A. J. H. (Augustine Joseph Hickey) Duganne.

The war in Europe: being a retrospect of wars and treaties, showing the remote and recent causes and objects of a dynastic war, in connection with the balance of power in Europe online

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Online LibraryA. J. H. (Augustine Joseph Hickey) DuganneThe war in Europe: being a retrospect of wars and treaties, showing the remote and recent causes and objects of a dynastic war, in connection with the balance of power in Europe → online text (page 1 of 15)
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THE

WAR IN EUROPE,

ITS REMOTE AND RECENT CAUSES.

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BY A. J. H. DUGANNE.




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THE



WAE IN EUROPE:



BEING A



RETKOSPECT OF WARS AND TREATIES,



SHOWING THE



REMOTE im RECENT CAUSES AND OBJECTS



OF A




DTJSTASTIC WAE,



IN CONNECTION WITH



THE BALANCE OF POWER IN EUROPE.

BY A. J. H. DTJGANNE.



EsiEKED according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, by Kobert M. De Witt, in the Clerk's Office of the DiBtrict
Court of the United States for the Southern Distri(^(of NewjCartC^

NEW YORK:
ROBERT M. DE WITT, 160 & 162 NASSAU STREET.

1859. ^






^



CONTENTS.



EUROPE IN THE PRESENT CENTURY:

Settlement of the Peace of Europe— Events of 1815— Great Britain after the Battle
of Waterloo— Russian Dynasty— Austrian Dynasty— German States— Prussian Dynasty
—Sketches of all European States— Description of Italy— Position of the Belligerents
— Declarations and Manifestoes of the Powers 3 22

RETROSPECT OF WARS AND TREATIES:

European Dynasties in lYOO— French Revolution of lYSO— Napoleon Bonaparte's career
—Treaties of Paris in 1814-15- Congress of Vienna— Holt Alliance Treaty—
French Revolutions of 1830 and 1848— Germanic Confederation— Partitions of Poland
—Breaches of Vienna Treaties by Russia and Austria— Secret Treaty op Verona to
CRUSH Liberty— Treaty between Russia and Turkey in relation to the Danubian Prin-
cipalities— Italy IN 1848— German Revolts of 1848-9— Hungarian Revolution 22—44

OBJECTS OF A DYNASTIC WAR:

Review of Louis Napoleon's Acts— Projects of Napoleon I.— The Crimean War injuri-
ous to England— Possibilities of the Future— Italy and a New Popedom— Possible
eflPects on the American Continent— Position of the United States in view of an Offen-
sive Alliance of Dynasties 44 52

BALANCE OF POWER IN EUROPE:

Review of Wars in the last Century— Treaty concerning Parma, Piacenza, and Gdas-
talla— Treaty of Florence between Austria, Sardinia, Tuscany, Modena, and Parma
— Treaty between Austria and Modena in 1847— Consideration of Direct Causes of
the War — Concluding Remarks regarding a New Balance of Power 52—61

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES, FORCES AND FINANCES:

Count Cavour— Marshal Canrobert— Garibaldi— Count Gyulai— Francis of Naples
— Count Rechberg — Generals Hess and Hebel — Marshal Baraguay D'Hilliers — Na-
poleon in. — Victor Emanuel — Francis Joseph— Armies of Europe— Public Debts —
Cost of Wars 61 72



W. n. TiNSON, PriQter and Stereotyper, 43 & 45 Centre Street.









EUROPE m THE PRESENT CESTTURT.



I.

The aspect of European affairs at the present time is of moral and material
significance to all the world. In a progressive age like this in which we live, when
mind and matter quiver under daily impulses of knowledge and science, all civil-
ization must be affected, more or less, by a struggle for empire between two
hostile powers like France and Austria. Many questions and consequences
are involved in the conflict of dynasties — various speculations are ventured
concerning results to ensue — and numberless hopes and fears hang trembling
on the poise of expectation, both in Europe and our own land. The war now
devastating Italy may be regarded as a game of tremendous hazard, whereon
the Old and New World have stakes of vast consequence to their future weal
or woe.

II.

If a feeling of national interest is shared by American as well as foreign
states, it is, likewise, equally felt by our adopted and native citizens. German,
French, Italian and other continental people, who constitute so large a portion
of our communities, have indeed the force of former associations and ties of
kindred to connect them personally with actors and localities of the contest ;
but American-born patriots are not behind in recognizing the crisis to be one
peculiarly worthy of their consideration as members of a democratic confede-
ration.

III.

It lacks just a lustrum of half a century since the Peace of Europe was said
to be definitively settled by the treaties entered into between the allied con-
querors of Napoleon Bonaparte. Dictating terms to Prance in her own capital,
the four victorious powers — Russia, England, Prussia, and Austria — deprived
their former rival of all acquisitions she had made since the revolution of 1T92,
exiled her emperor to Elba, and restored Bourbon rule in the person of Louis
XVIII. On the 3d of March, 1814, the allies took possession of Paris ; on the
2d of October, they met by their representatives, in the Congress of'Vienua,
and in March, 1815, their deliberations were suddenly interrupted by the
intelligence that Bonaparte had broken the treaty, by leaving Elba, and was
advancing with an army through France to regain his lost power.

3



EUROPE m THE PRESENT CENTURY.



IV.



Louis XVIII. fled from his capital to Flanders ; Napoleon signed the new
French Constitution, and submitted his right to the throne to popular vote.
He was sustained by a million and a half affirmative votes against less than half
a million negative. On the 1st of June, 1S15, he found himself at the head
of 560,000 men, and at once led 211,000 against the allied armies of England,
Prussia, and Russia. A million effective soldiers, including a Prussian army,
of 100,000, under Blucher and about an equal force of British, Germans, and
Belgians under Wellington, were advancing to unite on the French frontier.
Bonaparte marched against Blucher with 120,000 men, and defeated him at
Ligny, June 16th. On the eighteenth he encountered Wellington and Blucher
combined, and lost the battle of Waterloo.

V.

The die was cast against him. He fled to Paris, abdicated in favor of his
son, and was shortly after captured at sea by the British, and exiled to St. Helena.
Louis XVIII. went back to his throne, and the Congress of Vienna resumed its de-
liberations. The three powers of Central Europe, Austria, Prussia, and Russia,
entered into a treaty of alliance, September 26, 1815, by which they bound
themselves for mutual assistance in case of any attempt at revolution on the
part of their subjects. The treaty was approved though not subscribed by
England. Before noticing the basis of Peace Settlement made by the Congress
of Vienna, I shall glance at the position of various nations affected by the
treaties of 1815, leaving France, as we have seen, reduced to her territorial
limits as they existed before the revolution, her Bourbons being restored, and
the line of Bonaparte declared incapable of reigning.

VI.

Great Britain, anterior to the battle of Waterloo, was chief head of the
anti-Napoleon league, her cabinet dictating campaigns, her armies in the van
of action, her purse relied on by bankrupt confederates. She had disputed
the progress of French empire for more than twenty years, maintaining often
single-handed, an uncompromising war against Bonaparte's ambition. By
supporting, almost unaided, the enormous expenses of campaigns in Syria and
the Spanish Peninsula, maintaining fleets in all seas, and armies in several
countries — she had increased her National Debt from £200,000,000 to nearly
£900,000,000 ; beside swelling her annual tax budget from £17,000,000 to
£71,000,000 ; her aggregate of disbursements throughout the war amounting
to the enormous sum of £11,000,000,000 sterling. Such colossal sacrifices of
treasure, without computation of losses in human life and by burdens entailed
upon an impoverished population at home, were England's contribution to the
League of Sovereigns. Her reward was the meretricious glory of Waterloo —
a victory which, though it promised " security for the future," was surely no
adequate " indemnity for the past." The fifteen hundred million francs exacted
from Louis XVIII., for his restored kingdom, was scarcely a quid pro quo for all
that Great Britain had expended ; for she had been the master spirit of a coali-
tion which successively arrayed with herself against Napoleon, the governments
of Russia, Austria, Sweden, Prussia, Spain, Portugal, Naples, and a German
League of minor Powers ; she had inspired and strengthened them all, till her
crowning victory overthrew the common adversary forever. Yet, hardly were



EUKOPB m THE PRESENT CENTUKT. 5

the echoes of Waterloo silent than she found herself confronted by the jealousy
of continental states that owed their very existence to her fidelity and forti-
tude. Austrian diplomacy over-matched Great Britain's influence in the Con-
gress of Vienna, denying in council what she had earned on the field — the
position of chief adviser, if not arbiter in continental reconstruction. The great
commissary and paymaster of the war remained, at the peace, only its principal
bankrupt.

VII.

Noticing the various nations whose interests are more or less involved in
the turmoil or quiet of Europe, we may arrive at a definite idea as to their
positions in a general conflict. It will be recollected that the territorial limits
of each of the continental powers, as well as its weight in the European bal-
ance, were fixed by the treaties of 1815, and that the parties to the great set-
tlement bound themselves by solemn oaths not only to preserve inviolate each
condition of their mutual pact, as individual governments, but, moreover, to
unite their power at any future time, to prevent the least infringement of that
pact. By this means the Congress of Vienna, in 1814-15, organized what
became afterward known as the Balance of Power in Europe ; and the three
principal continental powers subscribed a treaty of confederation on which was
bestowed the name of Holy Alliance. We shall leave the settlement and its
treaties for another connection, in order to glance at the dynasties of Conti-
nental Europe.

VIII.

The present Russian Dynasty is that of Holstein-Gotthorp. Russian or
Muscovite sovereignty was founded by Ruric, a barbarian prince, during the
ninth century. Wladimir the Great, called the Russian Solomon, reigned in
the eleventh century, and was converted to Christianity through the Greek
Church, which afterward became the religion of his subjects. Russian rulers
were called Dukes of Muscovy till the reign of Ivan IV., who took the title of
CzAB, which signifies nothing less than C^sar. It was assumed by Ivan in
token of his claims to the Eastern Roman Empire, bequeathed to his father by
Alexis, a fugitive scion of the Emperors of Constantinople, deposed by the
Turks. Since the time of Ivan, Russian ambition has never lost sight of Corn
stantinople as a future seat of Asiatic empire. After Ivan came the House of
Romanoff, of which Peter the Great was second monarch, and his daughter,
Elizabeth, last. Peter III., son of Peter the Great's daughter Anne and her
husband, a Duke of Holsteiu-Gotthorp, then founded the present dynasty ; but
soon lost crown and life, leaving Catherine II. empress in 1762. Catherine
made wa"r against Turkey, partitioned Poland, and left her throne to Paul I.,
who joined the coalition against republican France, and afterward made peace
with her. He was murdered by conspirators in 1801, and his son, Alexander I.,
succeeded to a throne threatened by the armies of Napoleon Bonaparte. Alex-
ander entered into alliance with Napoleon in 1807, at the Treaty of Tilsit, but
abandoned him in 1812, and provoked the campaign of Moscow. After Bona-
parte's retreat from Moscow, the Russian emperor pursued him, and entered Paris
with the Allies in 1814. Alexander I. died in 1825, and Nicholas I. became
Czar, and reigned till the late war between Russia and the allied powers of
England, France, and Turkey. Nicholas pushed Russian pretensions farther
toward Constantinople, and crushed out the nationality of Poland. He left the
empire to his son, Alexander II., present Czar. The Russian Empire covers



6 EUROPE IN THE PRESENT CENTURY.

an area of 8,000,000 square miles, of which nearly two-thirds are in Asia, with
60,000,000 inhabitants.

IX.

The fatiiily of Hapsburg, the reigning Dynasty of Austria, was originally
headed by a simple count of the German Empire. The German emperors were
formerly elected by votes of the princes, dukes, counts, and marquises of the
country, convened for the purpose. In 1273, Count Rodolph of Hapsburg was
chosen Emperor of Germany. Since that time the family has aggrandized itself
greatly through marriage, and reduced large territories under its sway through
war or diplomacy. Albert I. of Austria tyrannized over Switzerland, but lost
that country in the fourteenth century through a general revolt of the cantons.
Charles V., his descendant, was likewise King of Spain. Ferdinand I., his suc-
cessor, united Bohemia and Ilungary with Austria proper. The ambitious
projects of Austria brought on the celebrated Thirty Years' War — between
1618 and 1648. Under Charles VI., a century later, Austria and Spain were
again united. lie left the throne of Austria to his daughter, Maria Theresa.
She married Francis of Lorraine, Grand Duke of Tuscany. The House of
Austro-Lorraine now occupies the throne, represented by Francis Joseph. The
possessions of Austria consist of a number of states, foreign to each other,
whose independence has been destroyed at various times by the craft or violence
of the House of Hapsburg. Among others which make up the bulk of empire,
are Upper and Lower Austria, Bohemia, the mountain provinces of Styria,
Carynthia, and the Tyrol, the ancient kingdom of Hungary, a half-dozen south-
ern provinces extending to the frontier of Turkey, a third part of old Poland,
under the name of Galiicia, and, finally, the Austro-ltalian or Lombardo- Vene-
tian Kingdom. The scattered and diverse populations amount to about thirty-
five millions of souls, in a geographical area of about 256,339 square miles.
The map of Europe will show Austria's position. It lies between Russia on
the northeast, and Turkey on the south, with Prussia and the other German
States northwest. Austria is accessible from Russia along its whole Polish
and Gallic! an border. It is entered from France through Savoy, Sardinia, or
the Rhenish States.

X.

Leaving the Danube above Vienna, we come to the German States, includ-
ing Prussia, Saxony, and the Free Cities. The German Confederation, so called,
recognizes Austria as its chief, but the real German portion of Austrian popu-
lation or territory is comparatively small. In fact, Austria claims position as
head of the Germanic Confederation more by force of military prestige than
because of aflQnity between the bulk of its inhabitants and those of Germany
proper. The Confederation of 1815 grew out of a league against Bonaparte,
made in 1806, by all the potentates of Middle Germany. The Confederation
comprises thirty-four monarchical states, and the Free Cities. They compose a
Congress, to which each power sends delegates, who cast votes in the ratio of
the political importance of the state which they represent. The Confederation
was organized for mutual safety of the German States in time of war.

XI.

Cooperating in the league against France, Frederick William III. of Prussia
represented in 1815 the Dynasty of Brandenburg-Hohenzollern. Prussia
had then been governed by kings just one century, having been originally a



EUEOPE m THE PRESENT CENTURY. 7

dukedom, tributary to the monarchs of Poland. Frederick William, defeated
at Jena, subsequently ceded a part of his realm to France at the Treaty of
Tilsit. After the return of Bonaparte from Moscow, the Prussian monarch,
assisted by a patriotic army of the German nation, organized in the " Tugend-
Bund," or " League of Virtue," joined the grand combination against France.
Frederick William III. reigned till 1840, and was succeeded by Frederick
William IV. Prussia comprises East and West Prussia, Posen, Pomerania,
Brandenburg, Silesia, Westphalia, and several districts on the Rhine, together
with the portion of Poland which fell to her share at the tripartite dismember-
ment of that kingdom. The aggregate extent of Prussian territory is 106,852
square miles ; but most of this is sparsely populated, with exposed frontiers,
liable to sudden attack from either Russia, Austria, or France.

XII.

The three States of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, occupy a frontier, as
regards Russia, which may directly involve them in any general struggle. Nor-
way lies parallel with Sweden, both countries covering a peninsula, washed on
the west and north by the North Sea and Atlantic, and on the east by the
Baltic and Gulf of Bothnia. They are thus opposite the west seacoast of Russia.
Denmark, further south, is situated on the peninsula of Jutland, which protrudes
from the Netherlands and Upper Germany into the mouth of the Baltic. It is
of importance to Russia and France in alliance, to secure the cooperation of
the three northern kingdoms, and likewise that of Holland and Belgium, which
border on French territory. If Denmark espouse the French side, as in 1801,
the Netherlandish provinces are menaced at once. If Norway and Sweden be
controlled by Russia, the North Sea will open to Alexander's fleets, and the
Prussian frontier, Hanover, and other German states, would lie exposed to every
attack. In this way Austria and Germany would be hemmed in on every side
by hostile powers. A consultation of the map of Europe will show that Central
Germany could thus be made the battle-ground of continental dynasties.

XIII.

Denmark is probably the oldest kingdom in Europe preserving ancient limits.
Its people were warlike in ancient times of their history, and swarmed out as
invaders of the British Isles and France. They embraced Christianity during
the tenth century. A Danish king named Sweyn conquered England, and his
sou Canute added Norway to his dominions, wielding three sceptres at the same
time. England afterward became independent ; but in the fourteenth century,
Denmark, Norway, and Sweden were united under one sovereign ; afterward
Sweden was detached, and the German provinces of Schleswig-Holstein gained.
At the beginning of the present century, the King of Denmark refused to enter
into the coalition of northern powers against Bonaparte. To intimidate him,
England sent out a squadron under Nelson, which bombarded Copenhagen and
seized the Danish fleet. But the Danes still adhered to the French side, and
in 1814 the Allied Powers punished their contumacy, by taking away Norway,
to bestow upon Bernadotte, the King of Sweden. The German duchy of Lau-
enburg was giveu to Denmark, as an indemnity for the spoliation. Norway
and Sweden now constitute one kingdom, under the rule of Oscar I., son of
Charles John, who was formerly one of Bonaparte's marshals. Sweden's history,
under various monarchs, is united now with that of Norway. The united king-



8 EUROPE m THE PEESENT CENTURY.

dom measures 1,550 miles in length, by about 350 in breadth. Denmark and
the duchies Schleswig-Holstein and Lauenburg comprise about 17,375 square
miles.

XIV.

We now comprehend the localities of Northerk Europe, down to the
Netherlands, which divide them from France. It will be understood that one
large Russian army is concentrated upon the Gallician or Austrian frontier, and
another on the Vistula, near the Silesian or Prussian frontier. Along the whole
German frontier, a line of Russian military stations, half a mile apart, is estab-
lished. Sentinels continually pace from one station to another, and patrols of
cavalry traverse the entire border. These preparations seem to menace all
Germany. A Russian fleet in the Baltic might cooperate with its land forces
for a like purpose ; while a Russian force in the Black Seo, threatens the Danu-
bian Principalities. On the French side, the " Army of Italy" invests Aus-
tria in her Lombardo-Venetiau kingdom ; while another French army could be
thrown through Belgium and over the Rhine into the heart of Germany.

XV.

Holland and Belgium formed a Gallic province under Imperial Rome, and
afterward became a portion of Charlemagne's Frankish dominions. Subse-
quently they were broken into several small sovereignties ; there being a king
of Friesland, a Duke of Brabant, a Count of Flanders, a Count of Holland, war-
ring against one another, till Philip, King of France, united them with his ter-
ritories, under the name of Low Countries. Flanders afterward passed to
Austria by marriage, Spain claimed Holland for a like reason, and the result
was a civil war, ending in the establishment of a republic by the Holland States,
under a chief called the Stadtholder, by the Treaty of Westphalia or Munster,
in 1648. The republic flourished, and founded colonies in America, settling,
among others, the territory now occupied by New York, New Jersey, Rhode
Island, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. Stadtholder William III. ended the
republic, by establishing hereditary succession to the Stadtholdership. This
prince subsequently resigned the crown of Holland to his son, and took pos-
session of the English throne, after expulsion of his father-in-law, James II.,
last of the Stuart Dynasty. In 1195, a French revolutionary army, under
General Pichegru, assisted the people of Holland in erecting the Batavian Re-
public, so called. In 1806, Napoleon I. organized the seven provinces into a
kingdom for his brother, Louis Bonaparte, and three years afterward deposed
him, incorporating the Belgian monarchy with the French Empire. In 1814,
the Congress of Vienna reerected the Low Countries, or Netherlands, into a
kingdom, and bestowed the sovereignty on William I. In 1830, Belgium re-
volted, and formed an independent kingdom under Leopold of Saxe-Coburg.


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Online LibraryA. J. H. (Augustine Joseph Hickey) DuganneThe war in Europe: being a retrospect of wars and treaties, showing the remote and recent causes and objects of a dynastic war, in connection with the balance of power in Europe → online text (page 1 of 15)