found along the Wisconsin River is somewhat different and con-
sists of a river deposit. Litmus tests indicate that the soil is
Native vegetation. The original timber growth consisted
chiefly of oak, elm, soft maple and hickory. Most of the timber
of any value has been removed.
Present agricultural development :* The larger proportion of
the type is under cultivation, and fair yields are secured.
Planting is sometimes delayed in the spring on account of the
soil being too wet. The crops commonly grown are corn, oats,
and hay, with some tobacco and a little barley. The soil is vari-
able, as are also the methods followed, so that there is quite a
range in the crop yields. The methods of cultivation followed
are similar to those practiced on Knox silt loam, and about the
same rotations are in use.
SUPERIOR FINE SANDY LOAM.
Description. The soil of Superior fine sandy loam, to a depth
of 10 to 16 inches, consists of a grayish fine sandy loam, grading
*For chemical composition and improvement see page 55.
GROUP OF FINE SANDY LOAM SOILS. 1
into a yellowish fine sandy loam. The supply of organic matter
is low, which accounts in part for the light color. The subsoil
to a depth of 36 inches consists of a heavy red clay, similar to
the subsoil of the Superior clay loam. The depth to the clay is
somewhat variable, ranging from 6 to 30 inches. Where the
type occurs adjacent to the slopes from the high land to the
south there is sometimes enough silt mixed with the sand to
make it approach a silt loam. Such areas, however, are of lim-
Extent and distribution. The type is closely associated with
Superior clay loam and is usually found lying between this type
and other soils mapped as sand. There are no areas over one-
half square mile in extent. A number of small patches are
found from 2 to 4 miles northeast and about the same distance
southeast of Mauston.
Topography and drainage. The surface of Superior fine
sandy loam varies from gently rolling to level. On the higher
elevations the sand is usually deeper than on the flat areas. It
frequently occupies gentle slopes adjoining areas of Superior
clay loam. Where the surface is undulating or a little rolling
the natural drainage is good, but where it is level the type is in
need of tile drains.
Origin. The subsoil is a lacustrine deposit, the same as the
Superior clay loam. The surface soil is largely sand which has
been blown or washed over the clay, and with which some fine
material has become incorporated. The parent rock from which
the sand came is the Potsdam sandstone. The sandy material
is slightly acid, while the underlying clay loam contains a con-
siderable amount of the carbonate of lime.
Native vegetation. The original timber growth consisted of
oak, maple, and some pine, with a little elm and ash on the
poorly drained portions. Practically all of the timber has been
Present agricultural development* A large proportion of
the type is under cultivation, bu+, it is of very limited extent,
and no system of cultivation or cropping has . been developed.
*For chemical composition and improvement of this soil see
SOIL SURVEY OF JUNEAU COUNTY.
Where found on the gentle slopes the soil is very productive, but
on the level areas it is in need of drainage and crop yields are
lower. Corn, oats, barley, wheat, hay, and some tobacco are
grown. It is considered a good tobacco soil, and during normal
seasons gives satisfactory yields of the ordinary farm crops.
In the management of the Superior fine sandy loam an effort
should be made to increase the content of organic matter, and
the wet places should be tile drained.
The following table shows the result of mechanical analyses of
samples of the soil and subsoil of Superior fine sandy loam :
Mechanical analyses of Superior fine sandy loam.
Description. The surface soil of Superior sand consists of 8
inches of a grayish-brown fine sand to loamy sand. The poorer-
drained areas contain a larger amount of organic matter than
typical and in such places the color of the soil is darker. The
subsoil consists of a yellow fine sand, which becomes lighter in
color with depth, in places almost white. At about 24 inches
the material often takes on a pinkish hue and at an average
depth of 30 inches a compact, red silty clay is encountered.
Where the drainage is the most defective the sand of the subsoil
may be bluish in color in its lower depths and the silty or sandy
clay may also be blue, drab, or slightly mottled. The most char-
acteristic feature of the type is the light-colored sandy subsoil,
which grades into the Superior silt or silty clay loam. The type
is subject to considerable variation and the depth at which the
silt or clay is found ranges from 18 inches to 5 feet. The areas
underlain by the clay at 18 inches were of small extent. Land
of this character, when in large enough patches to warrant sepa-
GROUP OF FINE SANDY LOAM SOILS. 53
ration, was classed with the Superior fine sandy loam. When
the clay was over 5 feet below the surface its effect upon the
agricultural value of the soil was so small that such material
was excluded from this type. The texture of the subsoil fre-
quently becomes coarser with depth and at 24 to 30 inches it
may be a medium sand. The sand of the sandy clay may also
be of medium texture.
Extent and distribution. This is the most extensive type of
the Superior series. The largest area lies directly north of
Camp Douglas, where it occurs along both sides of the Lemon-
weir River for over 6 miles. An area several miles in extent is
found directly northwest and another directly northeast of New
Lisbon. Other smaller patches occur along the Lemonweir River.
But little of the type is found north of the new line of the Chi-
cago & North Western Railway and only a few small areas are
found to the south and east of New Lisbon. Superior sand is
closely associated with Superior clay loam and Superior fine
Topography and drainage. The surface of the type is flat to
very gently undulating. No very pronounced ridges or depres-
sions occur, though there are a few narrow ridgesTon which the
sand is of sufficient depth to exclude it from this type, but for
the fact that they are too small to be indicated. The differences
in elevation over the type as a whole are not more than several
feet at most. On account of the flat topography and the under-
lying, impervious clay loam or silty clay loam, the natural drain-
age of a great deal of the Superior sand is poor. The type sel-
dom suffers from drought, as the heavy subsoil keeps the water
within reach of the roots of growing crops. During the spring
and fall there is usually an excess of moisture. A few tile drains
have been installed and the results obtained more J;han justified
Origin. The clay subsoil of Superior sand is of lacustrine
origin. The surface sandy material has doubtless been deposited
by water also, but at a later date and under different conditions.
The Potsdam sandstone is the parent rock from which most of
the sandy material was originally derived. Litmus tests indi-
cate that the surface soil in places is in an acid condition, though
54 SOIL SURVEY OF JUNEAU COUNTY.
the heavy subsoil contains a considerable amount of the carbon-
ate of lime.
Native vegetation. The original timber growth consisted of
elm, bur oak, black oak, maple, and willow, with some white and
Norway pine. The timber was considerably better than on any
of the other sand types not underlain by the clay. Practically
all of the merchantable timber has been removed.
Present agricultural development. A large proportion of the
type is under cultivation and better returns are secured than
from any of the other sand types in the area. It is considered a
fairly good soil. The chief crops are corn, oats, timothy, and
clover, with potatoes as a cash crop and buckwheat a frequent
crop on new land. Where the drainage conditions are the most
favorable or where artificial drains have been installed corn
yields 35 to 50 bushels per acre, with a very good yield of silage,
which is much in excess of the yields on the other sands. Oats
yield 40 bushels, hay l 1 /^ to 2 tons per acre, buckwheat from 10
to 30 bushels, and potatoes from 150 to 250 bushels per acre.
The type produces excellent pasture of bluegrass and clovers.
On account of the sandy nature of the soil it is easy to cultivate,
and when wet weather does not interfere there is no difficulty in
getting a good seed bed with a minimum expenditure of labor.
The rotation of crops most often followed consists of corn or pota-
toes one year, followed by oats seeded to clover and timothy.
The hay is cut for two years, and the field is pastured for a year
before being again plowed for corn. The manure is usually ap-
plied to the pasture land. The growing of potatoes in conjunc-
tion with dairy farming appears to be about the best combina-
tion that has been tried on this soil. When dairying is followed
the poorly drained areas can always be utilized for pasture. Po-
tatoes supply a cash crop better suited to the land than any of
the grains which can be grown. By installing tile drains a much
larger proportion of the type could be improved and made to
yield profitable returns. Cucumbers have been successfully
grown to a limited extent, and it would seem that the trucking
industry might be profitably extended. Peat has been success-
fully used as a fertilizer by a few farmers. One report indi-
cates that the effect of one application could be noticed for 11
1 GROUP OF FINE SANDY LOAM SOILS. 55
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND IMPROVEMENT OF BOONE FINE SANDY
LOAM, SUPERIOR FINE SANDY LOAM, AND SUPERIOR SAND.
The chemical composition of this group of soils indicates that
their fertility is intermediate between the extremely sandy soils
on the one hand, and the silt and clay loam soils on the other.
The total amount of phosphorus in the surface 8 inches averages
from 700 to 800 pounds per acre, which is practically the same
as for the sand soils. The total amount of potassium, however,
will average considerably higher, though it is extremely variable,
usually ranging from 10,000 to 20,000 pounds per acre, for the
surface 8 inches. In the case of the Boone fine sandy loam it
frequently runs even higher. The total amount of potassium
in these soils appears to vary with the fineness of the texture,
so that the larger the proportion of fine material there is present,
the greater will be the amount of potassium. In the Superior
fine sandy loam and fine sand types the total amount of potassium
and phosphorus varies with the depth to the underlying clay.
The total amount of organic matter in the Boone fine sandy loam
is somewhat higher than in the group of sand soils, but in the
case of the Superior fine sandy loam and fine sand, the amount
is practically the same.
In the improvement of this group of soils it is necessary that
the organic matter content should be increased, and that a con-
siderable amount of mineral plant food should be added to the
soil. Before clover and alfalfa can be grown successfully it will
be necessary to apply some form of lime to correct the soil acid-
ity. The building up of these soils may be carried forward- along
the same lines as suggested for the group of sand soils, and the
reader is referred to pages 43 to 48 for additional information
along this line. The water holding capacity of the sandy loam
soils is somewhat greater, and the. natural fertility higher, than
is the case of the sand soils, and, therefore, they may be expected
to respond more quickly to careful management.
56 SOIL SURVEY OF JUNEAU COUNTY,
PEAT AND MUCK (UNDIFFERENTIATED) .
Description. The material included in Peat and Muck (un-
differentiated) consists of decaying vegetable matter in varying
stages of decomposition, with which there has been incorporated
in places a small amount of mineral matter. It is of a black or
brown color and extends to a depth varying from a few inches
to over 15 feet. The material underlying the greater portion of
such areas consists of fine sand. In the sections where the Su-
perior soils are found the underlying material is usually a silt
or clay. Throughout a considerable portion of the marshes
there are a number of sand islands varying in area from a few
square rods to a couple of acres. Where less than 25 per cent
of the land is occupied by these islands they have been included
with the Peat and Muck (undifferentiated). "Where the islands
occupy more than 25 per cent of the area and are not large
enough in themselves to be mapped, such regions have been
classed under a separate type.
Nearly all of the peat beds have been burned over. Where
this is the case and where the fire has been rather recent a layer
of yellowish ash from one-half inch to 3 inches deep is found
upon the surface. Beneath this for a variable depth of 8 to 20
inches the material is usually quite thoroughly decomposed,
while below this, where the peat is deep, it is only slightly de-
composed and is still in a fibrous condition. Where the Peat is
shallow there is a larger amount of mineral matter present than
where the material is deep.
Extent and distribution. Areas of Peat and Muck (undiffer-
entiated) are distributed throughout the -sand plains section of
the county. Extensive areas are found north of Camp Douglas,
MARSH SOILS. 57
north of Cranberry Center, along Little Yellow River, and in
various other localities, chiefly along the Lemonweir River.
Topography and drainage. The surface of the Peat and Muck
(uiidifferentiated) is nearly level, but the sand islands which
occur throughout a portion of the type vary from 1 to 2 feet
higher than the level of the marshes and give the region where
they are the most plentiful a gently undulating appearance.
Being flat, occupying a low position, and having the water table
near the surface, the natural drainage is very poor. A number
of large open ditches have been constructed and portions of the
Origin. The material making up the Peat and Muck (undif-
ferentiated) consists of vegetable matter in varying stages of de-
composition. The underlying sand and that forming the sand
islands is undoubtedly from the Potsdam sandstone and has
been influenced more or less by the action of water. The clay
and silt underlying some of the Peat and Muck (undifferenti-
ated) is probably of lacustrine origin, the same as the Superior
clay loam. These Peat marshes are practically all in an acid
Native vegetation. The native vegetation consisted of sedges,
cattails, wire grass, marsh grasses, sphagnum moss, cranberries,
Present agricultural development. Peat and Muck (undiffer-
entiated) is devoted chiefly to the production of marsh hay, wire
grass, moss, and cranberries. The marsh hay consists of wild
grasses and yields on the average about 1 ton per acre. The
price received varies with the supply, quality, and whether baled
or not, the range being from $3 to $9 per ton. The yield of wire
grass is about the same, and the price received is usually about
$14 per ton f. o. b. in bales. This wire grass is used in the manu-
facture of rugs.
"Where drainage systems have been installed the greater por-
tion of the marshes is still devoted to marsh hay and pasture, but
some areas in close proximity to the ditches have been cultivated
with varying degrees of success. Timothy and alsike clover are
grown to a limited extent, and the yields average about 1 ton per
acre, though 1% tons are sometimes secured, while the crop is
58 SOIL SURVEY OF JUNEAU COUNTY.
often a complete failure. Oats are grown in a few places, and
yields of 20 bushels per acre are reported as the average, though
much larger yields are sometimes obtained. Some corn has been
grown. The cultivated crops, however, are all uncertain.
The growing of cranberries was at one time an extensive in-
dustry, but many of the marshes have been destroyed by tire and
the acreage greatly reduced. Practically all of the marshes re-
maining have been set out. A successful cranberry marsh must
be so situated that the water supply can be controlled. The
crop is subject to damage from frosts, and during the dry sum-
mer months there is great danger from fires. The industry is,
therefore, a speculative one. The cost of -establishing cranberries
is considerable. Scalping a peat bed costs from $30 to $75 per
acre, sanding about $90, and setting about $32. Vines are
usually secured from trimmings, but if bought they cost about
$100 per acre. The weeding for the first year on sanded marsh
costs $10 and on Peat $50 per acre. Weeding the second and
third year on sanded marsh ccsts $10 and on peat $20 per acres.
Full crops are seldom received until four years after setting.
It costs about $1 per bushel to pick and prepare the berries for
market. One bog this year (1911) yielded 555 bushels per acre.
When $2 per bushel is secured such a yield is very profitable.
Yields of this size are seldom secured oftener than once in five
years, and many marshes never produce such large crops.
From 20 to 30 cars of sphagnum moss are shipped from Mather
each year. The moss is collected by long-toothed rakes operated
by hand, cured, and packed in bales weighing about 30 pounds
each. The price per bale is 50 cents in Chicago. The moss is
used by nurserymen and florists. It takes from three to four
years for a marsh to renew itself after moss has been collected.
Since the drainage of the marshes much of the moss has been de-
stroyed by fires. The owner of the marsh usually receives 50
cents per ton for the moss, and the work is done by men who
make a business of gathering moss.
Chemical composition and improvement* The chemical com-
*See Bulletin No. 205 The University of Wisconsin, Agr. Exp.
Sta. on "The Development of Marsh Soils", Bulletin No. 229 on
"The Right Drain For the Right Place," and Bulletin No. 213 oil
"Cranberry Bog Construction for Wisconsin".
position of the material mapped as Peat and Muck (unrliffor-
entiated) is quite variable, and this variation is due chiefly to
the variation in the amount of mineral matter which is incorpo-
rated with the Peat. The result of analyses of this material
from Juneau County indicates that the supply of the mineral
elements is small. The total amount of phosphorus will average
approximately 500 pounds per acre in the surface 8 inches,
while the amount of potassium will average about 900 pounds per
acre. On comparing this with the potassium and phosphorus
content of the heavy upland soils of this county it will be seen
that it is extremely small especially in the case of potassium.
Where this type consists of a mixture of decaying vegetable
matter and a considerable amount of mineral matter so as to be a
true muck the total amount of potassium and phosphorous is
always considerably higher than where the material is a true
peat and contains but little mineral matter. Because of an acid
condition which is found to exist throughout the areas of Peat
and Muck in Juneau County, the phosphorus is not as readily
available as in marshes which are not acid. In view of the enor-
mous quantity of nitrogen contained in the Peat and Muck, the
average amount of which is approximately 11,000 pounds per
acre 8 inches, it is unnecessary to use fertilizers which contain
nitrogen in building up this class of land.
The fertilization of the Peat as found in this area is important
on account of the unbalanced condition of the elements con-
tained. Stable manure should be kept for the upland soils of
the farm, and potash and phosphorus supplied to the marsh soils
by commercial fertilizers. Rock phosphate, acid phosphate, and
bone meal are the chief sources of phosphorus for fertilizers, and
of these the rock phosphate will doubtless give best results on this
class of land. The first application of rock phosphate should be
from 800 to 1000 pounds per acre followed every 3 to 4 years by
an application of from 400 to 600 pounds per acre. Potash may be
applied as the muriate at the rate of 100 to 150 pounds per acre
for such crops as corn, potatoes, cereals, and hay. This fertilizer
is quite soluble, and frequent applications are necessary.
While the Peat and Muck in this area is in an acid condition
the acidity is not so detrimental in the case of marsh lands as in
60 SOIL SURVEY OF JVNEAU COUNTY.
the case of sand and clay soils, since the chief objection to acidity
is that it interferes with the growth of those legumes, such as
clover and alfalfa, which are needed on the higher lands to se-
cure nitrogen, and to the growth of which the marsh soils are not
so well adapted physically.
In the improvement of this class of land the question of drain-
age is the first step to be considered. In Juneau County there
are now a large number of drainage districts, and many miles of
large open ditches have been constructed. In some cases these
are sufficient to drain the land fairly well so that some of the Peat
and Muck can be improved, but in a number of cases the drainage
is not sufficiently thorough. By deepening some of these ditches
through the Peat marshes, and by the construction of more later-
als it is probable that the greater proportion of the Peat and
Muck can be reclaimed, and made to produce profitable crops.
"When properly drained and fertilized this class of land will
produce profitable yields of corn, potatoes, cabbage, buckwheat,
timothy, alsike clover, and a number of other crops. When
firmed by rolling, small grain can be grown successfully, though
the growth of straw is often too rank. With proper care good
tame grass pastures can be developed on the Peat and Muck.
The growing of cranberries is an industry well adapted to this
class of land, and while it is now engaged in to a certain extent,
it is thought it could be profitably extended by following the
most up-to-date and scientific methods.
SANDS AND PEAT ( UNDIFFERENTIATED ) .
Description. The soils mapped as Sands and Peat (undiffer-
entiated) is subject to a wide variation and consists of shallow
peat and black sand in a low, marshy condition, with numerous
small islands of light-colored sand occurring throughout its en-
tire extent. None of these variations are of sufficient extent in
themselves to be mapped as a separate type. Peat consists of
vegetable matter in various stages of decomposition, with which
there is incorporated varying amounts of earthy matter. It ex-
tends to a depth of 1 to 20 inches and in a few instances to 30
inches. The underlying material consists of fine or medium
MARSH SOILS. 61
sand, usually white, though it is frequently stained with iron or
slightly mottled. The black sand corresponds to that mapped as
Dunning sand, though the depth of the surface soil may vary
from 1 to 18 inches. The sand on the islands is usually identical
with the low phase of the Boone fine sand, though in some sec-
tions it is coarser and corresponds more closely to the Plainfield
sand. The islands range in size from a fraction of an acre to
5 acres or over and in elevation from 1 to 2 feet above the level of
the marsh. In a few places, where ridges occur, an elevation of
20 feet is attained. The black sand is found surrounding the
islands, usually as a narrow belt, while the Peat occupies the
larger spaces between the islands. Where the islands are close
together there may be no Peat between them. The islands oc-
cupy from 25 to 75 per cent of the total area, but taken as a
whole the type will average about 50 per cent sand islands and
50 per cent marsh.
Extent and distribution. The most extensive areas of this
type are in the northwestern part of the county, where it occurs
along the Lemonweir, Little Yellow, and Yellow Rivers, and oc-
cupies most of the intervening country as well. The main body
extends south for about 4 miles below the new line of the Chi-
cago & North Western Railway, in the vicinity of Cranberry
Center, and a belt extends to the southeast nearly to the Wiscon-
sin River. Other areas are found throughout the sand-plains