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MbUMUlilMMka



STANFORD'S COMPENDIUM



GEOGRAPHY AND TRAVEL



(NEW ISSUE)




STANFOED'S
COMPENDIUM OF GEOGEAPHY AND TEAVEL

(NEW ISSUE)

CENTKAL

AND

SOUTH AMEEICA

VOL. II
CENTEAL AMEEICA AND WEST INDIES



BY

A. H. KEANE, F.E.G.S, LL.D.

AUTHOR OF 'ASIa' AND 'AFRICA' IS THE SAME SERIES; ' ETHNOLOGY ';
'JIAN PAST AND present'; ' THE GOLD OF OPHIR ' ; 'THE WORLD'S PEOPLES'; ETC.



EDITED BY

SIE CLEMENTS MAEKHAM, K.C.B.-, F.E.S.

LATE PRESIDENT OF THE BOYAL GEOGEATHICAL SOCIETV



SECOND EDITION



MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS



LONDON: EDWAED STANFOED

12, 13, & 14, LONG ACRE, W.C.
1911



F

K 3 7 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

SANTA BAR1L\RA



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

There has been little scope for geographical research in
the scattered region embraced by this volume since its
first issue ten years ago. Most of the lands here dealt
with are included in the best known and longest estab-
lished sections of the New World, so that actual explora-
tion has been mainly confined to a few outlying districts
in Honduras, Yucatan, and the Mexican Sierras Madres.
In Mexico the most distinguished name is certainly that
of Karl Lumholtz, an indefatigable worker in this field,
to whom anthropologists will be grateful if only for the
discovery of the Huichols, in some respects the most
remarkable of all the Amerinds. Much important
exploration work has been carried out by Mr. T. Feuwick
in British Honduras, where some conspicuous heights
now bear the names of King Edward and Queen Alex-
andra, while M. de Perigny has brought to light the
extensive ruins of Rio BHque in Yucatan, and E. Seler
those of Chaculd in Guatemala. Of actual discoveries
this is about the sum and substance.



vni COMPENDIUM OF GEOGRAPHY AND TPtAVEL

But, Oil the other hand, nearly the whole region under
consideration has been subject to an almost uninterrupted
series of overground and underground convulsions of an
exceptionally disastrous character.

The total disappearance in 1902 of the flourishing
city of St. Pierre in Martinique, with all its 35,000
inhabitants, was the beginning of a large number of lesser
but still severe calamities, which culminated with the
devastating hurricane that swept over the island of Cuba
in October 1910.

In the political world this island is also mainly
concerned, its troubled history having at last been
brought to a close by the satisfactory agreement with the
United States, fully described in its place.

A. H. K.



PREFACE TO THE FIKST EDITION

In the new issue of this series the single volume origin-
ally devoted to Central America, the West Indies, and
South America is replaced by two, each somewhat larger
than their predecessor. The very ample additional space
thus secured has been found no more than sufficient to
embody the more important results of the numerous
scientific expeditions made to almost every part of Latin
America during the last three decades by Whymper, Con-
way, Fitzgerald, Crevaux, Thouar, im Thurn, Eodway,
Ehrenreich, von den Steinen, Keiss, Church, Stlibel, Ball,
Brigham, Hill, Eomero, Thompson, Seler, McGee, Moreno,
Mercer, Stoll, Uhle, and many other distinguished geo-
graphers, archaeologists, naturalists, and anthropologists.
Many of the discoveries were of a fundamental character,
profoundly modifying the views hitherto prevailing on
such questions as the tectonic constitution, both of Cen-
tral and South America, the West Indian orographic
systems, the distribution of plants and animals over the
whole area, the cradle and primitive migrations of Caribs
and Arawaks ; the ethnical relations of Toltecs, Aztecs,



X COMPENDIUM OF GEOGRAPHY AND TRAVEL

and Mayas, of Quichuas (renivians) and Aymaras
(Bolivians), the origin of the marvellous Tiahuanaco
monuments, and of other remains of native American
culture. Attention has also been claimed by the recent
political changes in the West Indies, by frontier ques-
tions, as between British Guiana and Venezuela, between
France and Brazil, and between Chili and Argentina, by
inter- oceanic ship-canal projects, by transcontinental
railway schemes, and by the altered economic conditions,
especially in Mexico, Chili, Brazil, and Argentina. All
these transformations called for adequate treatment, if
only to show that in the New World, material and moral
progress is no longer confined to " Anglo-Saxon America,"
and that henceforth the Hispano-Lusitanian common-
wealths enter into the comity of the other cultured
nations on a footing of absolute equality and independ-
ence.

In distributing the subject matter over these two
volumes, it has been found convenient to deviate some-
what from the usual arrangement. Thus the European
colonies in South America — British, Dutch, and French
Guiana — have been reserved for the present volume on
Central America and the West Indies, with which they
have always been popularly associated as well as inti-
mately connected in their history traditions, commercial
and ethnical relations.

The publisher is indebted to Mr. and Mrs. Maudslay



^



PEEFACE xi

for permission, conveyed through their publisher, Mr.
Murray, to reproduce four of the illustrations from A
Glimpse of Chiatcmala ; to Mr. Everard im Thuru, C.B.,
C.M.G., for the very interesting series of views in Guiana,
with the exception of the group of Macusi, which is
from a photograph by Mr. Burke, kindly supplied by Dr.
E. D. Eudland of New Amsterdam. The views of Mount
Misery, St. Kitts ; Market Place, Koseau ; and The
Pitons of St. Lucia, are from negatives by Mr. F. J.
Wootton Isaacson, and that of St. Pierre, Martinique, by
Mr. F. A. A. Simons. Most of the Mexican views are
reproduced by arrangement with Mr. 0. H. Howarth ;
those of Guadalajara and Zacatecas, and the views in
Trinidad and Barbados, were supplied by Mr. N. P.
Edwards ; and the illustrations to the chapter on His-
paniola are reproduced from Where Black rules White, by
permission of the author, Mr. Hesketh Pritchard.

A. H. ICEANE.

ArXm-Gah
79 Broadhurst Gardens, N.W.
December 1901.



CONTENTS



CHAPTER I

General Survey — Physical and Biological Relations

Former Distribution of Laud and Water in the Isthmian Region
The Isthmian Archipelago ......

Igneous Agencies in Central America ....

Geological History of tlie West Indies — Igneous and Marine

Formations .......

The "American Mediterranean" — Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean

Sea— The Gulf Stream ......

Climate of the Antilles and Central America

Flora and Fauna .......



PAGE

1
3
4



10



CHAPTER H

Ethnical and Historical Relations

Pre-Columbian Cultured Peoples — The "Toltecs" .

The Nahuas, Aztecs, and Maya-Quiches

Present Ethnical Elements in Central America and the Guianas

Ethnical Relations in the West Indies — The Caribs and Arawaks

The Whites, Blacks, and Asiatics ....

General Characters of the Aborigines

Mexican and Central American Stock Races and Languages

The Native Languages .....

The Conquest — Geographical E.vploration .

New Spain .......

The "Kingdom of Guatemala" — General Table of Areas an
Populations ......



12

14
16
17
19
20
22
23
25
28

30



XIV



COMPENDIUM OF GEOGRAPHY AND TRAVEL



CHAPTER III



Mexico : Physical Feati-res

Extent and Break up of the Spanish Yiceroyalty .
Boundaries and Extent of the Mexican Republic
Areas and Populations ....

Constituent Elements of the Present Mexican Population
Physical Features — The Plateau Formations — Their Geological

History ....
The "Western and Eastern Sierra Madres
Scenery of the "Western Range
Mineral "Wealth
Geological Formation
The Mexican Volcanic System
Popocatepetl — Istaccihuatl .
Orizaba • .
Cofre de Perote — JoruUo
Earthquakes .
Hot Springs — The Bramidos of Guanajuato



PAGE

32
33
35

36

37
40
42
44
47
48
50
54
55
56



CHAPTEE lY

Mexico — Continued



Hydrography — Rio Grande del Norte
Rio Lerma — Rio Mexcala
Rio Panuco ....
The Coast Lagoons — Rio Coatzacoalcos
The Closed Basins of the Anahuac Plateau
Drainage "Works



60
62
63
64
65



CHAPTER V

Mexico — Con t inued

Climate— Vertical Zones of Temperature . . . .69

Flora — Agricultural Resources ..... 73

Fauna ........ 81

Fauna of the Revillagigedo and other Insular Groups — Domestic

Animals— Stock-breeding ..... 85



CONTENTS



CHAPTER VI
Mexico {continued) — OrxLTixG Provinces



Isthmus of Teliuantepec

Chiapas — Tabasco

Yucatan — Cenotes — Caves .

Lower California — General Survey .

Climate — Rainless Zone

Fauna — Fisheries — Mineral Wealth

Orography and Geology

Towns — Lower Californian Scenery



87
88
89
92
94
95
96
97



CHAPTER VH

Mexico [continued) — Its Inhabitants

The Aborigines ....

Uncivilised Tribes — The Seri — The Otomi .

The Tarahumaras and Huichols

The Cultured Peoples — Mixtecs and Zapotecs — Mitl

The Tarascans ....

The Aztecs and Chichimecs .

The Maya-Quiches — Early Kecords .

Aztec and Maya Contrasts .

Cholula— The Teocalli

Teotihuacan — Pyramids of the Sun and Moon

Papantla — The Teocalli of Vera Cruz — The Ruined Cities

land .....
U.tmal — Izaraal — Ake — Chichen-Itza
Paleuque — Tulha — Lorillard
Maya Inscriptions — Calendar — Writing System
The Mexican Mestizos

The Spaniards ....

Anglo-Americans ....



f Maya



99
100
101
102
105
106
110
112
113
114

115
116
118
120
122
125
126



CHAPTER Vni

M EXico — Continued



Topography .

Chief Towns of Mexico



127
128



XVI



COMPENDIUM OF GEOGRAPHY AND TRAVEL



History of the Republic
Material Progress — Railway Enterprise
Trade — Foreign Exchanges .
Government — Religion — Education .



PACK

151
154
155
157



CHAPTER IX

Guatemala

Extent — Area — Population .

Physical Features — The Sierra Madre — The Altos

Igneous System

Fuego and Agua Volcanoes .

Hydrography^Rivers — Lakes

Climate — Flora — Agricultural Resources

Fauna ....

Inhabitants ....

Maya-Quiches — Pipils

Topography ....

Government — Finance — Trade



159
160
161
162
164
168
170
173
174
178
181



CHAPTER X



Salvador

Extent — Area— Population .
Physical Features — Volcanic System
Eruptions — Earthquakes
Rivers — Lakes

Climate — Flora — Agricultural Resources
Inhabitants — Mestizo Nomenclature
Topography ....
Government — Finance



183

184
186
187
189
190
191
193



CHAPTER XI

HONDURA.S AND BRITISH H0XDURA.S
I. HuNDURAS

Extent — Area — Population ....
Physical Features — Plains and Uplands
Volcanoes — Fonseca Bay — Mineral Wealth .



195
196
199



COXTENTS

Eivers — Lake Yojoa .
Climate — Flora — Agricultiual Resources
Inhabitants — Ladinos — Aborigines .
Topography — Ruins of Co^ian
History — Government — Finance



XV 11

PAGE
200

•202
204
206
209



II. British Honduras

Boundaries — Extent — Population

The Cockscomb Mountains — Agricultural Resources

Trades — Railway Projects ....

Belize — History — Administration

The Mahogany Industry ....



211
212
213
214
215



•CHAPTEIi XII

Nicaragua

Extent — Area — Population .

Physical Features — Geological Zones

The Mosquito Coast ....

Tlie Central Zone — Cordillera de los Andes
Amerrique and " America " — Mineral Resources
The Volcanic Zone .....

Table of Nicaraguan Volcanoes — The Coseguina and
Volcanoes .....

The Marabios .....

Lakes Managua and Nicaragua

Rivers and Coast Lagoons ....

Climate ......

Flora— Agricultural ResonrcL-s— Fauna

Inhabitants — The Nicaraguans

The Aborigines .....

The Caribs and Sambos ....

The Mosquito Indians — History of jMosquitia

The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty and the Nicaragua Ship-Canal

Topography ......

History— Government — Finance



Masaya



217
218
■219
220
221
222

223
224
225
227
229
231
233
234
235
236
239
241
243



CHAPTER XIII

Costa Rica

Extpnt — Area — Population .

Physical Features — The A'olcanic Section



245
246



xvui



COMPENDIUM OF GEOGRAPHY AND TRAVEL



Table of Costa Rican Volcanoes

The Contineutal Section

Gulfs and Rivers

Climate — Flora — Agricultural Resources

Jlineral Wealth

Fauna ....

Inhabitants — The Costa Kicana

The Guatusos and Talamancans

Topography ....

History — Government — Finance



PACK

248
249
250
251
252
253
254
256
257



CHAPTER XIV.



Panama



Extent — Area — Population .

Physical Features — Ranges and Passes

Rivers — The Rios Chagres and Bayano

Atlantic and Pacific Tidal "Waves

Climate — Rainfall

Flora — Fauna

Inhabitants — The Veraguas and Chiriquis

Topography — Panama Railway and Ship-Canal



259
260
261
262
263
264
266
268



CHAPTEE XV



The "West Indies : General Survey



The American Mediterranean ....

The Greater Antilles — Orographic System .

The Bahamas — Coralline Formations

Communications between the Inland and Oceanic "V\''aters .

The Lesser Antilles — Nomenclature — " "Windward " and "Leeward

Inner and Outer Insular Chains

Cyclonic Disturbances

Antillean Vegetation

Indigenous Fauna

Mineral Resources



272

273
275
276
277
278
279
281
282
283



CONTENTS



CHAPTER XVI



The American Antilles



A Change of Flags .

Cuba : Extent — Area — Population

Physical Features — Fringing Reefs — Upheaved Beaches

The Eastern Uplands — The Sierra JIaestra — -The Western
and Central Plains

Cuban Scener_v

Rivers

Climate

Flora — Tobacco Plantations .

Sugar and Coffee Culture

Mineral Resources .

Inhabitants — The Aborigines — The Negroe

The Cubans .

Topography .

Puerto Rico : Extent — Population

The Surrounding Waters — Brownson Deep — Configuration-
Relief — Flora — Fauna ,

Minerals — Climate .

Inhabitants : Aborigines — Negroes — Whites

Material and Social Progress — Topography .



Cuba and Puekto Rico



Heights



Genera



PAGE

285
286
287

288
289
291
292
293
295
296
297
298
299
•308

309
311
312
314



CHAPTER XVH



HisPANioLA : Sax Domingo and Haiti



Terminology — Extent — Population .

Material and Social Contrasts — A Century of Black Rule

Samaua Bay and American Enterprise

General Relief — The Cibao Highlands — Scenery

Monte Cristi Range ....

Lakes and Rivers ....

Climate .....

Flora — Vegetable and Mineral Resources

Inhabitants — The Aborigines

Whites and Blacks of San Domingo and Haiti

Revolt of the Slaves — Civil Strife .

Expulsion of the French

The Period of Independence — Historic Summary



318
321
323
324
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
334
335



XX



COMPENDIUM OF GEOGRAPHY AND TRAVEL



Social Condition of the Blacks — Vaudoux Rites
Topography .....
Administration of San Domingo
Administration of Haiti



PAGE

337
340
349
351



CHAPTER XVIII



Jamaica



Extent — Position — Area — Population

Physical Features — The Blue Mountains

Plateaux and " Cockpits " .

Rivers — Scenery

Climate

Flora — Fauna

Inliabitants — Historic Survej-

Tlie Maroons

Present Elements of the Population

Agricultural Resources

Social Condition of the Freedmen

Topograph}' .

Political Dependencies

Administration



354
355
357
358
359
360
363
365
366
367
368
372
375
376



CHAPTER XIX

The Lesser Antilles
I. The Bahamas



General Survey

Topography .

Administration of the Bahamas



378
384
386



II. The Behmi'das



Tlie Bermudas



387



III. The Virgin Islands and Santa Ckuz
The A'irgin Islands, etc. .....

1\. The Caribbee Lslands



389



Outer Chain



391



co^:texts



V. The Caribbke Islands



Inner Chain ......


. 394


British Leeward Isles ....


. 395


The French Caribbees ....


. 399


Guadeloupe ......


401


^Martinique ......


402


The British Windward Isles — St. Lucia


405


St. Vincent— The Grenadines — Grenada


407



VI. The Outlying British Antilles



Trinidad

Tobago

Barbados



410
417
419



CHAPTER XX



The GUIAN.A.S : Land and People



Nomenclature — The " Islaml of Guiana '

Present Political Divisions .

Disputed Territories

Physical Features — Coast-lands

The Savannas and "Woodlands

Mountain Ranges — Roraima

Sierra Acorai

The Tumucuraque and Tuniuc-humac Ranges

Rivers — The Essequibo — The Kaieteur Falls

The Denicrara and Berbice — The Corentyn — Cataracts and Rock

Carvings
The Nickerie and Coppenanie
The Surinam, Commewyn, and Cottica
The ]\Iaroni and Oyapok
Scenery of the Guiana Rivers
Climate ...

Flora ....

Fauna ....

Inhabitants — The Aborigines
Arawaks and Caribs — The Macusi .
Whites, Negroes, and Coolies



424
426
427
428
429
430
432
433
435

438
439
440
442
443
445
448
452
455
457
463



xxn



COiMPENDIUM OF GEOGKAPIIY AND TRAVEL



British Guiana
Dutch Guiana
French Guiana
Appendix
Index



CHAPTER XXI

The Guianas : Political Divisions



PAGE

464
471
475
479
487



LIST OF MAPS



1. Map to illustrate the Mexican and Central Ameri

can Stock Races

2. Mexico, Central America and West Indies, Etli

nical and Historical Relations .

3. Mexico .....

4. The West Indies and Central America, Railway

and Telegraph Cables .

5. Havana . . . . ■

6. Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, Jamaica, etc.

7. Jamaica . . . •

8. Trinidad . . • . .

9. The Guianas ...
10. West Indies and Central America



To face page 22

30
158



284
302
352
376
416
462
486



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



1. The Culebra Cut, Panama Canal

2. Peaks of Candelaria — Range West of Valley of Mexico

3. Falls of Juanaeatlan, Outlet of Lake Chapala .

4. Popocatepetl from the Terrace of the Pyramid of Choi

5. Amecarueca and the Volcano of Ixtaccihuatl

6. Maguey or Pulque Ranche

7. Great Ahuehuete Tree ....

8. Cacao ... . .

9. Axolotl .....

10. .Quetzal ......

11. Tarasco Indians of Patzcuaro, Michoacan

12. Axayacatl's Calendar Stone

13. Making Tortillas ....

14. Cathedral of Chihuahua

15. Ancient Rock Inscriptions, Culiacan River, Mexico

16. Zacatecas .....

17. Guanajuato .....

18. Cathedral, Guadalajara ...

19. Eastern Ap.se of Cathedral of Puebla

20. Mexico City .....

21. Cathedral, City of Mexico (Mother Church of the Repi

22. The Plaza of Vera Cruz, Jlexico

23. Gold Mining Camp of Zavalita, State of Oaxaca

24. Volcano and Lake of Atitlan

25. Cebus Albifrons ....

26. Jaguar .....

27. The Great Turtle of Quirigua .



Fr



blic)



ontispiece

41

43

51

52

53

74

78

82

83

103

121

124

129

131

134

135

137

140

141

143

148

154

167

171

172

177



LIST OF ILL


USTEA


TIONS






XXV


PACE


28. City of Guatemala ...... 179


29. Quezaltenango. .










180


30. Peruvian Balsam










189


31. Plantain ....










203


32. Stone at Copan .










206


33. Mahogany










216


34. Puma ....










231


35. Rattlesnake










233


36. Chiysothrix










264


37. Panama ....










269


38. Panama Cathedral










270


39. Yumuri Valley, Cuba .










290


40. Cuban Farmer using Stick Plou,


,di








294


41. Havana .










300


42.^ Morro Castle, Cuba










307


43. Adjuntas, Puerto Rico .










311


44. San Juan, Puerto Rico .










316


45. Native Hut on the Way to San


Doming


;o






320


46. Black Natives .










334


47. A Haitian Regiment on Parade










338


48. Market Place, Port-au-Prince










342


49. Milot










345


50. ThQ Palace of Sans-Souci










347


51. Street Scene in Petit Goave










349


52. The Palace of the President










. 352


53. Allspice .










360


54. Nutmeg .










. 361


55. Kiiigston










. 371


56. Port Royal










. 372


57. Newcastle










. 374


58. Redonda and Nevis










. 393


59. Mount Misery, St. Kitts










. 397


60. Market Place, Roseau .










. 398


61. St.' Pierre, Martinique .










404


62. The Pitons of St. Lucia .










. 406


63. Bread-Fruit Tree










414


64. Harbour, Port of Spain, Trinidad








. 415


65. Port of Spain, Trinidad










. 416



COMPENDIUM OF GEOGRAPHY AND TRAVEL



66. Bridgetown, Barbados .

67. Bridgetown, Barbados
68.. On the Barima River

69. Kaieteur Falls

70. Troolie Palm

71. Gigantic Fig-Tree

72. Cock-of-the-Rock

73. Akawais ....

74. Caribs ....

75. Arawaks playing the "Whip-Game'

76. Macusi Indians .

77. Shield Game of Warraus

78. "Warraus

79. Alluvial Gold Washing at Arakaka on Barima River

80. Government Agency, North-Western District .



PAOE

421
422
431
436
444
450
454
458
459
460
462
465
466
467
469



CENTRAL AMERICA



AND



WEST INDIES



CHAPTER I

GENERAL SURVEY PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL RELATIONS

Former Distribution of Land and Water in the Isthmian Region — The
Isthmian Archipelago — Igneous Agencies in Central America — Geo-
logical History of the West Indies — Igneous and Marine Formations
— The "American Mediterranean "—Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean
Sea — The Gulf Stream — Climate of the Antilles and Central America
— Flora and Fauna.

Former Distribution of Land and Water in the Isthmian

Region

In the volume of this series devoted to South America
it is shown that, from the geographical stand-point, that
continent terminates northwards at the Atrato-San Juan
depression, through which the Atlantic communicated at
one time with the Pacific. By the establishment of this
fact Humboldt's magnificent but somewhat hasty general-
isation regarding the geological continuity of the con-
tinental axis from Fuegia to Alaska was shaken. Since
then the theory has been completely shattered by the

B



2 COMPENDIUM OF GEOGHAPHY AND TKAYEL

discovery that the two oceans were formerly connected,
not by one channel only, but by a considerable number
of straits, of varying width, disposed at irregular intervals
across the now continuous dry land, which extends for
1200 miles from the Atrato to the Valley of Mexico on
the Anahuac tableland. The still flooded basins of this
region are even regarded by some geologists as remnants
of the long winding sound, which flowed between the
two oceans towards the close of the Mesozoic period, that
is to say, before the uplift of the mighty volcanoes which
now tower thousands of feet above the common pedestal,
itself some 7000 or 8000 feet above sea-level.

Nearly all the rich silver lodes lie to the north of
the lacustrine depression, another indication that the
land tapering thence south-eastwards to the Isthmus of
Tehuantepec belonged originally to a different zone from
North America proper. But the circumjacent plains and
ranges have been so long soldered together that all must
now be considered as integral parts of the northern con-
tinent, wdiose true terminal point is the relatively low-
lying Tehuantepec depression, not more than 120 miles
wide between the two seas. Here also flowed a broad
inter -oceanic passage in the Cretaceous epoch, as still
clearly shown by the chalk beds of marine origin, which
were afterwards upheaved in terrace-like formations, and
then overlain with later Tertiary and Quaternary deposits.
The land is even now rising on the Pacific side, where
the shallow lagoons fringing the coast are slowly drying
up. Thus Central, like South America, would appear to
be moving still westwards, having also, like the Amazon
valley, lost much ground on the east side.

South of Tehuantepec occurred several other marine
straits, such as those of the Chirique - David Bays, of
Guajoca, Nicaragua, Ochomogo, Horqueta, Panama, and



GENERAL SURVEY 6

Darien, all of which have been closed at different times
partly by local movements of upheaval, partly by alluvial
deposits and lava streams discharged from the surround-
ino- igneous cones. Some of these cones are much older
than is commonly supposed, and it has been shown that,
for instance, the Costa Eican craters were already active
in early secondary times, when the volcanic chain stood
in mid-ocean, disposed somewhat in the same direction as
that of the Sandwich Islands. Similarly in the Panama
peninsula, both the crystalline Veragua range — mainly
granites, syenites, schists, and gneiss — and the Panama
heights — much weathered dolerites and trachites — are



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