A. R. (Arthur Reginald) Horwood.

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BRITISH -WILD * FLOWERS
IN'THEIR'NATURAL-HAUNTS

Y

HORWOOD




THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



BRITISH WILD FLOWERS



FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES
S\



PLATE XVIII




i. W.H..I Anemone (Anemone nemorosa, L.). 2. Goldielocks (Ranunculus auricoi/tns, L. ). 5. (Irccn Hellebore
(/tetltborns viriiiit, L. ). 4. Columbine (Aifiiilfgia ntlgaris, L. ). 5. Sweet Violcl ( /Vo/rt odoratu, L. ). 6. Keel

Campion (Lychnis dioiea, L.).



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KEY TO PLATE XVI 11



No. i. Wood Anemone
(Amman* ttemorosa, L.)
, Acbene^ or fruit *, Part
of plant, with bracts at base
of peduncle, petaloid sepals,
anthers, and achenes in
centre.






No. 2. Goldielocks
(Ranunculus auricomus, L.)
a, Flower, with polysepal-
ous calyx, 2 petals, one (the
fifth) Often reduced, want-
ing as ,a rule. , Achene,
or fruit. , r, Plant, with upper
linear floral leaves or bracts.
//, Plant,; with leaves, bracts,
an4 2 perfect flowers, one
showing calyx, the other
the numerous stamens and

A



No. 3. GReen Hellebore
(Helleborus vtrtt^L.)
a, Flower, showing petaloid
sepals, and follicles. b> Part
of plant with cauline leaves,
i flower half-expanded, and
i open, showing short tubular
petals, and stamens within.




No. 4.

(Aquilegia

a, Follicle?. *, I
ternately divided
flowers in various
^bowing the petaloid




leaves,
stages
sepals,



No. 5. [Sweet Violet

<i, Capsule, opening by 3
valves, with seeds within. 0,
Plant showing root runner,
leaves, stipules, and flower-
bud. Also a flower showing
> petals, with orange and white
throat, also lines or honey-
guides, and capsule with per-
sistent linear sepals.

^F



r 1 M /

No. 6. Reti Campion



Flower, showing gamo
lyx, 5 bifid petals,
(1 stamens in the centre.
6, Capsule, with recurved
teeth. t\ Pa4$ plant, show -
TrigVVcyrnose \ inflorescence,
and flowers in biid and later
stag




(Hellebonn viridis, L.).



4. Columbine (.l</nil,-ia r'///;w/.r, L.). 5. Sweet Violet ( / iola
Campion (Lychnis dioica, L.).



T,. Red



A




BRITISH FLORA



BRITISH
WILD FLOWERS

IN THEIR NATURAL HAUNTS?



^Described by A. R. HORWOOD
With Sixty-four ^Plates in Colour
Representing 350 different Tlants
From 'Drawings by J. N. FITCH
and ^Many I/lustrations from
^Photographs



VOLUME III




THE GRESHAM PUBLISHING COMPANY, LTD.:
66 CHANDOS STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON:

1919




CONTENTS



VOLUME III



PAGE

SECTION V. FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES i

WOOD ANEMONE OR WIND FLOWER (Anemone nemorosa, L.) - - 8

GOLDIELOCKS (Ranunculus auricomus, L.) - - - - n

GREEN HELLEBORE (Helleborus viridis, L.) - - - - -13

COLUMBINE (Aquilegia vulgaris, L.) - - - - - - -15

SWEET VIOLET (Viola odorata, L.) - - - - - - -17

RED CAMPION (Lychnis dioica, L.)- - - - - - -21

LIME OR LINDEN (Tilia vulgaris, Hayne)- 24

WOOD SORREL (Oxalis Acetosella, L.) - - - - 27

HOLLY (Ilex Aquifolium, L.) - - - - - - - 30

WILD CHERRY (Primus Cemsus, L.) - - - - 33

WILD STRAWBERRY (Fragaria vesca, L. ) - - - - - 36

WHITE BEAM (Pyrus Aria, Ehrh.) - - - -39

MOUNTAIN ASH (Pyrus Aucuparia, Ehrh.) 41

ROSEBAY (Epilobium angustifoliiim, L.) - - - - - 46

ENCHANTER'S NIGHTSHADE (Circcea Lutetiana, L.) - - - 49

SANICLE (Sanicida europcea, L.) - - - - - - - 5 1

ANGELICA (Angelica sylvestris, L.)- - - - - - - 53

IVY (Hedera Helix, L.) - 55

WAYFARING TREE (Viburnum Lantana, L.) - - - 60

HONEYSUCKLE (Lonicera Periclymenum, L.) 62

WOODRUFF (Asperula odorata, L.) - - - - 65

PRIMROSE (Primula intlgaris, Huds.) - 67

WOOD LOOSESTRIFE (Lysimachia tiemontm, L.) - - - 70

SMALL PERIWINKLE (Vinca minor, L.) - - - - 72

LUNGWORT (Pulmonaria ojficinalis, L.) -, - - - 74



908802



vi CONTENTS

PAGE

WOOD FORGET-ME-NOT (Afyosotis sylvatica, Hoffm.) 77

FOXGLOVE (Digitalis purpurea, L.) - 79

MARJORAM (Origanum vulgare, L.) - - 83

WOOD BETONY (Stachys officinalts, Trev.) 85

YELLOW ARCHANGEL (Lamium Galeobdolon, Crantz) 87

WOOD SAGE (Teucrium Scorodonia, L.) 89

WOOD SPURGE (Euphorbia amygdaloides, L.) - - - 91

DOG'S MERCURY (Mercurialis perennis, L.) 93

WYCH ELM (Ulmus glabra, Huds. montana, Stokes) 95

OAK (Quercus Robur, L.) 98

BEECH (Fagiis sylvatica, L.) 102

ASPEN (Populus tremula, L.) 105

TWAY-BLADE (Listera ovata, Br.) - 108

BEE ORCHIS (Ophrys apifera, Huds.) no

SNOWDROP (Galanthus nivalis, L.) -112

LILY-OF-THE- VALLEY (Convallaria majalzs, L.) - - - - - 115

GARLIC (Allium ursinum, L.)- - - - - - - -117

BLUEBELL (Scilla non-scripta, Hoffm. and Link.) ... 120

SECTION VI. FLOWERS OF THE ROADSIDES AND HEDGES 123

TRAVELLER'S JOY (Clematis Vitalba, L.) - - - - 128

BARBERRY (Berberis vulgaris, L.) - - - 130

WINTER CRESS (Barbarea vulgaris, Ait.) - - 133

HEDGE MUSTARD (Sisymbrium officinale, Scop.) - - - - 135

SAUCE ALONE (Sisymbrium Alliarta, Scop.) - - - - 137

GREATER STITCH WORT (Stcllaria Holostea, L.) 139

PERFORATE ST. JOHN'S WORT (Hypericiim perforatum, L.) - - 142

HERB ROBERT (Geranium robertianum, L.) - - - 145

SPINDLE WOOD (Euonymus curopccus, L. ) - - - - - 148

TUFTED VETCH (Vicia Cracca, L.) - J 5 2

MEADOW VETCHLING (Lathyrus pratensis, L.) 154

BLACKTHORN (Prunus spinosa, L.) 157

BRAMBLE (Rubiis fm ticosus (= rusticanus, Merc.)) - - - - 160

BARREN STRAWBERRY (Potentilla sterilis, Garcke) - - - - 165

DOG ROSE (Rosa cam'na, L.) - -166

CRAB APPLE (Pyrus Mains, L.) - 172

HAWTHORN (Cratcegtts Oxyacantha, L.) 176

BRYONY (Bryonia dioica, Jacq.) - - - - - - 180

HEMLOCK (Conium maculatum, L.) - - 183



CONTENTS vii

PAGE

COW-PARSNIP (Heracleum Sphondylium, L.) - - - - 186

HEDGE PARSLEY (Caucalis Anthriscus, Huds.) 188

DOGWOOD OR CORNEL (Cornus sanguinea, L.) 191

MOSCHATEL (Adoxa Moschatellina, L.) - - - - - - 193

ELDER (Sambucus nigra, L.) - - -195

CLEAVERS (Galium Aparine, L.) - - - - - 199

TEASEL (Dipsacus sylvestris, Huds.) - - - - 202

HOARY RAGWORT (Senecio erucifolius, L.) - - - - - 204

NIPPLEWORT (Lapsana communis, L.) 206

ASH (Fraxinus excelsior, L.)- - - - - - - - 208

GREAT BINDWEED (Calystegia septum, Br.) - - - - - 212

RED BARTSIA (Bartsia Odontites, Huds.) - - - 214

WOOD BASIL (Clinopoditim -vulgare, L.)- - - - - -216

GROUND IVY (Nepeta hederacea, Trev.) - - - 219

BUGLE (Ajuga rep fans, L.) - - - - - - - -221

SPURGE LAUREL (Daphne Laureola, L.) - - - - - - 224

COMMON ELM (Ulmus campestris, L. = U. saliva, Mill. = U.

surculosa, Stokes) 226

NETTLE (Urlica dioica, L.) - 230

BLACK BRYONY (Tamus communis, L.)- - - - - - 233

LORDS AND LADIES (Arum maculatum, L.) - - - - - 235



SOME GENERAL HINTS AND NOTES -
SECTION V: WOODS AND COPSES -
SECTION VI : ROADSIDES AND HEDGES



- 239

- 239



PLATES IN COLOUR



FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES

PLATE PAGE

XVIII. WOOD ANEMONE; GOLDIELOCKS; GREEN HELLEBORE; COLUMBINE;

SWEET VIOLET; RED CAMPION ...... 8

XIX. LIME; WILD STRAWBERRY; HOLLY; WILD CHERRY; WOOD SORREL;

WHITE BEAM 24

XX. MOUNTAIN ASH; ROSEBAY; ENCHANTER'S NIGHTSHADE; SANICLE;

ANGELICA; IVY 44

XXI. WAYFARING TREE ; HONEYSUCKLE; WOODRUFF; PRIMROSE; WOOD

LOOSESTRIFE; SMALL PERIWINKLE - - - 60

XXII. LUNGWORT; WOOD FORGET-ME-NOT; FOXGLOVE; MARJORAM; WOOD

BETONY; YELLOW ARCHANGEL ______ 74

XXIII. WOOD SAGE; WOOD SPURGE; DOG'S MERCURY; WYCH ELM; OAK;

BEECH - -90

XXIV. ASPEN; TWAY-BLADE; BEE ORCHIS; SNOWDROP; LILY-OF-THE-

VALLEY; GARLIC; BLUEBELL - - 106



FLOWERS OF THE ROADSIDES AND HEDGES

XXV. TRAVELLER'S JOY ; BARBERRY; WINTER CRESS; HEDGE MUSTARD;

SAUCE ALONE; GREATER STITCH WORT 128

XXVI. PERFORATE ST. JOHN'S WORT; HERB ROBERT; SPINDLE WOOD;

TUFTED VETCH; MEADOW VETCHLING; BLACKTHORN - - 142

XXVII. BRAMBLE; BARREN STRAWBERRY; DOG ROSE; CRAB APPLE; HAW-
THORN; BRYONY 160






x PLATES IN COLOUR

PLATE PAGE

XXVIII. HEMLOCK; COW-PARSNIP; HEDGE PARSLEY; DOGWOOD; MOSCHATEL;

ELDER - - - 184

XXIX. CLEAVERS; TEASEL; HOARY RAGWORT; NIPPLEWORT; ASH; GREAT

BINDWEED .......... 2 oo

XXX. RED BARTSIA; WOOD BASIL; GROUND IVY; BUGLE; SPURGE

LAUREL; COMMON ELM- 214

XXXI. NETTLE; BLACK BRYONY; LORDS AND LADIES .... 230



PLATES IN BLACK-AND-WHITE



PAGE

WOODLAND, WITH HAZEL COPPICE - - - - 5

MOUNTAIN ASH (Pyrus Aucufiaria, Ehrh.) __ - - 43

IVY (Hedera Helix, L.) 57

FOXGLOVE (Digitalis purpurea, L.)- - -.- - - - -81

SPINDLE WOOD (Euonymus europceus, L.) - - - - - - 149

ELDER (Sambucus nigra, L.)- - - - - - - - - *97



Section V
FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES



VOT,. ni 1 si



FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES



In this section we have a group of shade-loving plants or Hylo-
phytes. Each plant is influenced by the juxtaposition of other plants,
and so the woodland plants are bound together. In extended form a
wood with scattered trees tends to assume the character of a meadow
of the type included in Section II. The hedgerows which divide fields
and roadways give shelter to a few such woodland plants. The wood-
land plants are Mesophytes with regard to water requirements.

Several alterations in the surrounding conditions are brought about
by the association of trees, which influence

Light (woods are shaded and dark),
Warmth (woods are cold and dank),
Moisture (woods are moist and attract moisture).

In a wood, moreover, plants are exposed to greater enemies,
such as:

(1) Fungi.

(2) Animal pests.

There are several types of woodland which may be briefly re-
ferred to.

First of all there is what we may call bushland. This is not the
result of a low temperature, as in Polar tracts, but of cultivation. There
are numerous districts where the borders of virgin forest are repeatedly
cut down and treated as plantations with saplings, which are meso-
phytic bushland.

Then wherever fox coverts as in the shires are planted, or coverts
for game are made, there is usually a mixture of bush, deciduous wood,
and coniferous woodland put down artificially which may answer to
this type. Here we find Sloe, Hawthorn, Brier, Dogwood, Barberry,
Bramble, &c., which sometimes form locally a distinct feature. They
may also be the normal result, as in Blackthorn coverts, of leaving
country to return to a wild state. There is a characteristic ground
flora of meadow or pratal species depending on altitude.



4 FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES

True forests in the Temperate regions (excluding conifers) are
mainly made up of deciduous trees, the regions of winter following the
fall of the leaf. The leaves, their texture, form, and position are all
adapted to meet the necessary conditions of light. Below the tall
trees are shrubs and bush, and .below these a characteristic ground flora
of plants with broad, flat, smooth leaves, as in Wood Sorrel, Wood
Anemone, Wood Balsam, Enchanter's Nightshade, Moschatel, Dog's
Mercury, Lily-of-the- Valley, &c.

Woods are especially characterized by the predominance of some
one species which grows there at its best, e.g. Beech, Oak, and Birch.
The Beech wood forms a dark wood where the ground is bare or
strewn with leaves, and the soil may be mild humus or sour humus.
In the first one finds Woodruff, Wood Sorrel, Wood Anemone, Sweet
Violet, Dog's Mercury, Melic Grass, Millet, Ivy, Great Stitchwort,
Lungwort, Sedges, Poa nemoralis, Winter Aconite, Moschatel, Wound-
wort, Enchanter's Nightshade, Herb Paris, Lily-of-the- Valley, Solo-
mon's Seal, Helleborines, Twayblade, Bird's Nest Orchid, also Coral
Root, Monotropa, Epipogum, &c., Gagea, &c. On a sour humus one
finds Deschampsia flexuosa, Trientalis, May Flower, Cow Wheat,
Ling, Whortleberry, and so on.

The Oak forest or wood lets in more light between its branches
and neighbouring trunks. Amongst the oaks are found Lime, Maple,
Aspen, Elm, Ash, and Hornbeam. The ground flora is abundant, and
there are numerous shrubs forming a bush of Hazel, Hawthorn, Maple,
Sloe, Hornbeam, Spindle Tree, Willow, Guelder Rose, Bramble,
Honeysuckle. Amongst the ground flora are the Wood Anemone,
Violets, Vetches, Meadow Vetchling, St. John's Wort, Cinquefoil,
Bluebell, Milfoil. The Common Brake Fern forms dense brakes here
(hence the name).

True Birch forests are not prevalent in Britain, being found in
higher latitudes, and they are often planted here. Ashwoods occur
on limestone and chalk soils.

The Sylvestral, or Septal plants as they are also called, are a large
section of the British flora numbering some 300, including some dry-
soil heath plants which survive from a former woodland association.

We have included some 42 of the woodland plants here, some
of which are common to Beech, some to Oak woods, some found on
ordinary humus, some on sour humus, and so on.

In the shaded depths and open clearings amongst hazels and
sallows the shy and delicate Wind Flower finds a shelter in the
woods. Here, too, Goldielocks lurks in the shade, seldom having all




Photo. L. R. T. Horn



WOODLAND, WITH HAZEL COPPICE



FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES 7

its petals intact. In hazel copses in the south we shall find with good
fortune the Green Hellebore. An oak wood carpeted with Bluebells
in spring, and clad in a rich russet coat of bracken in autumn, where
rocky knolls abound, is the place for the Columbine. A shade-lover,
the Sweet Violet adds richly to the heavy perfume of the woods,
aromatic already with the smell of humus, leaf-mould, and resin, per-
chance, from the pines. A new setting is conveyed by the bright
pink masses of Red Campion blooms which give a bright colour to the
green depths around. The Linden, when summer is at its zenith, is
like attar of roses to the bees which hover amid its boughs on honey
intent. Wood Sorrel is here the sensitive plant of the woods, by some
called Shamrock. It luxuriates in the sides of a mossy leafy dell.

Holly makes thick coverts for the pheasants on stony banks. The
Wild Cherry dangles its " whitehearts " in the wooded seclusion, fit
treasures for the birds. Open banks in the glades are spread with
luscious fruits of the Wild Strawberry by Midsummer Eve. The grey
undersides of the leaves in the well-roofed shelters of White Beam
flicker in the breeze, thus revealing themselves. Close by Mountain
Ash spreads wide mealy panicles of white flowers, ready for the
autumn's promise of a rich red feast for the woodland tribes.

On the open rocky slopes in the woods the rose-purple clumps of
bloom of the Rosebay enliven the grey-clad stony banks. Beneath
the dripping oaks the lowly Enchanter's Nightshade and Sanicle hide
with retiring modesty. Along the pathways through the woods rise
the noble umbels of Angelica, with spreading foliage. Ivy clings to
the Oak like a parasite upon some scion of a noble house. Wayfaring
Tree fills the damp hollows forming dense coverts by the decoys.
Clambering up the stem of Hawthorn, or bole of Oak or Ash, the
Honeysuckle or Sweet Eglantine disperses sweet perfume in the night.
Woodruff, too, in the daytime makes the air heavy with the odour of
new-mown hay.

A sulphur hue is lent by the sweet-tinted Primrose, which finds
shade and safety in the woodland depths. Wood Loosestrife or Yellow
Pimpernel trails delicately over the damper soil. The Small Peri-
winkle brings again to the woods the colours of the deep-blue skies,
and the versicolorous Lungwort is as gay here as in the long borders
in the garden. In sheltered, open glades a wide patch of Wood
Forget-me-not makes the woods blue, and so choice a beauty is not so
soon forgot.

The tall spikes, with spotted blooms of the Foxglove into which
the humble bees come and take their toll, stand gracefully on the



8 FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES

stony slopes of the valleys, and Marjoram gives a rich perfume to the
clowns in the south and elsewhere. Wood Betony lingers by the sides
of the pathways or out on the open heaths. Under the deep shades of
the hazels in early May the yellow helmets spotted with crimson of the
Archangel make wide patches over which bees linger lovingly. Rich-
scented the Wood Sage covers the rubbly flanks of the hillsides. In
the south the Wood Spurge hides in the undergrowth or below the
hedge.

Everywhere in the shade are beds of Dog's Mercury, so common
in woods. Tall monarchs of the forest rise here and there in the shape
of the \Vych Elm, Oak, Birch, and now and again the shivering
Aspen. Under the ash-trees the Twayblade hides, and rarely the
Snowdrop, Bee Orchis, Lily-of-the-Valley, and Ramsoms are found
amid the sylvan depths.

Wood Anemone or Wind Flower (Anemone nemorosa, L.)

So far this has not been found in any deposit earlier than the
recent. It is a plant of the Arctic and Cold Temperate Zones, found
in Arctic Europe generally, W. Siberia, and in North America. It is
general in England and Wales, except S. Lines, Mid Lanes, where it
is absent. It does not occur in Scotland in Sutherland, Caithness, or
any of the Northern Isles, but ascends in the Highlands to the height
of 2800 ft., and is found in Ireland.

In the spring every wood and copse is carpeted with the dainty
Wind Flower, which delights the poet, the swain, and the townsman
alike. It prefers the sheltered flat expanses which are protected over-
head from the sun's heat, and at the side by clustering shrubs or
undergrowth. It is perhaps more fond of a dry than a wet soil, and
some humus; but is found alike where the Lesser Celandine and
Bluebell grow. In some secluded spots the woods are as white with
Wood Anemones as a damask sheet, just as the same sylvan depths
are blue in spring with the Bluebell or yellow with the Lesser
Celandine. They are mesophytes, adapted to a moderate supply of
moisture. The Wood Anemone, unlike most other plants, can flourish
beneath the shade in a beech wood.

The Wood Anemone is a tuberous-rooted plant, or plant with
subterranean fleshy shoots or creeping underground stem, which can
be propagated by division of the roots which grow deep in the soil.
It is a tender, fragile plant, which in the shade stands erect, with
flowers wide open, but in the open, under a strong sun, it closes its



WOOD ANEMONE 9

flower and droops its head. This drooping of the flower is a character
by which to recognize it.

The Wood Anemone is more or less prostrate in habit, with ascend-
ing or erect scapes. The rootstock or rhizome is woody and horizontal,
giving rise to leaves and scapes. The leaves are few, radical, distant
from the scapes, ternate or quinate, 3- or 5-lobed, stalked, the leaflets
narrow, lobed and cut, or deeply divided, nearly stalkless, and the
involucral bracts are the same.

The scape or flower-stalk bears no leaves but bracts, forming an




WOOD ANEMONE (Anemone nemorosa, L.)



involucre. The flowers are solitary, with 6 or 5-9 oblong, hairless,
spreading sepals, which replace the petals, and are white, rose, or
rarely purple. The stamens are all perfect. The achenes are downy,
as long as the style, keeled not awned. The styles are short and
straight.

The Wood Anemone grows to a height of 3-4 in. Flowers may
be seen from March to May. The plant is perennial.

As a rule there is no honey in the flower, but Van Tieghem found
plants containing honey. Insects, moreover, may be seen trying to
bite through the bottom (or top, as it is drooping and the bottom is at
the top) of the flower, presumably to get at sweet sap, by aid of which
they moisten the pollen, which is abundant, to facilitate its being carried
away. The anthers and stigma are ripe at the same time. The
flowers are erect when they first open, when it is sunny. They bend



io FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES

over in a drooping position at night and when rain falls. This protects
the pollen or the honey in all such drooping flowers.

The sepals do duty for the petals. The stigmas are covered up in
bud, and the stamens lie over them, but when the flowers open both
are mature, and insects can touch either. They alight in the centre or
on the sepals, and may touch anthers or stigma first, causing self- or
cross-pollination. The drooping character of the flower also causes
pollen to fall on the stigma.

Bees pierce the base of the flower and lick the pollen. The visitors
are Hymenoptera of the genera Halictus, Osmia, Apis; Uiptera,
Scatophaga\ Coleoptera, Meligethes.

The Wind Flower has the achenes dispersed by the wind, by the
hairs, or by processes developed as a long awn or appendage, but not
feathery, as in the Pasque Flower, to aid in dispersal by the wind.

The Wild Anemone, which dwells in woods, is fond of humus,
requiring a humus soil which is partly peat, partly humus. It is not
addicted to a lime soil as a rule.

A fungus, Urocystis anemones, forms irregular swellings on the
stems and midribs of the leaves. Puccinia fusca also forms small
blackish pustules on the leaves. The Anemone Sclerotinia, Sclero-
tinia tnberosa, Plasmopora pygm&a, and sEcidium leucospermum also
infest it.

The Scarlet Tiger, Callimorpha dominula and Adela degeerella
are moths that feed on it.

Anemone was the name given it by Dioscorides, from the Greek
ancmos, wind, and the Latin nemorosa means "of the woodland". The
English names in vogue are Bow Bells, Cowslip, Wood Crowfoot,
Cuckoo-flower, Cuckoo -spit, Darn -grass, Drops of Snow, Enemy,
Granny's Nightcap, Wild Jessamine, Moonflower, Neminies, Smell
Foxes, Smell Smock, Soldiers, Undergrounds, Wind Flower.

" Boon i' the wild enemies."

TENNYSON, Northern Farmer (Old Style).

The plant is called Darn-grass in Scotland because it is said to
give rise to a disease called Darn or black water, causing dysentery
among cattle, a notion also held in Sweden.

Their fragile blossoms were said to give shelter to fairies in wet
weather, closing up. In Greece Anemones were used as garlands.
The Chinese planted them over their graves.

" The winds forbid the flowers to flourish long,
Which owe to winds their name in Grecian song."



GOLDIELOCKS 1 1

This is in allusion to their brief flowering period. The Wind
Flower was held sacred to Venus. In some countries people have
an aversion to them, the air being said to be tainted with them, those
inhaling it being said to be sick on this account.

The species of Anemone are all acrid. The Pasque Flower, an
allied species, was till recently retained in the Pharmacopoeia, but it has
no such remedies as described by Gerarde and Culpeper. It is usually
sold by weight, the roots, like ginger, being employed. It was held by
the older writers to be injurious to cattle. A species in Kamschatka was
utilized to poison the tips of arrows, the juice being applied proving fatal.

ESSENTIAL SPECIFIC CHARACTERS:

3. Anemone nemorosa, L. Sepals 4-20, petaloid, involucre of three
leaves or bracts, carpels tipped with persistent styles, keeled, rootstock
creeping, achenes downy.

Goldielocks (Ranunculus auricomus, L.)

No deposits have as yet yielded achenes of this plant. It is dis-
tributed over the Arctic and Cool Temperate Zones, in Arctic Europe,
N. and W. Asia, to the Himalayas. Goldielocks is absent from
Monmouth, and in Wales only occurs in Glamorgan, Denbigh, and
Anglesea. It is absent from S. Lines and the Isle of Man. In Scot-
land it is not found in any of the following counties: Dumfries,
Wigtown, Peebles, Selkirk, Linlithgow, Banff, Elgin, Westerness,
Main Argyll, W. Highlands or N. Highlands, or Northern Isles. In
the Highlands it is found at an altitude of 1600 ft., and in S. and W.
Ireland it is rare.

The Goldielocks is a shade-loving hedgerow and woodland plant,
which appears to delight in sandy soil where also some humus is
present, and clusters in patches of a yard square beneath the shelter of
a bank. There it forms a rich contrast with the surroundings with its
yellow (rarely perfect) petals and delicate foliage. It is fond of ground
where there are inequalities of the surface, as well as banks, on which it
often grows.

This is one of the terrestrial Crowfoots, with a smooth, shiny stem,
with divided leaves, having the lower leaves broadly lobed and the upper


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Online LibraryA. R. (Arthur Reginald) HorwoodA new British flora : British wild flowers in their natural haunts (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 23)