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men and women. He did so. More reforms were intro-
duced into the Army's work in India than had been
dreamed possible by those who had criticised the
methods of Commander Booth-Tucker. So one by one
the system was either modified or abandoned. Even
the huge properties that had been leased in Colombo,
Madras, and Bombay were ordered to be abandoned.
Money was literally thrown away in bricks and mortar
by those who preached and proclaimed the doctrine
that to save India the white man must abandon his


trousers, and bring Jesus Christ and His Gospel to its
millions in the garb, spirit, customs, and idioms of an

There is nothing which answers to a Grand Council
at the International Headquarters of the Salvation
Army. It is only when some serious internal trouble
or the occasion for some social function arises that the
chief officers are called together. There is no assembly
that regularly meets, or other well-defined and es-
tablished institution which may be called the Inter-
national Headquarters' own.

The Field Officers have their officers' meeting once
a month or once a fortnight, and there is an annual
meeting of all grades of officers presided over by the
General or Chief of the Staff ; but although the great
burdens of the Army are carried by the National and
International Headquarters under one roof, the Chief
of the Staff directs, rules, and commands each depart-
ment. The tendency of his policy for the last twenty
years has been to let one department know as little as
possible what the other is doing ; and that applies to
heads as well as subordinates. Hence, while exhibiting
the appearance of a strong organisation, there is a
peculiarly real exclusiveness about International Head-
quarters which noonday prayer-meetings and occa-
sional spiritual conventions have failed to remove.

The Assurance Department is a thing apart from
the life-stream of the Headquarters as a whole. This
semi-separateness also enters into the private life of
the officers. The Chief of the Staff has tried several
plans to control that, so as to exert the greatest possible


personal influence over their lives at home and at the
various corps throughout London to which they belong,
but these efforts have only served to make the officers
wary and chary about imparting information about

A (Commissioner Pollard, a man of singular depart-
mental ability, and enjoying the confidence of the
General and Chief of the Staff unhappily he is no
longer connected with the Army tried his hand at
monthly meetings at which a certain amount of in-
formation was imparted to the Headquarters staff
and certain changes were explained, but he could not
sustain the departure. Then several attempts were
made to hold spiritual gatherings under the direction
of leading officers ; but that led to gossip and com-
parisons as to the personnel of the leaders, and that
fell through. Then the Chief of the Staff and Mrs.
Booth took to meeting the departments separately.
That was more effective, but on general rather than
on particular grounds.

A form was introduced on which an officer had to
state how many meetings of the Army he attended
during the week and what part he took in them and
so forth. That has proved also a dismal failure.

From time to time the Chief of the Staff has been
perturbed by the manifestation of certain evils, such
as the proportion of officers who would appear at
business out of uniform, the number of novels found
in the offices, and the whisperings of clandestine visits
of officers to places of questionable amusement. For
example, I myself was once guilty of accompanying a


distinguished officer to the Lyceum to enjoy and
profit by seeing Henry Irving play " Thomas a Becket."
But, alas ! we were found out !

Other officers went regularly but were not reported.

The Chief of the Staff never quite forgave me for
that lapse, and I cannot blame him, for one officer
with a Bohemian temperament could not but corrupt
the men and women who were being trained to a life
of separation from these and other worldly attractions,
and I hereby tender him my sincere apologies for this
and other departures from grace, and hope that he is
more successful now than heretofore in securing an
organic as well as a spiritual unity in his own creation.
For Headquarters is essentially Mr. Bramwell Booth's

The business habits of the Staff are commendable.
The officials are, as a rule, punctual and industrious.
Office hours are from 9 a.m. till 5.30. The officers are
paid poor salaries, and many have a hard struggle to
make ends meet. Sickness and misfortune necessitate
appeals for grants, which officers resent, as they come
before Boards whose members are not very scrupulous
about their allusions to these appeals.

There is an elaborate system for revising salaries,
and if there is a department that deserves sympathy,
it is the Board that has the task of considering the
recommendations of the heads of departments for the
increase of the salaries of their staff, which takes place
in December of each year. About the end of the year
they generally display a weakness for curtness of
language which is understood only by those who are


familiar with the religious temperament. It is curious
that people who make a loud profession of being wholly
and solely given up to the war are generally the loudest
in denouncing the remuneration which they obtain for
their noble services, and are the first to rush into corre-
spondence with the Chief of the Staff if in their opinion
their increase amounts to only Is. 3d. per week instead
of Is. 6d.

Connected with Headquarters are no cricket, bicycle,
or football clubs. No encouragement is given by the
Chief of the Staff to healthy outdoor games or rifle or
gymnastic exercises. The consequence is a not alto-
gether large proportion of anaemic men and women.
The officers reside in districts like Walthamstow,
Penge, Clapton, etc., where the Army has large corps.
The officer or young boy or girl employee officers in
embryo have to be up early in the morning and rush
off by workmen's train for the City, where they lounge
about for an hour after arrival, and enter the office,
as so many in London have to do, half dead with ennui.
Their work allows of little if any real healthy exercise.
A " slushy " lunch and cup of tea in the afternoon, and
as soon as they reach home and have partaken of a
not very invigorating meal they have to hie off to a
meeting, which is generally held in a stuffy atmosphere.
That meeting concludes as a rule about 9.30 to 10
o'clock, and after the meeting there are the tempta-
tions to young people to gossip or sweetheart. And
so one may be pardoned for raising a voice against
the rigid attempts that are made by this and other
religious houses in the City to impose a code of morals


that violates all sense of proportion, and ignores the
conditions that make for physical robustness and
independent thinking.

A creditable exception applies to a Staff Band, which
makes incursions into the country twice or thrice a
month, and occasional trips across to the Continent.
A smart set of fellows, under the baton of a veritable
Sousa a man whom Bernard Shaw described as the
livest man on this side of the Atlantic this Band has
saved many men for the Army. The bond of music
and comradeship has kept them together ; and if a few
cricket and football clubs could be organised in the
same spirit, Mr. Booth would not have to lament, as he
has to do, the loss of promising young men who know
what is transpiring in the outside world, and know too
that it is not half so black as it is painted by the
votaries of a cult to whom all who do not swear by their
shibboleths are on the wrong road.

Altogether, the Headquarters is a worthy tribute
to its creator and director, and these observations are
only intended to accentuate the fact that, with all its
grace, the Salvation Army in Queen Victoria Street is
a very human affair after all.


Professor Drummond and the Mysterious in Religion Jacob Yonker
His Conversion and Work His Will Hedwig von Haartman
Her Letters Her Work -Jack Stoker His Conversion His

IF Professor Henry Drummond's theory of the mys-
terious in religion is sound, then the Salvation Army
supplies a valuable contribution to the study of that
principle of Christianity. He maintained that

" Salvation in the first instance is more connected
directly with morality. The reason is not that salva-
tion does not demand morality, but that it demands
so much of it that the moralist can never reach up to
it. The end of salvation is perfection, the Christ-like
mind, character, life. Morality is on the way to this
perfection : it may go a considerable distance toward
it, but it can never reach it. Only life can do that.
For the life must develop according to its type ; and
being a germ of the Christ-like, it must unfold into

These are things hard to be understood by the man
of the street. The sceptic asks : " Where and in
whom are the signs of this Christian life ? If Chris-
tianity has in it such mystic power, let us have proof
of it." The man of the world doubts the presence



in humanity of what Drummond calls " something
with enormous power of movement, of growth, of
overcoming obstacles, to attain the perfect." The
Church believes in the presence of the Divine, and if
men's vision of the spiritual were not so blind, they
would behold the clearest evidence of its uplifting
sanctifying energy in the image of God reflected in the
penitence of, say, an Italian peasant before his father
confessor, as well as in the beautiful lives that have
been carved out of rough human granite blocks by
the peculiar tools employed by the Salvation Army.

No review of this movement would be complete if it
omitted a reference to some of the lives that it holds
up as its patron saints. Let us look at one or two.
The first was " made in Germany." Jacob Yonker,
a " man of the world," who fought for his Fatherland
at Sedan, entered business, made it a lucrative success,
and then became sick of the materialistic end to
which everything around seemed to be tending, his
own life in particular.

A Heilsruf (War Cry) fell into his hands, and that
piece of literature impressed him. A Methodist at the
time, a devout Sunday-school worker, a model em-
ployer of labour, and a total abstainer, he had not
attained to the perfect life as Drummond defined it.

Did the Army show the way to it ? Its journal
declared that it was possible, and so he went to Basle
and there studied the Corps life of the Army. To his
amazement, he discovered common people absorbed
with a passion for the salvation of souls ! Here, at
last, he found so he thought a people who under-


stood the practical meaning of the Cross, and a " call "
came to him to follow the Army.

He severed his actual connection with business,
attached himself to an Army Corps as a plain private
soldier, came to London to complete his salvation
education ; and of his experience at this time he
wrote :

" When I went out for the first time in a red jersey,
it was a terrific death for the old man. And when I
came to riding fourth class, where I had always gone
first or second before, I certainly felt it ; but there is so
much opportunity to work for God. When you get
among the very lowest, as soon as they see the uniform,
they say :

" ' Hullo, here comes the Salvation Army ; you
must get converted.'

" And when you get amongst the most intelligent
they know too that the Army is not there as a Chris-
tianity of controversy, but as an agency to compel
people to come into the Kingdom.

" Another time when we met with some friends, one
said to me, ' Oh yes, the Army may be very well in
its way, but why need you have gone into it ? ' ' One
thing is clear to me,' I said, 4 the world has got too
many capable men, but for God's Kingdom men are
wanting.' "

Mr. Yonker was commissioned as a captain by
General Booth at Clapton, rose to be the second-in-
command of the work of the Army in Germany, regu-
larly devoted the major portion of his profits from his
investments to the extension of the Army's work in
his Fatherland, and by the sweetness and saintliness


of his life drew many people to see the Army and
religion in a sympathetic light. After devoting twelve
years' service to the Army in Germany he fell dead
while attending the funeral service of a brother officer
in Berlin. After his death his last will and testament
proved a document of extraordinary interest, and the
truest comment upon the spiritual influence of the
Army upon his life :

" The amounts of which mention is made in this
paper proceed from money which I have received, or
am still to receive, from the Dorsteiner Foundry in
Dorstein for selling them my patent right on the Brick
Press Machine which I have invented, and which was
constructed according to my design. In fact, I put the
whole of the proceeds from this business on this

" Already years ago I resolved in my heart to give
the whole profit derived from this machine to God ;
that is to say, to the work of God, and indeed have
already assigned it to the Salvation Army, years ago,
for its work in Germany, also all profits up to the
present connected with it. After the duties on this
capital have satisfactorily been paid, I desire that
the whole capital should remain for the Salvation
Army in Germany.

" I therefore keep this paper dealing with the
matter, and have arranged for a separate account to
be kept by the Berlin Commercial Association. All
profit and interest derived from this money, or from
securities bought with the same, come into this sepa-
rate account and are reserved for the above-named

" I intend to yearly bestow the interest for the work


of the Salvation Army, and, if necessary, also to take
from this capital, though I would like to preserve this
as a special reserve for the Salvation Army.

" At my death I desire that the total amount of this
separate account shall come to the Salvation Army,
and I bequeath this therefore herewith to General
William Booth, in London, and in case of his decease
to his eldest son, the Chief of the Staff, Bramwell
Booth, to be used for the work of the Salvation Army
in Germany.

" Should any of my heirs regret this action of mine,
they may read and think over the following :

"1. God has, by means of the Salvation Army,
brought great blessing to my soul, and I owe, next to
God, much thankfulness to the Salvation Army.

" What I do is a small matter in comparison with the
great salvation which I have obtained by the grace of
God in the victory over self, the world, and the Devil,
and testimony of a heart cleansed by the blood of
Jesus Christ.

"2. God has, by means of the Salvation Army,
brought great blessings to our ' Fatherland.'

"Not only in that thousands have already been
saved from sin and hell, and that the Social Work has
been the means of blessing hundreds in body and soul ;
but what is still more, many have through the instru-
mentality of the Salvation Army experienced the bless-
ing of full salvation from sin, and a life of constant
victory through Jesus Christ. They are living witnesses
to this that we are, and can continue to be, more than
conquerors they show it by their words and life, and
from their lives proceed continually blessings for others.
They will communicate this spirit to others, and the
fire when helped up will spread itself. This I certainly
expect, and for this I pray.


" Also the Salvation Army has been a blessing for
most of the churches and associations, in that it has
spurred them on to do and dare more for God and
souls, and to act more fearlessly for Jesus and His

" 3. Since the day on which I commenced to do some
work for God, and especially from the time I began to
lay aside a definite part of my income (for many years
about a tenth) for His work, God has not only blessed
me in my soul, but also in earthly store, and if I have
done something more for Him He has returned it to
me manifold. It stands as a miracle before my eyes,
and I am not able to describe how I see and feel
about it.

" Through giving I have not become poorer, but
richer ; I mean, as I write it down here, in actual

An organisation which can turn such a human type
into the fine gold of a noble consecration has surely got
hold of the ideals that must and ought to keep alive the
old fire of enthusiasm for the reign of God in the lives
of men.

And if we turn to Finland we shall, I think, trace
the operation of a similar spirit. Hedwig von Haart-
man is, to the common people of Helsingfors, and
Borga, what Father John of Kronstadt was to
St. Petersburg. Of this gifted lady a Finnish soldier
of the Salvation Army wrote :

" She came to us as Jesus came. Her life was a
constant inspiration to us. She came to us as an angel
of heaven. She was so different from us men who
had lived wicked lives, plunged in drink and sin, with



wretched godless homes. How should we dare to
draw back and shun persecution while she went for-
ward ? "

This woman warrior of salvation gave up a com-
fortable home and friends, aristocratic and refined
society, to follow the Army. At a time in the history
of Finland when religious liberty was receiving its
political quietus from the Russian Pobiedonosteff, she
donned the Salvation Army uniform and descended to
the "dives" of Helsingfors, and with the companion-
ship of a guitar, and a few timid men-mortals, sang
and testified of Drummond's " enormous power," of
the grace of God to make the bad good and the vile
virtuous and unselfish.

Dragged before magistrates and Governor-Generals,
ordered to desist from proselytising her fellow men and
women, waylaid and assaulted by lewd men, deserted by
friends who fancied that she was imperilling the cause
she had at heart by the measures that she adopted,
she followed what she believed to be a Divine light.
The modern lady was merged in the lover of the de-
based and abandoned. Imperturbably she sang songs,
preached salvation, and won Finnish families, drunk-
ards, harlots, thieves, anarchists, and infidels to a
professed faith in the Son of God as their personal
Saviour, and saw evidence of Drummond's power in
a change of conduct and conversation.

We obtain a glimpse of this life in those sacred
epistles that daughters exchange with mothers. This
is one :

" I have not seen any of my relations as yet at any


meetings. I perfectly understand that, to begin with,
they will not like us. But that is not what we are
striving for to be liked. Our wish is to make people
think, and this they would begin to do if only they
would come and listen to us quietly for a little time.

" You ought to see our platform, mamma ! Our
men soldiers look so nice in their red jerseys, and the
women with their bonnets. God bless them ! Many of
them are so truly given up to God, and therefore
spreading blessing around them. Some have even
offered themselves as candidates, to be later on re-
ceived as cadets.

" Last Sunday's meetings were most wonderful.
When the evening meeting was over they all sat quite
undisturbed, and we had literally to beg them to

" Yesterday I visited two families in which last
Saturday a man and woman had been saved. It was
a very beautiful visit. The relations told how changed
they were in their lives. The man had come home in
the evening, and kissed his little child and his wife,
whom he had before knocked about.

" The wife was so glad that the next day (Sunday)
she came to the hall and said to me, ' I really love
these meetings.'

" But, poor new converts ! They have a hard fight
to endure, for everyone around them not only the
unsaved, but even the Christians say, ' Don't go
there ; the whole thing is but a pack of lies.' '

And this " life " affords delight, from a strange
source, if we understand Hedwig von Haartman rightly.
This is indicative of something more than a skilful
strategist and tactician :


" God has still helped us, although in many ways
things are very difficult. The Devil plans and plots
what he can do with us. And now, during the last
days, he has attacked us in a new way that is, through
the roughs. They have been absolutely dreadful both
inside the meetings and when they were not allowed
in outside as well.

" We considered the thing and prayed to God for
help and wisdom, for we saw that the mistake was in
a sense with our own people, who have not been as
patient and loving with the roughs as they ought.

"So all at once I got an idea. That was to have a
meeting entirely for roughs. Every single one was
allowed in, and they were given all the front seats,
while the soldiers sat either behind or among them.

" You should have seen the change that came over
these dreadful men ! They were so well behaved, they
listened so attentively, and when the invitation was
given seven of them came out and knelt at the penitent
form. It made me so happy ! "

When she saw the work of the Army established in
Finland, sickness overtook her. She passed from the
crush and responsibilities of the battlefield to the
silence and mystery of the sick-chamber. Her ex-
perience of the transition is embodied in counsel to her
faithful lovers in the bonds of her kingdom :

" I had such an intense joy in coming this summer
to Finland. I have rejoiced as perhaps never before
in my life. Then came this severe illness, and all my
feelings went, and I saw and felt only suffering and
pain and the shadow of death. But I am walking
wholly by naked faith, for I know that Jesus has


promised to be with me every day and every hour, and
that my Redeemer liveth and will triumph over dust.

" I send you one farewell greeting, and say to you,
perhaps such times will also come to you, and maybe
they will come directly after some great joy." (She
had been recently married to a scholarly Swiss Salva-
tionist.) " Then do not slacken your faith ; even
though you can see nothing and feel nothing, you will
have the victory.

" I thank you for your prayers, and ask you to press
on. I would like to meet you all again in heaven by
and by."

She too died like Jacob Yonker, of Germany,
bequeathing to her Fatherland a legacy of service, full
of tender compassion for the oppressed. Hers was a
truly noble life.

Students of psychology and the religious idea may
discount the conclusion to which I have come, that
lives of the type described are the outcome of the
*' enormous power." At any rate, they may not be
prepared to ascribe to the Salvation Army organisation
any particular gift or influence for making character
of this order. And they can certainly point in support
of the contention to the fact that in the cases cited
both Jacob Yonker and Hedwig von Haartman were
instructed from their youth up in the knowledge of a
spiritual life ; that they had acquired considerable
experience in the service of God before they donned
the scarlet jersey and hallelujah bonnet of the Army ;
and that their steps may have been dictated by a
measure of egotism or at least dissatisfaction with the
lethargy and spiritual deadness of their religious sur-


roundings. A concatenation of circumstances pro-
duced in them an impulse which the Army acted upon,
and thus they became devotees and martyrs for the

This reasoning so common in considering religious
experiences is, I suggest, superficial, though for the
sake of argument I am prepared to accept it, premising
that it is certainly a remarkable aspect of both their
lives that, possessed of a natural robustness and inde-
pendence of character, they adhered to their faith in
the Salvation Army to the end. No one will question
the purity of their motives or the lustre of their conse-
cration to the salvation of their Fatherland. Why
should we, then, not give them credit for finding in the
work of the Army, and in the acceptance of its teach-
ing, all that they claimed for it ?

But we will look at an Englishman's life that was
not at one time permeated with any higher inspiration
than the gratification of his animal instincts. Perhaps

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Online LibraryA M NicolGeneral Booth and the Salvation Army → online text (page 12 of 25)