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GENERAL BOOTH

AND

THE SALVATION ARMY



GENERAL BOOTH



AND



THE SALVATION ARMY



BY

A. M. NICOL



HERBERT AND DANIEL
21 MADDOX STREET
LONDON, W.

c Wi 3



CONTENTS

CHAPTER I

GENERAL BOOTH'S RULING PASSION

PAGE

Mr. Cecil Rhodes and the Army Chief Chartist Movement
versus Methodism The Moral of Fakenham A High Day
of Salvation Wounding the General Dialogue and Prayer
with Mrs. Asquith What is the Salvation Army? A
Stupendous List East London and the Discovery of the
General's Destiny . . ' . . . 1

CHAPTER II

A MODERN CATHERINE OF SIENA

Points in common with Saint Catherine Mrs. Booth's first
Sermon A stormy Recitation Excommunicated from
Methodism Mrs. Booth's Love Match A classic Love
Letter Her Views on Sex Her Government of Home
Martyrdom The Loss to the Army A Husband's Tribute 30

CHAPTER III

THE MAKING OF A GENERAL

A Midsummer Night's Dream Banging Theology against the
Wall A Vision of East London " Can you say the Lord's
Prayer in Latin ? " The Converted Milkman The Burkers
The Volunteer Movement makes the Salvation Army
The Outcome of a Revised Sentence . 57



265294



vi GENERAL BOOTH

CHAPTER IV

AND THE MAKING OF AN ARMY

PAGE

A World-wide Ideal The raison d'etre of the Deed Poll-
Doctrines settled for ever A Sect of Sects Powers of the
General Expansion by Growth, not Dictation How
Germany was Invaded The latest Deed and the thin end
of the Democratic Wedge If a General become Bankrupt,
what then ? Applying the Powers under the Trust Deed to
the making of an Army The Havoc of a New Despotism . 83

CHAPTER V

IS GENERAL BOOTH INFALLIBLE?

General Booth's Spiritual claims Headquarters always true
and right " Fundamental Rules" Why are one class of
Officers paid and another unpaid ? Strange Alliance of
Secular and Spiritual Arms General Booth's Universal
Kingdom The Army Padlocked Children taught Heresy 110

CHAPTER VI

A TRAVELLING POPE

General Booth's Parish Before the Japanese Emperor in Salva-
tion Uniform Kissing Jerusalem Lepers " Bread and
Milk, please" Life on Board Ship "General" Moses
" A Son of Humanity" . . ... 132



CHAPTER VII

THE BRAIN CENTRE OF THE ARMY

International Headquarters Trunk Departments The System
of Reporting, Councils, and Secretaryship Past Failures
at Supervision Disagreements and the General's Veto
Details of the Daily Life . . ...



CONTENTS vii

CHAPTER VIII

SALVATION ARMY SAINTS

PAGE

Professor Drummond and the Mysterious in Religion Jacob
Yonker His Conversion and Work His Will Hedwig
von Haartman Her Letters Her Work Jack Stoker
His Conversion His Work . . . 172

CHAPTER IX

SOCIAL SALVATION

The Social Scheme The Farm Colony In Darkest England and A
the Way Out 104,000 subscribed in a few weeks Some
Criticisms Some Encouraging Features Some Recent
Developments . . . . . 188

CHAPTER X

THE QUESTION OF NUMBERS

A Question of Policy Some Statistics Difficulty of Retaining
Recruits Some Reasons New Methods Required Sensa-
tional Accompaniments of the Penitent Form Noisy
Advertisement . . . ... 212

CHAPTER XI

RIFTS IN THE FAMILY LUTE

Family Hierarchy and its Failure The First Salvation Army
Split A Booth rises against a Booth Ballington Booth
against General Booth's System A Dramatic Combat
between Brother and Sister in New York A Second Son's
Rebellion The Story of the Clibborns' Secession Why the
General does not see his Children A Reconciliation Pro-
posal . . . . ... 231

CHAPTER XII

GENERAL BOOTH THE MAN

His Appearance A Man of Action and Intuition His Loyalty
to Friends Contradictions His Moral Courage A Strik-
ing Episode The Qualities of a Statesman . . . 26 i



viii GENERAL BOOTH

CHAPTER XIII

GENERAL BOOTHS ELISHA

PAGE

His Skill as Organiser The Army will Endure His Habit of
Command A Fervid Orator Mr. Bramwell Booth and
Mr. W. T. Stead Is Brought to Trial and Acquitted His
High Aims in Slum Work His Business Capacity . . 282

CHAPTER XIV

THE SALVATION ARMY EMPIRE

General Booth's Imperial Views Centralisation Failure with
the Latin Races Some Measure of Success in Scandinavia
and Protestant Countries Among the Hindoos in India
Failure in Japan and Korea His World-wide Empire . 309

CHAPTER XV

AND WHAT OF THE FUTURE ?

The Growth of Toleration The Army Respected General
Booth on the Future of the Army Is the Army Faithful to
Itself ? An Example . . ... 325

CHAPTER XVI

THUMBNAIL SKETCHES OF MODERN SALVATIONISTS

Mrs. Bramwell Booth Miss Eva Booth Mrs. Booth-Hellberg
Commander Booth-TuckerThomas McKie Adelaide Cox
John A. Carleton Elijah Cadman George Scott Railton
John Lawley David Lamb . ... 339

APPENDIX

THE ARMY AND ITS CRITICS

Finance The Income of Staff Officers The "Style" of the
Staff Officers Emigration The Prison Work of the Army
The Men's Social Work The Failure of the Social Scheme 369



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

THE GENERAL .... Photogravure Frontispiece

TO FACE PAGE

A FARTHING BREAKFAST AT A SLUM POST ... 47

SUNDAY FREE BREAKFAST, BLACKFRIARS ... 74

Low CASTE CONVERTS . . . . . .144

MR. AND MRS. BRAMWELL BOOTH . . . .156

COMMANDER BOOTH-TUCKER . . . . .164

THE GENERAL AND MR. BRAMWELL BOOTH DISCUSSING

THE FARM COLONY . . . . . .188

A TYPICAL " HALLELUJAH LASS " . . . . .226

MlSS EVANGELINE BOOTH AND HER FATHER . .241

GENERAL BOOTH AND THE BISHOP OF HEREFORD, 1910 . 277
WILLIAM BOOTH, D.C.L. ...... 280

THE AUTHOR, 1911 369



PREFACE

I BELIEVE there exists a peculiarly wide need for such
a review of the operations of the Salvation Army
as I have attempted to give in the following pages.
My credentials for thus adding to the literature
upon the movement are as follows : For nearly
thirty years I was closely associated with its leaders,
and more or less actively employed in advancing its
religious and social endeavours.

I began my Salvationist career in the capacity of
Treasurer of a small Corps, and finished it a Com-
missioner in its ranks. I may claim, therefore, the
right to describe, review, and, in a friendly spirit,
criticise the teaching and work of the Army.

When I entered its ranks I was promised no guaran-
teed salary and no " soft job " at any of its Head-
quarters. Those entitled to my respect predicted
that I should suffer in health and in reputation,
and that I might prove a dismal failure as a Salvation
Army Captain. I cheerfully accepted these risks,
however, as also did my partner in life. The aims of
the Army appealed to us ; its achievements dazzled
us. We sold up a little home and parted with lovable
friends to embark upon this problematical career.

The actual step came about in this way : While

ix



x GENERAL BOOTH

sitting in my office one day a telegram was handed in.
I had just finished reading a thrilling newspaper
description of the trial and imprisonment of eleven
members of the Army at Forfar. A hot sense of shame
flushed my cheeks as I read the verdict of the magis-
trate, and I longed to take part in the struggle for
religious liberty in that town. The telegram ran as
follows :

" Serious fight at Forfar. Officers imprisoned.
Can you take their place at once ?

" BRAMWELL BOOTH."

The receipt of that telegram gave me one of the
happiest thrills of my life. I felt as proud as if I had
received the V.C. for performing some act of valour
on the battlefield, and it was with a stinging sense of
regret that I was prevented, owing to a business
agreement, from complying, there and then, with this
call to suffer for Christ's sake. Within a month, how-
ever, of the receipt of that telegraphic call to action, I
was placed in charge of an Army Corps at Kilsyth,
in the South of Scotland, clothed in all the dignity of a
Captain of the Salvation Army ! My first week's
salary amounted to the interesting sum of Is. Ijd.,
the best week's wage that I had earned up to that
time ; so I then reckoned !

The apartments provided for us were in keeping
with the stipend. With a chaff sack on which to sleep
at night and lacking the usual cooking requisites, we
that is my wife and I pocketed our discomfiture,



x

and diffused smiles among the ten soldiers who formed
our fighting battalions.

I did not prove a " dismal failure " at Kilsyth at
least so I was informed by the Headquarters officials
of the Army.

I was next given the command of work in a poor
and squalid district of Middlesbrough, an appointment
which I hailed with pleasure, having the notion that
there was then more practical heathenism to the
square inch in that northern hive of industry than in
any other part of the United Kingdom. But I did not
succeed at all well at Middlesbrough. I was stationed
in the midst of too much poverty to be content with the
means at my disposal for aiding its victims. Then I
was confronted with the failure of the Army to retain
its converts. It was here that I received my first
disappointment in " revival " work, to which I attached
the utmost importance, and by which I hoped the world
would eventually be introduced to a reign of peace
and righteousness.

Major James Dowdle and other successful officers
of the Army had been stationed in Middlesbrough
and had gained altogether 10,000 converts, but the
strength of the three Corps in the town did not exceed
400, and many of the members belonging to the Corps
wore no uniform, only attended meetings on Sundays,
smoked tobacco, and were worldly in their attire.
The officers in the district were given to complaining,
quarrelling with their leaders, flirting with girls, and
contracting private and official debts. The members
of the Corps did not live at peace among themselves.



xii GENERAL BOOTH

They were divided into cliques, and when they spoke
of their experiences of the grace of God at work
and at home, they would " hit " at their fellow-soldiers
and create an uncomfortable feeling in the meeting.

I remember on one occasion it was a Holiness
meeting a female soldier (who was in the habit of
shouting " Hallelujah ! " when the officer said any-
thing that pleased her) saying, " God is against
hypocrisy, and there are hypocrites in this meeting,"
and pointing with her finger to a woman whom I con-
sidered singularly well balanced in her disposition and
consistent in her home affairs, said, " and she is one of
them ! " These people made the loudest professions
and did the least work. Still, if I did not make the
Corps a success, the experience was profitable.

My next appointment was to staff work as aide-de-
camp to Major Thomas Blandy, of the Eastern
Counties. Then followed the Divisional commands of
Scotland and London, which filled four years of my
time. On the whole I did not care for this side of staff
life ; I was not adapted for it.

The appointment as the First Foreign Secretary was
more congenial to my tastes. In this position for three
years I witnessed remarkable demonstrations of the
application of the Army's methods of evangelisation
to the continent of Europe.

The conclusions that I arrived at then I adhere to
still. In Latin-speaking communities the Army's
methods failed. They were too English, too vulgar,
too much of an outrage upon the generally accepted
idea of the worship of God, and the confession and



PREFACE xiii

absolution of sin. People at first came in crowds to the
gatherings of the Army, and not a few were drawn to
the penitent form and attracted for a season to the
service of the Army. But the Army had nothing, and
still has nothing, to offer the lapsed children of the
Roman Catholic Church who were or are restored
to faith in God by means of its services. A meeting
of the Army in Italy or France, for instance, is the
same in spirit, character, and method as it is in Drury
Lane or Newcastle. The leaders of the Army not
including the General have an innate aversion and
prejudice to Roman Catholicism, and it is therefore
not surprising that after twenty years' work in France
the Army is in a worse condition numerically than it
was at the end of its first ten years.

The explanation is simple. It took General Booth
twelve years in London to find an answer to the cry
" How to reach the masses ? " But neither he nor his
officers spent ten days in France studying the same
question from the standpoint of the Frenchman.
" The Army was a success in England, and it must be
in France ! " So they concluded, and having com-
missioned its best officers to apply an English ritual
to the people of a Catholic-minded nation, and one
which these same officers could not alter without ob-
taining the consent of Headquarters, it is not surprising
that the result, so far, is failure.

Where the Army succeeds in France the recruits
are generally gained from people who have been in-
fluenced by Protestant teaching. The Army will have
to learn Latin before it understands the magnitude



xiv GENERAL BOOTH

of its task, and to unlearn its creed and code of dis-
cipline, if it is to lift, religiously, the masses of the
people out of their metaphysical and materialistic
apostasy from the faith of their mothers and fathers.
But all this by the way.

In the same capacity of Foreign Secretary I visited
other parts of the Continent, such as Scandinavia,
Germany, and the Netherlands, and found that where
the Army operated upon a Protestant stratum its
officers met with a response similar to that in England.

I also accompanied the General to India, Japan,
Canada, the United States, South Africa, Palestine,
and other parts of the world, and as, during part of
this travelling career, I also acted as Editor-in-Chief
for the Army's periodical literature, it follows that I
could scarcely fail to understand and appreciate the
Army's great work and its Herculean attack upon evils
that are as old and as tenacious as sin.

Two years ago I ceased to be an officer ; it is unneces-
sary to enter into the circumstances which led to that
severance. In no way do they reflect upon the General
or any of his officers. I may be permitted to say,
however, that in bringing before the public this
impartial picture of the life of General Booth and the
work of the Salvation Army, my sincere wish is that
it will disseminate a more reliable knowledge of the
movement than is usually obtained from ordinary
sources.

Up to the present the public estimate of the Salva-
tion Army has largely been based upon gratuitous
reports and laudatory reviews by persons who have



PREFACE xv

not had the advantage of a practical, close, and
continuous acquaintance with its principal operations.
I hope that I may not be considered egotistical when
I say that I possess these advantages.

Now. after two years' study of the movement, from
an impartial attitude, I see it in, I hope, a clearer
and fuller light.

Within the narrow limits of the space allotted to me,
I have attempted to deal directly and indirectly with
such pertinent questions as the spiritual authority
of the General and the teaching which this organisation
is inculcating in the minds of tens of thousands of
children and youths.

General Booth claims for himself an authority that
no Catholic would dream of ascribing to the Pope of
Rome, or Mahomedan to the Prophet.

The system of the Army is an interesting study in
these democratic days, and I try to explain and
illustrate its application to the various departments
under the control of the Chief of the Staff.

The Army has recently been adversely criticised
and the divisions in the Booth family drawn across
the path of the present. I hope that I shed some new
light upon these matters.

The General refuses to tell his friends the census
of the Army in England and throughout the world ;
but I have felt that the time has arrived when the facts
should be made public property. For doing so, I
shall be held up to a measure of contempt by former
comrades, though I am inclined to think that I shall
have rendered the Army the best service I ever did



xvi GENERAL BOOTH

by what I have done in this matter. The Army has
far more to gain than lose by keeping this subject
no longer in the dark.

These pages constitute, therefore, the sincere tribute
and judgment of a candid friend upon the Salvation
Army. No ulterior motive has inspired the effort,
and I would not have attempted it had not many old
comrades and others asked me to embody in some
form the story of the Army's evolution as I have seen
it. It is launched with the earnest hope that it may
prove of interest, enlightenment, and assistance to all
who are concerned for the success of every honest
endeavour to ameliorate the moral and social con-
ditions of the unfortunate and vicious classes of
society, and that it may encourage the faith of all
who are engaged in the service of God and man to hold
fast the first principles faith in God and the " salva-
bility " of even the most abandoned sons and daughters
of man.

A. M. NICOL.



GENEBAL BOOTH

AND THE SALVATION ARMY

CHAPTER I
GENERAL BOOTH'S RULING PASSION

Mr. Cecil Rhodes and the Army Chief Chartist Movement versus
Methodism The Moral of Fakenham A High Day of Salvation
Wounding the General Dialogue and Prayer with Mrs.
Asquith What is the Salvation Army? A Stupendous List-
East London and the Discovery of the General's Destiny

" I CAN never look upon suffering of any kind without
asking myself two questions : What is the cause of it ?
and what can I do to alleviate the sufferer ? This
habit has become a second nature with me."

In these words General Booth replied to a question
put by the late Mr. Cecil Rhodes, when that Colossus
first inspected the Salvation Army's Land and Indus-
trial Colony at Hadleigh, Essex.

Mr. Rhodes was deeply interested in this Colony
as an experiment in dealing with and reforming the
derelict labour of the city. It was called, under
General Booth's Darkest England Scheme, " The Home



2 GENERAL BOOTH

' Colony," and, .was created to further the physical
and moral regeneration of poor and submerged men
who had previously undergone a probation in the
Army's workshops and " elevators " in the City
Colony.

The linking of the two Colonies impressed the South
African statesman as based upon sound principles,
and as the two men one who thought in Continents,
and the other in Conquests which he determined to
achieve for the Master he served walked about the
Colony, they saw the promise of at least a most useful
effort.

All around them were tramps, hooligans, broken-
down clerks, tradesmen, doctors, lawyers and other
professionals, employed in making dams, wells, and
outhouses, as well as engaged in various branches of
market-gardening and farm- work. The fact carried
with it a splendid moral and a great possibility, and the
characteristic question that Cecil Rhodes put to his
host was, as near as I can now remember, " Tell me,
Booth, how is it that the submerged miserables
appeal to you ? " General Booth's reply, given in the
words of my opening paragraph, pleased the statesman.
It revealed the man.

They had met before, however, at Cape Town, when
Cecil Rhodes was Premier of the parent Colony, and
when the Salvation Army's Social Redemptive Scheme
was just beginning to assume shape and form.
General Booth, who was journeying to Australia by
the long sea route, called at Cape Town, and was
received by the Premier at Parliament Buildings.



GENERAL BOOTH AND CECIL RHODES 3

In the course of a long conversation they exchanged
views upon the future of the English-speaking race
and of South Africa. With amazing frankness, Mr.
Rhodes declared that his own ambition was to paint
the whole of the map of South Africa red, from the
Zambesi down. He traced the line of his plans on a
map hanging on the walls of his office, and then dilated
upon the permanent and material benefits that would
accrue to South Africa and the Empire should his
dreams ever be realised. " Our destiny," he said, " is
to rule this continent."

General Booth was charmed with Mr. Rhodes.
Here was a man who saw visions and dreamed dreams.
Here was a man with power behind him, with wealth
and position and influence, by which he could translate
his dreams into realities. He honoured and admired
him, for despite his protestations of cosmopolitanism,
General Booth is at root an Englishman, and a genuine
believer in the superiority of the British race. He is
English, but English with an overwhelming passion
for the conquest of the world to Christ.

When Mr. Rhodes had finished the outline of
his ambition for South Africa, he turned to the
General and said, " Now what do you think of my
dream ? "

The General replied, " The dream of a Caesar, sir ;
but," with characteristic egotism, he added, " what
do you think of mine, Mr. Rhodes ? " And the General
proceeded :

" I dream day and night of making new men out of
the waste of humanity. To me men, especially the



4 GENERAL BOOTH

worst, possess the attraction of gold mines. The
greatest sinners are the greatest sufferers, and I want
to have a hand at their salvation.

" You are determined, I gather, to conquer this
continent. I too have an ambition. It is to conquer
a Dark Continent of human misery and sorrow. Quite
recently I was moved to make a closer survey of this
continent. I will not weary you with the statistics
of its population and doings, nor the motives that led
me into it. I was simply drawn thither by the attrac-
tion that the poor ever exercise upon me.

"It is pretty well known that at the time I was
spending frequent intervals by the bedside of my dying
wife, and it may be that the sight of her suffering made
me feel more deeply for the sufferings of others. At
any rate, when it was especially cold at nights my mind
went down to the Thames Embankment and speculated
as to what I could do to alleviate the miseries of the
homeless crowds that I had seen there.

" I went through the Starvation World. You do
not know much of that world, Mr. Rhodes, in this
sunny land. What a world it is ! aggravated by the
fact that it need not exist.

" Then I looked at the Vicious World the drunk-
ards, gamblers, harlots, and the poor spendthrifts.
Here I saw men, women, and children by the thousand,
who were redeemable and savable.

" I travelled through the Criminal World. Oh, these
habitations of crime ! I never look upon a prison
without an inward shudder and a longing to get through
the doors and do something for the men shut up there
like wild animals. For there must be a way of deliver-
ing them.

" Then I turned to my own people, the people whom



GENERAL BOOTH AND CECIL RHODES 5

God, I believe, has given me. I asked them to go into
these dark worlds with the Light of God, the compassion
of the Christ, and the touch of our common humanity,
and to say to the miserable denizens of these worlds,
4 Come with us ; here is work for you and shelter for
you, and hope for you. You need not starve, if you
will but work. You need not commit suicide there
is salvation for you.' '

Then the Commander-in-Chief of the Salvation
Army drew a picture of his own people battling with
the breakers of vice, launching their Social Lifeboats,
and saving men, women, and children, and passing
them on, after a period of training, to a New World.
After a pause, he wound up an appeal to Mr. Rhodes
with this question : " And why should not South
Africa be that New World ? "

Mr. Rhodes was stirred by the eloquence of the
social evangelist before him. He was not accustomed
to listen to such a story in his private room at Parlia-
ment Buildings, but he held his emotions with the bit
of an iron will.

" General Booth," he observed, " I perceive the
difference between us. You are first a Christian and
then an Englishman, whereas I am an Englishman
first and last, General." Then, lifting the pointer
again to the northern latitude of Rhodesia on the
map, he said, " If I can help you with a slice of land
up there, let me know when you are ready."

And the two men parted General Booth to wander
through the world a little longer with his Lamp of
Hope, and the Colossus to apply his intellect to his



6 GENERAL BOOTH

Empire-building projects and die and be buried among
the Matoppo Hills.

The two incidents accentuate, I think, the constitu-
tional difference that often exists between one great
man and another. Rhodes was a Napoleon of Empire :
Booth is one of humanity. The Imperialist rightly
divined the man when he declared General Booth to be
" first a Christian," for without that key to his charac-
ter the leader of the Salvation Army becomes an in-
tricate human puzzle. The phraseology and mannerism
of the Methodist evangelist have long since lost their



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