A. R. (Arthur Reginald) Horwood.

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first. The 3 inner anthers open first in succession, by which time the



GARLIC 119

style is 4^-5 mm., or three-quarters of its length. The 3 outer anthers
next open. When the style is 6 mm. long the stigma ripens, and be-
comes covered with little wart-like knobs.

The anthers open inwards, turning upwards. The style is often
bent so that the stigma touches the anthers covered with pollen,
causing self-pollination occasionally. A bee touches the anthers with
one side and the stigma with the other side of the head, which cross-
pollinates the flowers when fully advanced. The visitors are flies,
bees, and humble bees.

The fruit splits open, and sets the seeds free when ripe to fall
around the flowering stems.

Garlic is a clay-loving plant, growing on clay soil, or a lime-loving
plant, and addicted to a lime soil, as limestone, oolite, chalk.

One stage of a Fungus, Puccinia sessilis, grows on Garlic. Cceoma
alliorum also attacks it, and Peronospora schleideni and Melampsora
salicis (willow-rod canker).

A beetle, Meligethes riifipes, and a Hymenopterous insect, Andrena
angustior, are found on it.

Allium, Plautus, is Latin for garlic, and ursinum, pertaining to a
bear, refers to the smell. Garlic is from A.S. gar, spear, leac, leek.

The plant is called Bear's-foot, Bear's Garlic, Buckrams, Devil's
Posy, Garlick, Wild Garlick, Onions, Hog's Garlick, Wild Leek,
Ramps, Rams, Ramsden, Ramsey, Ram's Horns, Ramsons, Rommy
or Roms, Rosems, Stink Plant. This plant was called Bear's Garlick,
according to Tabernsemontanus, because bears delight in it.

The Chinese employ it against the Evil Eye. It was called Devil's
Posy from a supposed connection with the Evil One. To dream of
Garlic denoted discovery of hidden treasure, but the approach of
domestic trouble. Aubrey says:

" Eat leeks in Lide [March] and ramsines in May,
And all the year after physicians may play ".

It is regarded as the symbol of plenty by the Bolognese, who bury
it on Midsummer Night as a charm against poverty. They used to
believe in Cuba that " thirteen cloves of garlic at the end of a cord,
worn round the neck for thirteen days, are considered a safeguard
against jaundice ". On the thirteenth day at midnight the wearer pro-
ceeded through the street, took off his garlic neckband, turned round,
and flung it behind him without turning to see what became of it.

It has long been (and is still) used as a pot-herb, and for gar-
nishing.



120 FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES

ESSENTIAL SPECIFIC CHARACTERS:

301. A Ilium ursinum, L. Scape triangular at the base, leaves
radical, flat, lanceolate, sheathed at the base, petiolate, flowers white,
in a flat-topped umbel.

Bluebell (Scilla non-scripta, Hoffm. and Link.)

The Bluebell is apparently quite a recent plant found to-day in the
N. Temperate Zone in West Europe, south of Belgium to Italy. It is
common to every part of Great Britain from Caithness southwards to
the south coast, growing at 1500 ft. in the Lake District, Ireland, and
the Channel Islands.

Spring is especially associated with bluebells in the woods. It is
a typical woodland species, carpeting the whole of the ground beneath
the trees. It persists in the hedgerows, and sometimes the open fields
or glades between two woods in wooded districts.

The Bluebell has no true stem, but the leaves are radical leaves
twice as long as the leaf-stalk, broad, keeled, hollow above, smooth
and shining, sheathing at the base, and ascending, but at length falling
backwards with their own weight.

The flowers are deep-blue, borne on solitary flowering stems. The
bracts or leaflike organs are lance-shaped, nearly erect, two below each
flower. The corolla is nearly cylindrical. The raceme of flowers is
drooping. The corolla is campanulate or bell-shaped. The stamens
are united to the perianth halfway up. The scape exceeds the leaves.
The sepals are turned back.

The Bluebell is i ft. high. The flowers are in bloom between
March and June. It is perennial, and propagated by offsets. It is
common in gardens and shrubberies.

The flowers are sweet-smelling, conspicuous, drooping, bell-shaped,
in a raceme, with flowers turned to one side. There is no nectary,
but the honey is free or half -concealed by the glands in the par-
titions of the ovary. The lip of the bell is curved backwards.
There are 6 stamens, the three longer as long as the corolla, and
affixed to the corolla below, free above, and awl-shaped, the anther-
stalks being flattened. The anthers are erect, yellow. The style is
threadlike and the stigma is small, the style blue at the end, and the
stigma finely hairy. There are some marks on the petals like Ai, Ai,
which may serve as pathfinders. Insects visiting the flower, which is
abundantly fertile, touch the stigma first.

The fruit is a capsule, splitting open, and releasing the seeds when



BLUEBELL 121

ripe for dispersal around the parent plant, the stems being jerked by
passers-by or vibrating in the wind, jerking out the seeds.

The Bluebell is a humus-loving plant, growing in a humus soil,
usually sand soil, or clay soil with humus mixed.

It is attacked by a Fungus, Uromyces scillarum.

Scilla, Dioscorides, is Greek and Latin for sea onion or squill, or
from scyllo, I injure, because the tuber is a violent poison; and the
second name (Latin) means, not written, because of some supposed
characters like Ai on the petals.

It is called Bell-bottle, Hare Bell, Wood Bells, Bloody Man's




Photo. J. H. Crabtree

BLUEBELL (Scilla non-scripfa, Hoffm. and Link.)

Fingers, Blue Bell, Blue Bottle, Blue Gramfer Greygles, Blue Rocket,
Crake-feet, Craw-feet, Craw-flower, Crawtaes, Craw-tees, Cross-flower,
Crow-bells, Crow-flower, Crowfoot, Crow-leek, Crow-toes, Cuckoo,
Cuckoo-flower, Cuckoo's Stockings, Culverkeys, Culvers, Gowk's-hose,
Gramfer-Greygles, Snap Grass, Greygle, Guckoos, Hyacinth, Crow
Leek, Ring o' Bells.

Ring o' Bells is an expressive name, referring to the resemblance
of the spike to a symphonia or ring of bells, which is a number of
tuned bells hung on a stick and struck with a hammer.

It is an ornamental plant grown in gardens and shrubberies, and
often white or pink.

ESSENTIAL SPECIFIC CHARACTERS:

302. Scilla non-scripta, Hoffm. and Link. Scape tall, leaves
>rter, linear, furrowed, flowers blue, in drooping raceme, campanu-
e, capsule triquetrous.



Section VI
FLOWERS OF THE ROADSIDES AND HEDGES



FLOWERS OF THE ROADSIDES AND HEDGES



In making any botanical survey of a country or district one has to
consider that certain associations are natural, while others are artificial.
If it were possible altogether to say how much of a given region were
really aboriginal, probably that portion would require to be put down
as an infinitesimal fragment. It is, moreover, clear that the artificial
influence of man is an overlapping or obscuring mantle whose ample
folds disguise all the small corners despised by man, from position or
barrenness (from his point of view), or because they have been retained
under the same conditions from time immemorial, where the last resort
of truly native plants can still be seen.

These islets in a sea of otherwise purely artificial fields, meadows,
woodlands, &c. (and we must chiefly exclude water from the artificial
tracts), are really to the far-seeing botanist the most interesting part of
his quest or study. For he knows quite well that the enclosed fields,
with their modern ditches, hedges, trees, and turf, are no more natural
than the hovels provided in the fields for the shelter of cattle, that
so largely cause this alteration of the land surface.

None the less, since the entire crust has repeatedly undergone
radical changes in surface vegetation, configuration, and so forth, it is
necessary also to consider the composition of the essentially artificial
tracts.

The artificial meadow and cornfields and bushlands have been
already considered, and since roads and hedges are an important part
of all regions and are best studied in a linear fashion, wherever they
enclose or intersect the equally artificial fields or districts, we need
make no apology here for making a special section devoted to the
flowers of the roadsides and hedges which belong as an appendix we
may perhaps best consider them to the previous section or meso-
phytes.

We have in the roads first the macadam, with a gritty border,
fringed by Silverweed, a zone of grass of varying width which varies
with the geological formation, where grasses, sedges, rushes, and



126 FLOWERS OF THE ROADSIDES AND HEDGES

various dominant Composite and Rosaceae grow, with occasionally a
bushland of Sloe, Briars, Brambles, Sallows, &c. Then there is a
boundary ditch, on the sides of which or in which is an aquatic or semi-
aquatic flora, which includes such hydrophilous plants as Watercress,
Water Ranunculus, Marsh wort. &c.

Finally we have the hedge with a bank on which dry-soil forms
grow, and various planted trees, with bushes and shrubs dispersed at
intervals. In fields the hedges and ditches are a repetition of the last.




GENERAL VIEW OF R



Of these wayside flowers we have included about forty -four,
deeming it wiser to give rather fuller attention to this section from its
easy accessibility, and the variety of wild flowers that may be found
along the highways and byways of Great Britain.

In the south of England, or where chalk abounds, the hedges
are bordered with Traveller's Joy, and here and there Barberry crops
up, though it is largely an introduction. Along the ditch side, Water-
cress, Garlic Mustard, and Great Stitchwort are familiar friends, the
latter having delightful pearl-like blooms, the two former being used
as salads.

Perforate St. John's Wort grows on the sward or by the ditch side,
its yellow blooms making the roadside bright along with the pink-
flowered Herb Robert, which crouches amid the undergrowth in the



FLOWERS OF THE ROADSIDES AND HEDGES 127

hedge bottom, its fragrant foliage scenting the whole roadway from
side to side. Spindle-tree serves the gipsy many a good turn, as he cuts
from the hedge skewers he can hawk for sale. Side by side with the
latter grows the Sloe, which adorns the whole countryside in white festal
array, its flowers being in bloom in the hedgerows before the leaves.

Rambling over the hawthorn hedges Tufted Vetch makes handsome
bright-hued tufts along every country lane, and in wet hollows or in
the shallow ditch bottom. The Yellow Vetchling lends another (yellow
tint) to the assemblage of wayside flowers. The Bramble forms a fine
nesting-place for White-throat and Blackcap, lining many a hedgerow
with pink or white blossoms arranged in handsome panicles.

Along the gritty border of the macadam the silvery foliage of the
Silverweed forms a fine fringe enriched by pale golden blooms. Close
by the Barren Strawberry opens its numerous white blossoms which
mature no ruddy fruit. In the hedge and in arching clumps by the
way the Dog Rose gladdens the heart of many a weary traveller on a
hot June or July day with its rose-tinted or waxen-white petals, while
earlier, too, the Crab Apple in flower is a delightful picture in the
hedgerow or copse. Everywhere the road is tinted with budding May
in early summer, making the air heavy with its almost narcotic scent.
The Bryony curls in graceful disorder over the layered hedge. With
spotted stem and fetid stench Hemlock warns the wayside beast not to
touch it. Under the hedgerow the Hedge-parsley with rigid stem lines
the roadway as some sentinel. Cornel red -stemmed, and gay with
white bloom, and Elder vary the monotony of the Whitethorn hedge.
Underneath in the shade a faint smell of musk betrays the little
Moschatel. Teasel with its pitcher-like leaf-bases is fond of this
habitat by the hedge side.

The diminutive blooms of Nipplewort peep out from the hedge
where the Ash affords ample shelter for the passer-by. Great Hedge
Bindweed with its handsome, white, trumpet-like blooms encompasses
the hedgerow far and wide. The sward is scattered up and down with
Red Bartsia sponging on the grass roots.

Ground Ivy carpets the hedgebanks, and White or Blue Bugle is
rampant in the moist hollows. Spurge Laurel grows in the hedge.
The Nettles endeavour to drive all else out of the ditches. The tall
Elm throws a wide shade across the road where Black Bryony clambers
up the hedge, and in autumn the scarlet berries lend rich colour to the
hedge side, as do those of the Cuckoo Pint in earlier months.



128 FLOWERS OF THE ROADSIDES AND HEDGES



Traveller's Joy (Clematis Vitalba, L.)

This plant is found in Interglacial beds at Stoke Newington as well
as in Paleolithic deposits. It ranges in Europe, south of Holland,
N. Africa, W. Asia, or in the Warm Temperate Zone. In Great
Britain it occurs in most districts, being absent from Brecon, Radnor,
Montgomery, Merioneth in Wales, and South Lincoln, S.E. Yorks,
Cheviotland in England. In the northern counties away from the
chalk or oolite it is probably not native, being a southern type. In
Scotland it is found only in Lanark, Haddington, Edinburgh, Fife,
Perth, Westerness, Main Argyle, and Dumbarton. It is not native in
Scotland or Ireland.

The Traveller's Joy, as its name suggests, is a plant of the way-
sides and hedgerows, along which it was doubtless planted in the past.
It is par excellence a lover of the chalky soils of the Downs, where
it is seen at its best, forming rambling masses which cover the upright
shrubs that grow in similar habitats, the Wayfaring Tree, the White
Beam, or it may be the Hazel. In the summer its tangled bowers
afford a fine arbour amongst which the birds may nest, and in the
winter a shelter from the cold winds and rain. It is adapted to a
dry soil and may be regarded as a xerophile. It is essentially a
climbing plant, on which account it is much used in gardens, and
elsewhere, to form arbours, being called Great Wild Climber.

Its generic name in Latin refers to the tendrils which assist it in
its rambling career over hedge and bush. These are highly developed,
and very strong and elastic, and are really the leaf-stalks.

Traveller's Joy is best recognized when in fruit, by the long
feathery awns or persistent styles which it possesses, assisting in its
dispersal. The Clematis habit is marked, the stem is woody, the
leaves, which are compound, are arranged on either side of a common
leaf-stalk, and there are no stipules or leaflike organs. The flowers
are characterized by numerous greenish or sulphur- coloured stamens
and styles, 4 white sepals in place of petals. The flowers are sweet
and small, but numerous, clustered, hence the name White Vine.

The Wild Clematis is often 20 ft. or more high. Flowers last
from July to August or September. The plant is perennial, being
a deciduous climbing shrub.

No honey is secreted. In an allied species, C. recta, there is no
honey, but insects visit it for pollen. It is proterandrous, that is, the
anthers ripen first, and if the stamens had shed all their pollen before







KEY TO PLATE XXV

,

No. 3. Winter Cress
narbarea vulgaris t Ait.)

ft, Andrcecium and gynoe-
;um (enlarged), showing 4
long ,and, 2 short stamens,
honey-glands at the
tweea, and central pist.
Silique, with valves
from above* dowa\\iards, an<l
seed} on the replurh. ^, Part
of plant, skewing stem-leaves,
and/pcem^} with fnWfbelow
andjflowers in various stages,
above showing 4 petals in
opposite pajrs..



i

No. i. Traveller's Joy

(Clematis Vitalba, L.)

<, Achenes, with feathery
awns, b, Part of plant, show-
ing fol : age and flowers, with
4 or 5 petaloid sepals, and
numerous stamens, from dif-
ferent




vulgtru, L.)

v-v^Vjartical sepfi^n of flower,
showing one of6 petais,anther,
honey-glands below, and sec-
tion of pistil, with ovules, with
broad stigma above. 6, Ra-
ceme, with 6 berries, c, Pan
of stem, with 3 types of
leaves, foliage, in the axils of \'\
the spines, or reduced leaves,
also 2 racemes with flowers,
showing petaloid sepals, and
2 ranks of petals, with 6



JNoi 4. Hi?dge Mustard
(Siiymbriurrtqfficinale, Scop.)

a, Andrcecium and gynoe-
cium as in No. 3. b, Petal
(enlarged), ft Pod, showing
pungent style, and hairs, d,
Part of plant, with runcinate
Sjem -leaves, raceme, with
;|ruits below, flowers above.




No. 5. Sauce Alone
(Sisymvrivm Alliaria> Scop.)

a, Andrcecium and gynct-
cium as in No. 3. - b, Upper
part of plant with deltoid
stem-leaf, raceme with pods
below and flowers



u, AndroeMim ai
w.ui,.sho'iiuj in 2
stamens and pis^H^% U**x
centre, with ; honey- glands at
se of ''stamens. ,d; Fetal *

ched) enlarged, c, Cap-
. e yvith recurved teeth, and
3 (out of 5) sepaC d t Parjt/
of plant, with] lanceolate
stem-leaves, and tiichotemoua
ih flowers in various
petals.





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'



FLOWERS OF THE ROADSIDES AND HEDGES

,~\



PLATE XXV




I. Traveller's Joy (Clematis I'italba, L.). 2. Barberry (Berberis vtitgans, L.). 3. Winter Cress (ftarbarea vulgaris,
Ait.). 4. Hetlge Mustard (Sisynibriiim offifinale, Scop.). 5. Sauce Alone (Sisyinbrhiin Aliiaria, Scop.).

6. Greater Stitchwort (Stellaria Holoslea, L.).



TRAVELLER'S JOY



129




TRAVELLER'S JOY (Clematis Vitalba, L.)



the pistil was mature insects would cease to visit the flowers before
the stigma became mature. Cross -pollination is performed by Bees
(Apidse, Sphegidse), Diptera (Syrphidse, Muscidae).

The achenes (i -seeded) are dispersed by the wind. Long hairs
are developed at the end of the fruit like a long feathery awn to aid in
wind dispersal.

Growing on a lime soil, derived from chalk or limestone, it is a

VOL. III. 39



1 30 FLOWERS OF THE ROADSIDES AND HEDGES

lime-loving plant, but will grow when transplanted on a more rocky
soil derived from granite or sand soil.

Traveller's Joy is infested by one of the cluster-cup fungi, ALcidhun
clcmatidis. LamophUeus clematidis, a beetle, and the moths Small
Waved Umber, Cidaria I'italbata, and Double-striped Pug, Eupithccia
piimilata, are insects which feed on it.

The name Clematis was derived from clcma, a sort of vine, and
Vitalba, by Dodonseus, from vitis, vine, alba, white. Originally the
name was Viorna, adorning the ways. Gerarde in 1597 gave the
name Traveller's Joy. 1 The common English names are Bedwine,
Beggar-brushes, Bethwine, Bindwith, Climber, Crocodile, Grey-beards,
Hag- rope, Honesty, Honey- stick, Lady's Bower, Love -bind, Old
Man's Beard, Old Man's Woozard, Robin Hood's Fetter, Smoke-
wood, &c. Boys smoke pieces of the stem, hence the last name, and
the name Tom-bacca. Used for binding like withies it was called
Bindwith, &c. The name Hag- rope means hedge-rope. It was called
Devil's Thread in allusion to its supposed association with the Evil
One. In pre-scientific days Pliny the naturalist tells us it was used
for cleansing leprous sores, because of its caustic nature. It was used
for blistering, and the young shoots were pickled for vinegar. Baskets
are made from the plant in some districts. It is much used in gardens
for forming arbours, and as a climbing plant in gardens.

ESSENTIAL SPECIFIC CHARACTERS:

i. Clematis Vitalba, L. Sepals valvate in the bud, carpels awned,
achenes with feathery persistent styles, leaves opposite, stem climbing
and woody, with tendrils.

Barberry (Berberis vulgaris, L.)

Our knowledge of this plant begins with recent times. It is an
occupant of the Warm Temperate Zone, occurring in Europe, temperate
Asia, N. Africa, and has been introduced into the United States. It
is absent from S. Somerset, S. Hants, Hunts, occurring only in Gla-
morgan in S. Wales, Denbigh, Carnarvon, and Flint in N. Wales,
S. Lanes in the Trent province; but it does not occur in Mid Lanes or
the Isle of Man, though present throughout the W. Lowlands, except
Wigtown, and Haddington in the E. Lowlands; in Elgin and Easter-
ness only in the E. Highlands. Elsewhere it is found in Westerness,
Clyde Isles, and Cantire in the W. Highlands, from Caithness south-
wards. It is naturalized in Scotland. It occurs in Ireland.

1 On account possibly of its prevalence along the highways and in hedges.



BARBERRY



Although widely dispersed throughout the whole of the British
Isles, the Barberry as a shrub, and one indeed which yields delicious
fruits for tarts, is probably in half of these introduced, and wherever it
is found in the hedgerow this must usually be the case, for our hedges
are quite modern.

The Barberry occurs in copses and woods, and may in such localities
be native. As a host-plant for
the smut attacking wheat its dis-
tribution has been affected by
an Act of Parliament restricting
its occurrence.

This is an erect, smooth-
stemmed fruit tree or shrub,
which tends to grow out in an
arching manner after a certain
distance, giving the boughs an
overhanging nature above. The
stem is yellow and angled. It
bears numerous pointed spines
or modified leaves, which are
divided into three, or seven, with
axillary buds bearing leaves. The
leaves are inversely egg-shaped,
toothed, alternate or in clusters.

The clusters or racemes of
yellow flowers hang down in a
drooping manner. In fruit it
may be recognized by their long
scarlet character.

It is 8-1 o ft. high, flowers from
April to May, and is perennial.

The flowers are horizontal

or inclined obliquely downwards. They are thus not fully protected
from the weather. The 3 inner sepals and 6 petals are curled inwards
at the tips, and protect the 6 stamens and 12 honey-glands from the
rain. The 3 inner sepals are conspicuous, the yellow petals quite
embrace the stamens, while the latter are undisturbed. The honey-
glands are at the base of the petals, thick and oval bodies of orange
colour, which are close to the inner side and base of the petal.

The anther -stalks touch below, and before being touched bend
back and touch the portions of the petals below the honey-glands and




Photo. Flatters & Garnett

BARBERRY (Berberis vnlgaris^ L.)



i 3 2 FLOWERS OF THE ROADSIDES AND HEDGES

adjacent halves of the latter. The honey collects in the angles between
the stamens and ovary just where the proboscis is thrust in, and the
stamens when touched, being sensitive, spring forward towards the
pistil and dust the side of the bee's head with pollen.

The stigma is covered with wart-like knobs along its edge sur-
rounding the base of the ovary, and owing to the openness of the
flower one side of the insect's head opposite that touched by the
stamen brushes it when it goes on to the next flower, and cross-
pollination thus follows. In the same flower the bee plunges its head
first to one side and then to the other, and self-pollination follows.
Diptera, Syrphidae, Muscidae, Hymenoptera (Apicke, Vespidae), Coleop-
tera (Dermestidae, Coccinellidae) visit it. The irritable stamens secure
dusting of the insect, and cross-pollination, by driving the bee, which is
startled by their recoil, away to another flower, an observation noted
by Linnaeus.

The fruit is dispersed by the agency of animals. It is edible, juicy,
and the seeds are dispersed by animals. Being red it is attractive to
birds. As the seeds have a hard testa and endosperm they are un-
injured by digestion.

Barberry is partly a humus-loving plant, requiring a humus soil, but
is also a sand-lover, subsisting on a sand soil, and grows best in a
mixture of the two or peaty loam.

Pnccinia graminis, an orange cluster-cups, grows on the leaves and
shoots of the Barberry. The second stage of the fungus forms the
well-known rust of wheat and other cereals, sEcidium bcrbcridis.
Microsphfsra berberidis is parasitic on Barberry also.

The Hymenoptera, Hylotoma berberidis, H. euodis, the Lepidoptera,
Beautiful Brocade, Hadena contigiia, Mottled Pug, Eupitkecia exiguata,
Exapate selatella, Gelechia Montfetella, the Homoptera, Lecanium pcr-
sicc?, Rhopalisiphura berberidis, the flies, Rhagoletis ccrasi, Spilographa


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