A. R. (Arthur Reginald) Horwood.

A new British flora : British wild flowers in their natural haunts (Volume 3) online

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KEY TO PLATE XXIV



No. i. Aspen
(Populus tremu/a, L.)
\, Pjstiliate flower,
with ovary, and 4-fid
stigma enclosed, and
laciniate downy scale.
.4, Stamioate flower,
with long-stalked sta-
mens, ana subtending
ciliate scale, c, Fe-
male catkins, with
scales at the base,
and buds, d, Fol'age
leaf, with comp'eas^d
leaf-stalk and crenate
border. Acres", this
lies a male j. catkin
with tuft of scales l>e-
lowrf and
panded buc&



No. 2.



- a, Flower,
showing suu... -,, r ~.
lip, and lateral lobes.,
of labiate corolla, and
the long-forked lower
lip ; also some sepals ;
and within the corolla
the anther and 2 pol-
linia. b, Raceme of
flowers, in various
stages, and below
scape' and .-, 2 ovatfe
paired leaves nearly



No. 3. Bee Orcfus

(Ophrys apifera^

Buds.;

a, Flower enlaced,
showing the spreao
ing perianth, ;tmi
bee-like marking;, of
the 3-ioberi iow^r lip,
and 3 piiik ovate se-
pals, the column and
arched anther, pollinia,
and tubercles at the
base of the lateral
lobes. *, -Ohe of the
pollinia. c, Spike, with
oblong kaf, andi flowers
in various stages^ en-
dosed in large leafy
Twacfe.,



No. 4. Snowdr
(Galantkus nivah's,L.)

a, Ovoid bulb, whh
roots below, and
sheath. b, Scape,
with 2-fid leaves, and
drooping flower en-
closed in membramous
spathe,with large white
outer perianth Seg-/ \
ments, and petals with
green notched honey-
grooves.





No. 5. Lily-of-the^ Valley
(Convallaria majalis, L.)

a t Vertical section of bell-
shaped flower, showing- 3 (out
of 6) segments of perianth,
the lobes bent back, and
included epipetalous, sta-
mens with ovary and simple
style, showing 2 seeds in a
cell, b, Arrow-shaped anther,
on short . filament, enlarged.
c, Berry, globose, rf, Scape
with ovate leaf, sheathing
leaf-stalk, and sheaths below,
with raceme of flowers, jn
axils of scaly bracts showing
flowers drooping.



d



section of
shaped flower, showing 3 (out
irf-6) free perianth segments,
3 {out of fy hypogynou.s
.^stamens, 3-tngled ovary and
ovule in cell, with thread-
like style^iki-plmple stigma
above: /', Capsule, 3-lobed, c
with _persiset style. c t
Radical leafj grooved abov^-.
not fistular. ovate. </, Scape, S\
with bracts below, the um-/
bel^of flowers, and fruits, ui
Various stages, on long pedi-
cels.



Ma,

%
.of bell-






No. 7. Bluebell
i (Scilla non-stripta,
Hoffm. and- Link)
o, Vertical section
shaped corolla, showing re-
flexed lobes, epipetalous sta-
mens, and rounded ovary,
with long style, and simple
stigma, fi, Section of cap-
sule, trilocular, 3-valved, with
2 or more ovules in each
loculus. c t Concave linear
j lance-shaped leaves.
i Scape, with raceme of
drooping flowers with
purple brads below, on short
curved, pedicels.










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FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES



PLATE XXIV




i. Aspen (Popiilus /remu/a, L,.). 2. T way-blade (Listera ovata, Br.). 3. Bee Orchis (Ofhrys apifera, Huils.).

4. Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis, L.). 5. Lily-of-the- Valley (Convallaria majalts, L.). 6. Garlic (A Ilium

urstttUHi, L.)- 7- Bluebell (SiiUa non-scrij>ta, Iloffni. and Link.).



ASPEN



107



Pop^lhls, Pliny, is Latin for poplar, and the Latin adjective
tremula denotes tremulous or shaking.




ASPEN (Populus trennda, L.



It is called Aps, Apse, Quaking or Mountain Ash, Asp, Aspen,
Auld-wives'-tongues, Ebble, Eps, Esp, Espin, Haspen, Pipple, Poplar,
Quaking Esp, Rattling Asp, Snapsen.

" Ah trimml't like an esp-leaf ", is a Cumberland saying.



io8 FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES

The Rattling- Asp is so called from the rattling sound made by its
tremulous leaves. On account of its bitter bark it was called Bitter-
weed.

" Oak, Ash, and Elm-tree,
The laird can hang for a' the three;
But fir, saigh, and bitter-weed,
The laird may flyte but make naething be'et."

Aps or Apse is the same as aspe by transposition of letters.

Gerarde says it was called Auld-wives'-tongues because " this tree
is the matter whereof women's tongues were made, as the poets and
some others report, which seldome cease waggling". If it was laid
on a witch's grave the people of Russia thought she would not ride
abroad. It was a symbol of fear because of its tremulous leaves.

The Aspen was a token of scandal, because its leaves, they said,
were made from women's tongues. When Joseph and Mary were
fleeing from Herod all the trees except the Aspen did homage, hence
it was cursed. It is reputed also to have formed the wood of the
Saviour's Cross. The sisters of Phaethon, bewailing his death on the
shores of Eridanus, were changed into poplars.

On Midsummer Eve they fell the highest poplar in Sicily and drag
it through the village, beating a drum.

Being ornamental and of quick growth it is much planted. Beavers
are fond of the bark. The wood is smooth, soft, but durable.

ESSENTIAL SPECIFIC CHARACTERS:

287. Populus tremula, L. Tree, with suckers, leaves suborbicular,
serrate, glabrous, young leaves downy, stigma erect, petiole compressed,
long.

Tway-blade (Listera ovata, Br.)

This delicate orchid has preserved no record for us of its antiquity.
It is, however, an Arctic plant found in the N. Temperate and Arctic
regions, in Arctic Europe, and Siberia. In Great Britain it grows in
every county except the Isle of Man, Peebles, Shetlands, and so ranges
northwards to Sutherland elsewhere. It grows at 1900 ft. in N. Eng-
land, and in Ireland and the Channel Islands.

The Tway-blade is a common clay-loving plant, growing in open
fields and meadows, in moist hollows, both in upland and lowland
districts. It is also exceedingly abundant in damp woods, growing
side by side with Man Orchis, Red Campion, and other shade plants
in the depths of woods, copses, and plantations. Tway-blade has a
tall, graceful, slender stem, with fibrous root, the stem being clammy,



TWAY-BLADE



109



with a pair ol leaves, egg-shaped (hence the second Latin name), near
the base, acute, with five marked veins, opposite.

The flowers are green, small, loosely arranged on a very long
narrow raceme or spike. The inner petals are narrower, with a lip
divided into two nearly to the base. The column has a crest or
appendage, on which the anther is placed. The anthers are yellow,
the sepals deep-green, and the petals yellow. When touched the
rostellum, one of the stigmas, emits a sticky fluid.

The Tway-blade is about i ft. high. The flowers bloom in May
and June. This orchid is perennial, propagated by division of the root.

The pollen is fri-
able, and if not aggre-
gated into a pollen
mass would not adhere.
It lies above the ros-
tellum, and when the
latter is touched it
exudes a clammy fluid
which rises to the level
of the pollen. All the
visitors are Ichneu-
mons except Gram-
mop *t 'era l&vis. They
attach the pollinia or
pollen masses to the
head, and apply them

to fresh stigmas. Alighting on the lower part of the labellum or lip,
they creep up, licking the honey in the groove, and raising the head
they touch the rostellum, from the side of which fluid exudes. This
fluid which rises to the apex of the pollinia cements them to the head
of the insect which collects pollinia in each fresh flower. When touched
the rostellum bends down to protect the stigma, and while the groove
of the labellum is receiving fresh honey it rises, leaving the stigma
free for application of new pollinia. The pollinia are erect at first on
the insect's head, and then bent down, and they spread apart and so
touch the stigma.

The seeds are light, and easily dispersed by the wind.

Tway-blade is a clay-loving plant, common on clay soil in ash-
woods and in humus soil.

The leaves of Tway-blade are liable to be attacked by a fungus,
Ctzoma orchidis.




Photo. Flatters & Ga,



TWAY-BLADE (Listera ovata, Br.)



no FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES

Listera, R. Brown, is the name by which Dr. Martin Lister
(d. 1711) is honoured, and the second Latin name refers to the shape
of the leaves.

This orchid is called Bifoil, Double-leaf, Dufoil, Herb Bifoil, Tway-
blade, Twifoil.

From its interesting mode of pollination it is worth cultivating, and
requires sandy, clayey, or peaty loam.

ESSENTIAL SPECIFIC CHARACTERS:

289. Listera avata, Br. Stem erect, pubescent, leaves in opposite
pairs, ovate, flowers in a lax spike, green, sticky, column crested.

Bee Orchis (Ophrys apifera, Hucls.)

As a more or less southern type we find no record of its occurrence
earlier than the present day. It ranges in the N. Temperate Zone in
Europe from Belgium southwards, and in N. Africa. In Great Britain
it is found in the Peninsula province, except in E. Cornwall; in the
Channel province, Thames, and Anglia province, not in Hunts; in the
Severn province; in S. Wales only in Glamorgan and Pembroke; in
N. Wales, not in Montgomery, Merioneth; in the Trent province and
Mersey provinces, not in Mid Lanes; in the Humber province in
Durham and Cumberland; and in Lanark. From Durham and Lanark
it is general elsewhere to the south coast. In the N. of England it
grows at 1000 ft. In South and Mid Ireland it is found on limestone
and sandhills.

The Bee Orchis is one of those characteristic plants which depend
on a certain type of geological formation for their distribution, more
than others. Thus it is found almost exclusively on hills composed of
chalk or limestone, or in woods and copses on the same formations.
It is rarely found on sandy soil or pure peat or loam. The stem is
leafy, with sheathing leaves, egg-shaped, lanceolate, oblong, silvery
below, and with linear veins. The bracts or leaflike organs are large,
green, sheathing, equalling the flowers.

As the second Latin (and English) name implies the flower has the
form of a bee. Three to six flowers are arranged in a spike, and they
are purple, with a 5-lobed swollen lip, the two lower lobes marked,
smaller, hairy at the base, the intermediate ones turned back, oval, and
hollow.

The Bee Orchid is about i ft. high. Flowers may be found in
June and July. The plant is perennial, and propagated by division
of the root.



BEE ORCHIS in

The rostellum contains two pouches, and has a sticky disk, being
placed much as in Orchis, The pollen-stalks are long, thin, and
flexible, and the pollen-masses are at a variable distance apart. The
pollen-grains vary in shape. The anther cells open directly or soon




BEE ORCHIS (Ophrys apifera, Huds.)

after the flower opens. The pollinia are pear-shaped, and after they
are set free, if not removed by insects, hang by the caudicles above the
stigma, and are very readily brought into contact with the stigmatic
surface.

It is probable that the apparent mimicry, so-called, of the flower,
by which it may induce bees to visit it, is for securing occasional cross-



ii2 FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES

pollination. But in their absence self-pollination occurs regularly. The
pollen-mass, moreover, does not usually fail to reach the stigma in the
same flower.

The seeds are extremely small and light, and are dispersed by the
wind.

The Bee Orchid is distinctly a lime-loving plant, and addicted to
limestone, oolite, or the chalk, and a lime soil.

Ophrys, Pliny, is the Greek for eyebrow, alluding to the yellow
markings on the lip, which are honey-guides leading to the nectary.
The second Latin name refers to the resemblance of the petals in
form to the outline of a bee.

This Orchid is called Bee-flower, Bee Orchis, Dumble Dor, Honey-
flower, Humble-bee. Many of these refer to the mimetic character of
the flower.

The root tubers have been employed to furnish jalep.

ESSENTIAL SPECIFIC CHARACTERS:

293. Ophrys apifera, Huds. Stem slender, leaves oblong, flowers
purple, in shape resembling a bee, sepals pink within, intermediate
lobes of lip reflexed.

Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis, L.)

It would be both interesting, and surprising, if the Snowdrop
occurred in Glacial times in Britain, but we have no record, and it
is found to-day in Europe south of Holland, and W. Asia. It has
been recorded from as many as sixty-four of the vice-counties of Great
Britain, but there is no evidence that it is native except perhaps in
Hereford and Denbigh, and elsewhere it is naturalized both in Eng-
land and Scotland, but not in Ireland. It is said to be native in
Edinburgh.

The Snowdrop, so familiar in our gardens and plantations, is found
in a semi-natural state in meadows and copses, in many cases, as in the
case of Crocus, Tulip, Daffodil, Narcissus, &c., having only migrated
from a garden or orchard. The Snowdrop and Crocus have a similar
habit. The leaves are smooth, hollowed out above, lanceolate, with the
tips curved inwards, nearly as long as the flowering stems. The Snow-
drop is a bulbous plant, with the leaves arranged in a rosette, but erect.

The flowers are pure white, hence the first Greek and second Latin
and English names. They are usually drooping. The spathe en-
closing the flower is membranous. The inner segments are greenish.
The sepals are inversely egg-shaped and hollowed out.



SNOWDROP 113

This harbinger of spring, as it has been called, is about 6 in. in
height. The Snowdrop is in flower between January and March. It
is perennial and propagated by offsets.

The flowers are sweet-scented and contain a moderate supply of
honey, which is secreted in the green grooves on the inner sides of the
flower, and the honey is sheltered from rain by the pendulous posi-
tion of the latter and the perianth leaves. The flowers are open from
10 a.m. till 4 p.m., when they close. There are 6 anthers which mature




SNOWDROP (Galanthus nivalis, L.)



Photo. J. He



at the same time as the stigma. They are close to the style and open
by 2 terminal slits, pollen falling out when they are touched. The
anther processes form a cone and end in rigid points, being touched by
a bee and shaken so that pollen drops down when the insect is seeking
honey. The insect touches the stigma with pollen from a previous
flower before it touches the anthers, as the stigma is longer than the
latter. If the flower is not visited by insects it is self-pollinated. The
pistil is white, or only green, at first, above the middle.

The honey bee clings to the perianth dusting itself with pollen on
the head. It sweeps the pollen with its brushes and fore- and mid-legs
into baskets on its hind-legs. It is visited by hive bees. When
insects are absent the anther-stalks become loose, the anthers diverge,
and pollen falls on the stigma.



38



n 4 FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES

The capsule contains few seeds, which fall when ripe around the
parent plant, but it also multiplies largely by bulbs.

The Snowdrop is a sand-loving or clay-loving plant growing in
sand or clay with some little humus.

The Snowdrop mildew (Sclerotinia galantkina) attacks it.

G a/ant kus, Linnaeus, is from Greek ga/a, milk, antkos^ flower, from
the milk-white flower, and the second Latin name (from nivis, snow)
refers to the period of flowering, in winter, when snow is on the ground.

This plant is called Candlemas Bells, Fair Maids, Fair Maids of
February, French Snowdrop, Purification Flower, Snowdrop, Snow-
flower, White Ladies. Ouida calls it White Ladies in Strathmore.
The Snowdrop is called Fair Maids of February on account of its
flowering in February.

Legend has accumulated around so familiar a flower. Formerly
young women dressed in white and walked in procession on the
Feast of Purification, saying:

" The snowdrop in purest white array,
First rears her head on Candlemas Day ".

It was dedicated to the Virgin Mary the monks thought it bloomed
at this period in memory of the Virgin when she took the child
Jesus to the Temple and presented her offering, and because her
image was removed from the altar on the Feast of Purification and
snowdrops were strewed in its place. It is considered unlucky to bring
the first snowdrop of the year into a house, for " it looks for all the
world like a corpse in its shroud ".

There is a beautiful legend that " An angel was sent to console
Eve mourning over the barren earth. No flower grew in Eden, and
driving snow kept falling and making a pall for Earth's funeral after
the fall. As the angel spoke, he caught a flake of falling snow,
breathed on it, and bade it take a form, and bud and blow. Ere it
reached the ground it had turned into a beautiful flower which Eve
prized more than all the other fair plants of Paradise. The angel
said :

' This is an earnest, Eve, to thee,
That Sun and Summer soon shall be '.

The angel departed, and a ring of snowdrops formed a lovely posy
where he stood."

ESSENTIAL SPECIFIC CHARACTERS:

298. Galanthus nwalis, L. Leaves linear, keeled, flowers white,
single, drooping, inner segments green, sepals exceeding the petals.



LILY-OF-THE-VALLEY



Lily-of-the-Valley (Convallaria majalis, L.)

Confined to woods more or less, Lily-of-the-Valley is found in the
N. Temperate Zone in Europe, but not in Greece and Northern Asia.
In Great Britain it grows in the Peninsula province only in Somerset;
in the Channel pro-
vince, not in the Isle
of Wight or N.
Hants; in the Chan-
nel, Thames, and
Anglia provinces, not
in E. Suffolk or
Hunts; in the Severn
province, not in W.
Gloucs; in S. Wales
in Brecon, in N. Wales
in Carnarvon, Den-
bigh, Flint; in the
Trent province, not
in S. Lines; in the
Mersey province, only
in Chester; in the
H umber and Tyne
provinces, except in
Cheviotlancl; in the
Lakes province, ex-
cept in the Isle of
Man; in Scotland in
W. Mid and E.Perth,
Forfar, Easterness.
From Caithness it
ranges elsewhere to
Kent and Devon, but is not common. In Cumberland it is found up
to 1000 ft. It is naturalized in Scotland and Ireland.

The Lily-of-the-Valley is familiar enough in the gardens, where it
luxuriates in the shady corners, but few know it in its natural habitat,
which is entirely woodland. It grows in the dark parts of woods and
copses, under trees covering quite a large area and forming extensive
beds.

The leaves are all radical leaves and the aerial stem merely a




LlLY-OF-THE-YALLEY (Coniiallaria niajalfs, L.)



n 6 FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES

flowering stem. The leaves are egg-shaped in pairs, stalked, erect,
smooth, lance-shaped, veined, one of them exceeding the other, bright
green. The leaf-stalks are round, long, the outer one dotted with red,
tubular, drooping, enclosing the inner solid one.

The scape or flowering stem is lateral, as long as the leaves, naked,
smooth, erect, semi -cylindrical. The bracts or leaflike organs are
membranous below each flower. The flowers are in drooping racemes,
white, bell-shaped. The segments of the corolla are turned back.
The fruit is a red berry.

This plant is 6 in. in height. It flowers in May and June. Lily-of-
the- Valley is perennial and propagated by the underground stems.

The flowers are honeyless, but contain much pollen and the tissue
a sweet sap. The flowers are visited by numerous insects. The
flowers are homogamous, anthers and stigma being ripe together, or
the anthers first, and in the absence of insects self-pollination occurs.

When the flower expands, the stigma, longer than the anthers, is
already covered with long papillae or wart-like knobs before the anthers
are mature; but if the anthers are ripe and rubbed over it, little pollen
adheres. When they have opened the stigma is sticky and pollen
adheres to it. The flowers are pendulous, and bees cling on, and
thrust the head and fore leg into the bell, touching the stigma first
with pollen from another flower. It sweeps the pollen with the brushes
of its fore legs into its baskets, and dusts its head with pollen, which
is carried to the next flower. The stigma is 3-lobed, and the anthers
stand close to it.

The fruit is a rounded berry, which is red when ripe and falls to
the ground, but may rarely be dispersed by birds. The plant generally
grows in wide patches, indicating that it is mainly dispersed by its own
agency.

The Lily-of-the- Valley is a lime-loving plant flourishing best on a
lime soil, but requiring humus. The leaves are attacked by



A beetle, Crioceris lilii, and a fly, Parallelomma albipes, are found
on the Lily-of-the- Valley.

Convallaria, Linnaeus, is from couvallis, a valley, its usual habitat,
and majalis indicates the flowering period, May.

This pretty flower is called Conval-Lily, Great Park, May and
Wood Lily, Lily-among-thorns, Lily-conval, Lily-of-the- Valley, Liri-
con fancy, May Blossoms, May Lily, Mugwet, Valleys.

They say at St. Leonards it sprang from the blood of St. Leonard,
who, encountering a mighty worm or " fire-drake " in the forest, fought



GARLIC 117

it three days, and was at last the victor, but was badly wounded, and
wherever his blood flowed lilies of the valley sprang up. It was
regarded as symbolic of the return of happiness, and as to its per-
fume of sweetness Keats says:

" No flower amid the garden fairer grows
Than the sweet lily of the lowly vale,
The Queen of flowers ".

Its snow-white beauty symbolizes purity. It is gathered by all on
Whit Monday in Hanover, where it is called May Bloom. A person
who plants a bed of lilies will die during the next twelve months, so it
is considered unlucky.

The flowers are fragrant when fresh, but when dry are narcotic.
Powdered, the plant induces sneezing. It is purgative, and bitter as
aloes when an extract from the roots is prepared.

Lime is used to prepare a green colour from the leaves.

ESSENTIAL SPECIFIC CHARACTERS:

300. Convallaria majalis, L. Scape semi-cylindrical, radical leaves
paired, lanceolate, ovate, flowers white, campanulate, in a raceme, 6-12,
berry red.

Garlic (Allium ursinum, L.)

The distribution of this beautiful but strong-smelling liliaceous plant
is quite modern, being the N. Temperate Zone in Europe, except
Greece and N. Asia. In Great Britain it is found in the Peninsula,
Channel, Thames, Anglia, and Severn provinces; in S. Wales, except
in Cardigan; in N. Wales, except in Montgomery; in the Trent pro-
vince, except in S. Lines; in the Mersey, Humber, Tyne, and Lakes
provinces; and in the West and E. Lowlands, except in Elgin; in the
W. Highlands, except in Mid Ebudes; in the N. Highlands; and in
the Hebrides only in the Northern Isles. It is general elsewhere from
Skye and Ross to the English Channel, and in Yorks rises to 1 200 ft.
It is native in Ireland.

Garlic is a decidedly local though widespread plant, Watson having
only met with it once in North Britain, and not in Surrey, where it is
common. It grows in damp hollows in woods and copses, and also in
shady lanes under hedges, and in hedgerows in fields where there is
plenty of cover.

Garlic grows from a bulb. This tends to bury itself deeper and
deeper in the soil. Garlic has much the habit of Lily-of-the-Valley,
with radical leaves, solid, flat, lance-shaped, stalked, few, broad, and






n8



FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES



smooth and bright green. They are reversed, and the stomata lie on
the upper surface below. The bulbs are slender and acute.

The flowers are white, borne in terminal clustered umbels on a
naked triangular stem, with an egg-shaped, 2-valved spathe. The
flowering stem is solitary. The 6 stamens in 2 sets of 3 are all simple,




Photo. J. H. Crabtrce

GARLIC (Allium ursinum, L.)



shorter than the segments, the anther-stalks free and slender. The peri-
anth segments are 6 in number. The capsule is 3-lobed and 3-valved.

Garlic is i ft. high. Flowers are found in April and May. The
plant is perennial, and increased by offsets.

The flowers contain honey at the base of the ovary in 3 notches
between the carpels, and are therefore visited by insects. The style
is about half its length when the flower expands, and without papillae,
and the anthers are not perfect.

The flowers are imperfectly proterandrous, i.e. the anthers mature


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