born after January i, i8go . . 245 & 399
Rev. C. J. Sparks died at Zanzibar .... 211
The Sisters return to Magila . . . . .211
Rev. Cecil Majaliwa, the first native Priest of the Mis-
sion, ordained in Christ Church .
Death of Sultan Khalifa, and accession of Ali
Archbishop Benson's letter to the Guild of St. Paul
Industrial Exhibition held at Kiungani
James Chala Salfey ordained Priest
Visit of Bishop Tucker, of Eastern Equatorial Africa
Anglo-German Agreement signed, leaving our stations
in Usambara and Rovuma in German territory
The Sultan's visit to Kiungani
Zanzibar placed under British protection .