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experience and her consecration to the life of an
officer. Though then over forty years of age, she was
chosen by the General, or rather Mr. Bramwell Booth,
to " open fire " upon her own Fatherland. And she
succeeded. Encountering at first the persecution of
the baser sort, the objects of the Army's mission
gradually dawned upon the authorities, and it only
needed the imprisonment of a few officers, and the
intervention of the late King Oscar, to compel a re-
spectful hearing from all classes of the community. Miss
Ouchterlony retired from active duty a few years ago.
Scotchmen who have ascended to leading commands.
Burly, straight, and severely practical and pointed.
When the Army captured his affections he was plying
the occupation of a fisherman off the Humber. His
early career was marked by a dogged determination
to succeed in making his converts understand that un-
less they became Salvationists there was very little
hope of their retaining the grace of God. His message
was " Save your soul and save others." And in his
hammer-stroke style of talking he won his way, as does
everyone who adheres to his text and works. And
William Eadie worked. His chance came when he
was brought back from a colonial command and given
an English appointment on the field staff. No man
had a bigger list of complaints and quarrels on his
agenda than Eadie when divisional officer, but while


his fellow-officers were inclined to blame him and his
national love of a skirmish, those behind the scenes
knew that he was a thorough worker. At a moment of
extreme tension in America he was appointed Chief
Secretary to Commander Ballington Booth. Here
his little faults rather than his undoubted virtues were
freely advertised. The Americans had not much use
for the gruff Scotchman who knew Salvation Army
law from A to Z. So it happened that when the
" split " occurred in the States Mr. Eadie was well,
hated by the recalcitrants. But he lived to bear down
much of their opposition, and by those who really know
him he is considered a just administrator of the law of
the Salvation Army. He is the protege of the General,
who has a devoted infatuation for a man who rules hard
and well. Long acquaintance with Salvation Army
government at the top has softened his nature, and like
many men who learn life's sweetest lessons in middle
life, Commissioner Eadie should be at the beginning of
an interesting career. He is supported by a wife who
has done good service in the Salvation Army.

piece of human flint quarried out of the common soil
of mining life. Saved from a career of self-indulgence
more than thirty years ago, he was attracted to the
Army platform, and after a period of probation as an
officer on the field, Richards was given a staff ap-
pointment and from that moment he made progress.
Imagine a rough, blatant, conceited miner turned into
a suave, well-informed, and capable leader of the
Salvation Army in polished and refined Denmark ;


and that is Commissioner Richards. He has had
several foreign appointments, but will never learn a
language should he live to be the age of the patriarchs.

sioner Coombs in Canada, and like him, Commissioner
for the second time.

Commissioner Rees is a handsome encouragement
to the men in the Army whose talents are not numerous.
This man has made the most of his and will continue
to do so. There is a capital story told about his
management of the Training Home, for which he had
very meagre scholastic ability. Grammar is not his
strong point, and he has a certain disdain for the
aspirate, which hurt the superior in Canada when he
was last in charge of the Army's work there. He has
the capacity for taking pains with individual break-
downs in human nature. He will spend days and
nights with men in order to " get at " the core of their
weakness. One day he was relating for the benefit of
his fellow-Commissioners one of these problems, in
the person of a young man who was always quarrelling
with his Captain. This young man was a Lieutenant.
" I was convinced," he said, " that the lad had
something more than a twist in him. He was not
right in his soul. I determined to find out. I took him
into my room yesterday, and resolved that he should
not leave it till I was satisfied that he was right or that
I was right. I spent exactly three hours and fifteen
minutes no, I beg pardon, three hours and seventeen
and a half minutes with him when I found that I was
right." Commissioner Rees goes by the clock.


"Now, Commissioner," replied one of his comrades,
a bit of wickedness twinkling in his eye, " are you
not mistaken ? Perhaps you spent three hours and
eighteen minutes ! "

man who began life as a potman. With a sensible wife
he has made rapid progress in his career, and if anyone
is needed for the Army in China strange that the
Army has not yet begun there this man and his wife
will probably be found to be the safest and most
successful pioneers. He belongs to the phlegmatic
order of Salvationist, but goes on all the time and
thinks out his business with care and prudence. A
valuable man anywhere.

COMMISSIONER W. RIDSDEL (Holland). One of the
few remaining members of the Christian Mission
occupying a big position in the Salvation Army. A
safe man. He is keen on buying and selling property
in the interests of the organisation. He has an in-
veterate love of sermonising, and yet rumour has it
that as a speaker he has not proved a Demosthenes.
Here is a sad story about the good and faithful warrior.
Twenty-five years ago Colonel Lawley heard him
deliver a sermon from the text " How shall we escape,
if we neglect so great salvation ? " It was delivered
with muscular emphasis and much prancing on the
stage. It was considered a good address. Five years
ago the same officer heard him preach in another
country one Sunday night. At the close Mr. Ridsdel
asked his comrade what he thought of the delivery.
The text was the same and the wording the same, even


the muscular part not being omitted. The wicked
officer made answer, " William, not so well done as
when I heard the same sermon preached by the General
thirty-two years ago and by yourself in Plymouth
twenty-five years ago." Notwithstanding, Commis-
sioner Ridsdel has done good work for the Flag, and
the General will swear by him to the end.

COMMISSIONER COSANDEY (Argentine). One of the
few foreign officers who have risen to the dignity of a
commissionership in the Salvation Army. A French
Swiss, he is one of the most engaging orators in the
organisation, has great natural capacity to manage
men, administer affairs, and kick over the traces

COMMISSIONER T. ESTILL (Chicago). A capital man
for a storm. He and his wife have together rendered
sixty years' service to the Salvation Army. He had
charge of the work of the Army in South Africa, Japan,
and Holland. His wife is a matchless worker in behalf
of lost women.

COLONEL ARTHUR BATES (Auditor-General). Tra-
velled three hundred thousand miles inspecting the
accounts of the Army. An encyclopaedia of Army
work in all lands.

COLONEL SAMUEL BRENGLE (Travelling Special).
Author of the choicest and ablest books issued from
the Army Press. An American.

COLONEL A. M. DAMON (United States). A well-
balanced mind, organiser, and an effective speaker and

COLONEL MILDRED DUFF (London). Editor-in-Chief


of Young People's papers. A gracious personality
who has served the cause in many of its uphill fights
on the Continent and in England. An ambassador for
Mr. Bramwell Booth on difficult and personal matters.
A lady of sterling qualities. Had charge of the slum-
work in London for some time.

COLONEL CHARLES DUCE. A promising and able
leader, with the true missionary ideas and instinct. Has
been kept back for some reason or other. A cruel waste
of time to retain such a man in any part of the Western

Chief Secretary of America. Very popular ; has
raised more officers for the Salvation Army than anyone
in the States. His administrative achievements are
national monuments in the social philanthropic work
of that country.

COLONEL F. F. FORNACHON (France). A coming man
for continental work ; has already done good service.

COLONEL W. H. ILIFFE (Boxted). The General's
representative in working out a scheme for the closer
settlement of the people in small holdings. Seen ser-
vice in India. Well informed about everything he has
undertaken. Was successful as Chief Secretary of the
Army's Colony at Hadleigh. A man of the future.

COLONEL WILLIAM HOWARD (Finland). Son of the
Commissioner of that name. A wise and careful officer.
Musical and linguistic.

COLONEL THEO. KITHING (International Head-
quarters). Greatly trusted by the General and the
Chief of the Staff. Head of the Army's Publicity De-


partment. Has travelled much with the Chief and the
General. Acts as the Chief's literary secretary. Occu-
pies a seat on the Foreign Office Board and many
similar institutions at International Headquarters.
Has dressed in rags and tatters and preached in that
garb upon the Social Scheme.

quarters). Head of the Property and Finance of the
Army. Able and far-seeing. Credited with having
more weight with the Chief of the Staff than any other
man at his elbow. The " Sousa " of the Salvation
Army, and the staff bandmaster of a highly trained
band of brass instrumentalists who have visited all
parts of England and several countries on the Continent.

COLONEL JOLIFFE (International Headquarters).
Head of the collecting and money-raising departments
of International Headquarters. An able and accom-
plished speaker. Chairman of many boards for the
revision of expenses. Head of the Staff Department.

COLONEL JOHN LAWLEY. Wherever the General is
to be found there is Colonel Lawley also. A man after
the General's own heart. Leads the General's prayer-
meetings, sees to his platforms and billets, and gener-
ally acts as agent in advance. No engagement is fixed
for the General until Colonel Lawley sees it. He solos
for the General, and has sung one solo fifteen hundred
times, " Hark, hear the Saviour knocking ! " There
is a capital story told of the General's chaplain. It was
in Australia. The General had been complaining of
the bad ventilation no building was ever invented
to satisfy the General and could not call Lawley


to see to it, as he was then engaged singing his im-
mortal song. Lawley overheard the remarks. When
he came to the line in the solo

ie Backslider, will you listen?"

Lawley paused, sang the line again, and aside said to
one of the staff officers sitting near to the General,
" Brigadier, go and pull the string and let the air in."
The General forgave Lawley many transgressions for
that timely and thoughtful aside ! The Colonel com-
poses a hymn on an average once a week, and they are
often used, but not by the General. His selection has
long been narrowed down to about a dozen. And, by
the way, the General has tried his hand at composing
hymns, and with a fair measure of acceptance to his
officers. Mrs. Lawley was one of the most successful
field officers before her marriage.

COLONEL DAVID LAMB is probably one of the best-
known officers among the general public, owing to his
connection with the social branches of the Army in
London. He acted as the Chief's private secretary
for several years on social affairs. He has a pretty
complete grasp of Poor Law Reform, and has given
evidence before select committees on such subjects
as vagrancy, the homeless, and kindred matters. He
is a member of the Rochford Board of Guardians, in
which capacity he is acknowledged to have rendered
valuable service to the community.

For five years he had the direction of the Hadleigh
Farm Colony and gained there an intimate acquaint-
ance with the causes of pauperism and the limitations
of the Poor Law. He has done more than any other


officer to bring the Army into relation with the State
as an auxiliary in handling the vicious and idle sections
of society. He held the position of Chief Secretary in
the Men's Colony of London. He was appointed by
the General to organise the Emigration Department,
in which, however, he has been a failure ; that is,
so far as carrying out the General's ideal of emigration
is concerned. Originally that department was in-
tended to be a method for transferring people in ad-
verse circumstances from this country, where they were
being crowded out of the labour market, to places such
as Canada and America, where there existed a more
general demand for labour. This branch of the Army's
operations for some reason or other has not attracted
subscriptions, and yet the agency has sent tens of
thousands of people to Canada, and the publications
of the Army have boasted that in some instances the
parties that have been sent under the cegis of the Army
have carried with them as much as 30,000 & some-
what different financial reputation from what the General
expected to belong to the people that should accept
his hand of help in this way. The department has
grown to be a miniature Cook's Agency. It simply
meets the need of a class that prefer to sail to a new
shore under the guidance of the Army's officials ;
otherwise it has practically failed to grapple with a
fraction of the social problem which it was hoped by
its originator it would partially solve.

The worst aspects of its operations, however, are
confined to the Canadian side of the case. The Army
has no special facilities to offer their clients. Colonel


Lamb is the officer who has had the shaping of this
department largely in his hands, and it may be placed
to his credit that if he had had a freer hand he probably
would have done something opposed to the general in-
terests of the Army, but calculated to introduce a first-
class stream of labour to the Dominion from the ranks
of those unable to pay their own ocean fare. He is
nothing if not original in many of his suggestions for
taking the under dog up out of his extremity, and for
fearlessly going in the teeth of the conventional ; but
like all societies that have to consider not one aspect
of the question, but how one department will affect
another, he has been handicapped in measures for
raising money to aid the thousands who have applied
to the Army and have been refused, on the ground that
there were no available funds. Colonel Lamb has paid
many visits to Canada and has done much to teach
Government officials how to do emigration work on
a cheap line.

As a public speaker Colonel Lamb is careful, thought-
ful, having none of the flamboyant way of appealing to
men who are " down on their uppers." He talks with
the calm assurance of a Government official tinged
with the idealism of the Army. He is one of the few
officers who religiously reads his Bible at family
prayers and then dives into The Times. His wife is
known at Southend as the friend of the poor, and one
who can always be relied upon to take up the " forlorn
hopes " of the town.

quarters). Colonel Jacobs is an able manager, and


indispensable as the Chief Secretary of the City Colony
under the Social Scheme. A great executive officer.
Spent fifteen years in Canada.

Mention might be made of many other officers,
especially those in charge of Corps, who possess quali-
fications for filling larger positions in the Army. But
it will be clear, I think, from the above that those who
foolishly imagine that this organisation is likely to suffer
for the lack of capable leaders, for the present at
least, are mistaken.

Whatever opinions may be held as to the Army as a
religious organisation, one thing is evident : it has dis-
covered gold in the dust rich talent among the average
men of the world, and imbued with religious ideals,
has made them into thinkers, social engineers, and re-
generators of a certain class of society. Whether the
type of man that is denoted " Salvationist " is, in
the long run, likely to prove a valuable member of
society is a question that we need not discuss here.
No one can surely read these sketches of the men
behind the scenes without being impressed with the
fact that the Army makes men. And these are by no
means " picked " men. I have selected them accord-
ing to no fixed standard. There are others in charge
of Corps, such as the commanders of local Corps, who,
after doing twenty and twenty-five years' service on
the field as missionary officers, are capable if the oppor-
tunity were placed in their power of being even greater
successes than those who are occupying exalted posi-
tions at the various Headquarters.




THE Salvation Army has had a fair amount of adver-
tisement for which it has paid a heavy price, and a
larger amount for which it has paid nothing at all.
It is upon the latter that I may be permitted to pass
a few comments.

The critics of the Army have, of late years, been
busy with their pen. In former years they fought the
Army, as Kipling would say, with their mouth. Now
they attack the General, Mr. Bramwell Booth and.
their host of worshippers, with that caustic weapon
the pen. In earlier times the assailed Commander-in-
Chief was less sensitive and more worldly-wise than he
appears to have become of late. Then he rather glori-
fied in the attention that was bestowed upon the Army,
even when the missiles employed were more painful
in their effect than pleasant. Nowadays he and those
who are responsible for defending the honour of the
Flag of " The Blood and Fire " have clearly shown
that they are victims of what is not uncommon in a
long and strenuous military campaign, " nerves."
They have betrayed the fact that they can have that
disease in a very acute form.

Let us look at the principal things that have been
levelled against the Headquarters of the Army :

1. FINANCE. The critics have from time to time
2 B 369


complained that all is not as clear and as straight as
it should be. In this respect the Army has a complete
answer to all its critics. It is untrue to assert, as has
been done again and again, that the Army does not
publish balance sheets. The Army does publish balance
sheets, and has done so from the first year that the
Trust Deed under which General William Booth holds
his right to control the property and money of the
Salvation Army was published. I have seen the
auditors' clerks at work in the various departments of
Headquarters. I have seen the original balance sheets,
and have watched Mr. Bramwell Booth discuss them
with his own accountants and financial advisers. So
that there is not a vestige of truth in the statement
that the General does not publish a yearly statement
of his financial affairs. If he did not do so, he could
be sued in a court of law for a serious dereliction of his
duty as sole trustee of the Army.

But as I understand the critics of the Army finance,
they have no quarrel with the Army on this account.
It is simply that they do not understand several ac-
counts in the statements. Of course, General Booth
has not yet posed as a philanthropist for supplying the
ignorant with knowledge, and many of the criticisms
upon the finance of the Army are manifestly crude and
ill-informed. Still, on the other hand, the balance
sheets, or financial statements, as the Army prefers
to describe them, are not quite clear on several matters.
Into these I need not enter. Lack of lucidity is not a

that they are overpaid. The highest salary paid to the
top staff at Headquarters is 300 per annum. Those
who call that extravagant do not know what they are
talking about. The man with 300 is worse off than


the best-paid Adjutant on the field. What is not above
criticism is the fact that while officers at Headquarters
have their salaries guaranteed, the field officer is poorly
paid, and hundreds of them eke out an existence on a
minimum wage which is nothing short of a sweating
wage. Headquarters know this to be true, but have not
admitted it in replying to their critics, or while allowing
others to reply for them. While Headquarters refuse
to redress this balance, it is but right that it should
be subjected to criticism.

correct that they live in comfortable houses, but far
from luxurious. Headquarters supply them with
furniture and allow a certain amount for depreciation,
which they make good from time to time. But it is not
true that the Staff are well off. The reverse is the
truth. They find it difficult to live in London and keep
up the appearance that is expected from them.

4. EMIGRATION. Much criticism has been directed
toward showing that the emigration work of the Army
has become mainly a booking agency ; that the grants
or bonuses that the Army receives from the federal
and provincial Parliaments of the Dominion of Canada
are swallowed up in the expenses of the department ;
that the proportion of money spent upon assisting
deserving emigrants to a fresh start hi lif e is very small ;
and that the work has ceased to be philanthropic. There
is no doubt whatever but that these criticisms are in
the main supported by the Army's own figures ; but
the fault lies with the system of tabulating statistics.
And it is a fault that is not confined to the Salvation
Army. The philanthropic societies that run an emigra-
tion department in the interests of the poor, perhaps
with one exception, inflate their figures, and convey
to the public an erroneous impression as to the extent


of their work. The Army talks very loudly of the
tens of thousands of emigrants whom they have sent
to Canada, whereas the truth is the great bulk of them
have sent themselves, so to speak, to Canada, pre-
ferring to go under the umbrella of the Army. This
they have a perfect right to do.

As. however, the whole work of emigration will soon
come under a very searching examination by impartial
and official minds, this branch of the Army's work may
be safely left to be finally adjudicated by them.

The grants made by the Army in recent years to
assist emigrants have been diminishing, but that is the
fault of the public. If the Army does not receive
subscriptions, it cannot be expected to dole out money
earmarked for some other fund.

The organisation of the department is well-nigh
perfect. No one can say that, with the exception
of occasional breakdowns that are peculiar to all
organisations alike, the management is weak. The
fact that Colonel David Lamb is in charge of the
department is a guarantee that, so far as that
part of the work is concerned, it will be well and
conscientiously done.

Booth has taken a step in regard to this department
that will be of immense value to the public. He has
agreed to co-operate with the State, along with the
Church Army and other Prison Aid Societies, in carry-
ing out certain reforms instituted by the Home Secre-
tary reforms which will tend to prevent overlapping
and show the actual amount of work done by each

The ticket-of-leave system, as it is at present under-
stood, is to be abolished. Instead of convicts, on
their release, reporting to the police, they will have


to report, under certain conditions, to the represen-
tatives of these societies. A Central Board is to be
established, also under the guidance of the Home
Secretary, for applying these new regulations. I
would advise all interested in prison reform generally
to wait patiently the first report of this board.
It will shed a flood of light upon the difficulties con-
nected with this branch of philanthropic work, and
convince even the societies themselves that something
more drastic is needed than the transfer of oversight
from the civil to the voluntary arm. The whole system
is more or less built upon a wrong principle, and
General Booth is probably the only man in England
who quite understands what is required ; but

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Online LibraryA M NicolGeneral Booth and the Salvation Army → online text (page 24 of 25)