cated at Mauston, which is close to the border of the extensive
sand plains area and considerably lower than the upland region
in the southern part of the county. It is about 8 miles from the
border of the main marshy tract, and the records taken there,
particularly those applying to frost occurrence, do not apply to
the extensive low, wet areas in the northwestern portion of the
county or to the higher lands to the south, but must be confined
to a comparatively small tract of country similar to that in the
immediate vicinity of the station. The following tables give
data collected at the Mauston station and at Hancock, which is
about 20 miles east of the eastern county boundary and on the
eastern border of the sand plains region, together with frost
data for Mauston, Hancock, and La Crosse. The records from
the two latter places are given for the purpose of making com-
SOIL UURVUY '>/<' JUNE All COUNTY.
Normal monthly, seasonal, and annual temperature and precipitation at
Mauston and Hancock.
October . .
106 ! -50
Dates of first and last killing frosts.
A\erage date of
La Crosse < .
'LI MATE. 89
Prom the Mauston records it will be observed that the mean
annual temperature is 44.1 F. and the mean annual precipita-
tion 31.54 inches. The average date of the first killing frost in
the fall is September 24 and that of the last killing fro-st in the
spring, May 17. This gives an average growing season of about
130 days. In the marshy region to the north and west from
Mauston the period free from frost is shorter than this, while
over the hilly country to the south it is somewhat longer.
The records show that the rainfall is normally well distributed
throughout the growing season, and that during the months of
May, June, July, and August there is on the average over 3^
inches of rain each month, yet during any of these months,
especially July and August, there may be dry spells, during
which crops will suffer considerably from drought. The win-
ters are long and severe, but the summers are pleasant.
It is regretted that there are no data available showing the
differences in the occurrence of frosts in the hilly sections and
in the low marshy areas within the county. Nevertheless in the
improvement of the agriculture of the low marshy areas in the
county the probability of the occurrence of frosts during sum-
mer months should be kept in mind, for it may be^a determining
factor in selecting a type of farming best suited to prevailing
1 Buls. Nos. 119, 213, and 219 of the Wisconsin Agricultural Ex-
periment Station, Madison, give valuable information concerning the
climatic conditions in the cranbercy marshes and also in the con-
struction and management of cranberry bogs. For a further dis-
cussion of climatic conditions in the lowlands see Bui. T of the U. S.
Weather Bureau. See also Bui. 223, Wis. Expt. Sta. This gives
information on the climate of Wisconsin and its relation to agricul-
90 SOIL SURVEY OF JUNEAU COVNTY.
Juneau County is located a little south of the center of Wis-
consin, and comprises an area of 796 square miles. About one-
third of the area is rolling to hilly and rough, while the re-
mainder consists of nearly level sand areas and low marshy
The county is well supplied with railroads, which provide ex-
cellent transportation facilities.
Mauston, a city of 2,400, is the county seat and the largest
city in the area. It is 214 miles from Chicago, 128 miles from
Milwaukee, and 209 miles from Minneapolis, over the Chicago,
Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad.
Juneau County lies within the unglaciated portion of Wis-
consin, and comprises two distinct physiographic divisions, con-
sisting of a sand plains and marsh region covering the northern
two-thirds and a rough, hilly section covering the southern one-
third of the area. The northern section is usually referred to
as a part of the old Wisconsin* River Valley, in which the soils
are largely of alluvial origin and very sandy. In the south-
ern portion the soils are heavier and probably of loessial origin.
In the survey of Juneau County 8 soil series and 16 soil types,
including Meadow, Rough stony land, Peat and Muck (undiffer-
entiated), and Sands and Peat (undifferentiated), have been
The Knox series includes the most highly improved farming
land in the county and is characterized by a rolling to hilly to-
pography and light-colored silty soils subject to erosion. The
Knox silt loam and Knox silt loam, steep phase, were mapped.
The Baxter series includes residual soils from the Lower Mag-
nesian limestone and is represented here by only one type, the
silt loam. This has a light-colored silty soil and a red clay sub-
soil, with large quantities of chert present. It is of limited ex-
Lintonia silt loam, the only member of this series mapped,
represents colluvial material washed down the slopes from
higher areas of Knox soils, and varies in color from light to dark
brown. The natural drainage i-s sometimes deficient. It is of
One member of the La Crosse series, La Crosse silty clay loam,
was mapped. It consists of dark-brown to black alluvial mate-
rial along the streams in the rough portion of the county. It
is deficient in drainage, but is naturally a strong soil.
The Boone series includes residual soils from the Potsdam
sandstone. This rock is exposed on many of the steep slopes,
and comes near to the surface over a part of the sandy region.
Two types were mapped. Boone fine sandy loam is a fair sandy
soil of limited extent. Boone fine sand is quite extensive, but a
poor agricultural soil. A loamy and a low phase of this type
were also mapped.
The Superior series includes lacustrine material, over a part
of which varying amounts of sand have been deposited. Superi-
or clay loam is a strong soil and a good general farming type,
though somewhat difficult to cultivate. Superior fine sandy loam
is easy to cultivate, having a sandy soil and a heavy subsoil. It
is therefore more retentive of moisture than the deep sand types.
Superior sand has from 2 to 3 feet of sand over red clay. It is
the most extensive of the Superior soils, and is fairly produc-
The Plainfield soils as found here have a relatively low agri-
cultural value. They are low in organic matter and are acid and
droughty. The types mapped are Plainfield sand and fine sand.
Dunning sand is the only member of this series encountered.
It is similar to the sands of the Plainfield series in origin, but is
slightly lower lying, and has a quantity of organic matter in the
surface which gives it a black color. It is poorly drained and
but slightly improved.
Peat and Muck (undifferentiated) consists of vegetable mat-
ter in varying stages of decomposition. There are several ex-
92 SOIL SURVEY OF JUNEAU COUNTY.
tensive tracts in the county. Cranberries are grown on the peat
Sands and Peat (undifferentiated) represents a vast number
of very small sand islands scattered through extensive tracks of
low, wet land. These islands are too small to be mapped separ-
ately, yet they form approximately half of the land surface in
such areas. The value of such tracts is chiefly in the marsh hay
which can be cut. Extensive drainage districts have been or-
ganized and ditches dug, but the drainage has not been suffi-
cient, and but few cultivated crops are being tried. All such
tracts" are underlain by sand, and at best the land has a very low
Meadow includes the low-lying land along the rivers where
the surface is flooded several times each year, and the soil is so
mixed that a separation into types would be impossible.
Rough stony land includes the steep rocky slopes, rock out-
crops, and rough sections, which are of no agricultural value and
afford only a limited amount of pasture. Many of these steep
areas are still in timber.
The type of agriculture most extensively followed in the
southern and southwestern parts of the county, where the soils
are heavier than elsewhere, consists of dairying in conjunction
with general farming. The chief crops grown are hay, oats, corn,
barley, and potatoes, with some rye, buckwheat, and tobacco.
In the low, wet areas marsh hay and wire grass are cut and the
sphagnum moss is gathered and sold. The deep sand soils of
the central and northeastern parts of the area have a low agri-
cultural value and are only slightly improved. But little truck-
ing is carried on, and the fruit industry is not developed on a
commercial scale in any part of the county.
The mean annual temperature at Mauston is 44.1 and the
mean annual precipitation 31.54 inches. The average date of
the last killing frost in the spring is May 17 and of the first in
the fall September 24, giving an average growing season of
about 130 days at Mauston.
KEEP THE MAP. 93
KEEP THE MAP.
The Experiment Station will publish bulletins from time to
time dealing with the management of the different types mapped,
so that some way should be found by each person receiving a
copy of this report to keep the map permanently. If the map
is folded in such a way as to have the part you are interested in
of a convenient size and then have a simple frame with glass
made to hold it, it can be kept indefinitely. Since some of the
colors fade after being exposed to strong light for a long time,
it would be a good plan to have a protecting flap of dark cloth
over the map when not in use.