A. R. (Arthur Reginald) Horwood.

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or oblong to lance-shaped, stalked, and vary considerably in form, in
the acuteness of the leaf, and in the length of the stalk. They are
downy below when young, later hairless, and are toothed.

The flowers are white, J f in. across, shortly -stalked, the stalks
solitary or in pairs, hairless. The petals are inversely egg-shaped to
oblong, and vary in breadth. The fruit is a drupe, the flesh adhering
to the stone, round. When the carpel becomes the fruit the layers are
three, the skin or epicarp, the flesh or mesocarp, and the inner stony
endocarp, the three forming the pericarp, the seed being the kernel
within the stone. There are two ovules, one often being unde-


The plant is often 15 ft. high, and grows in clumps, several being
associated together forming bush-land. It is one of the earliest wild
flowers in March and April. The Sloe is a deciduous shrub, propa-
gated by seeds.

The flowers are conspicuous, and contain abundant honey, and
owing to their appearance before the leaves and the early flowering are
much visited by insects. The stigma matures before the anthers.
In the first stage the style is considerably above the stamens. The

BLACKTHORN (Pntnus spinosa, L.)

anthers have not yet opened, and are bent down towards the centre
The stigma is already receptive, and projects. It is therefore first
touched by an insect visitor, the petals becoming more or less hori-
zontal. The stamens become erect, and bend outwards. The outer
anthers open first. The style lengthens and overtops the short
stamens, which stand near the centre. As the stigma is at this stage
still receptive, self-pollination may thus occur by the agency of insect
visitors. In their absence self-pollination may occur as the flowers
turn to the sun, from the inflection of the stamens toward the centre
above the stigma, causing pollen to fall on the latter.

The flower is visited by Hymenoptera (Apidse), Diptera (Empidae.


Syrphidae, Muscidae, Bibionidae), Coleoptera (Nitidulidae), Lepidoptera
( Vanessa}.

The fruit is edible, and the seed is dispersed by animals.

The Sloe is at home on sand soil, and is a sand plant, but is also
a lime plant, loving limestone, and a humus-loving plant requiring
humus soil. A fungus, Puccinia pruni, causes early fall of the

Eriophyes similis is a gall that attacks it. Many larger fungi grow
on it: Stereum, Podosphcera, Eutypella, Polystigma, Ploivrightia, Poly-
porus, Hypocmis, Entomospo-
riiun, Corynum, Cladosporium.
It is also galled by Cecidomyia
pruni and Biorhiza tenninalis ;
and the beetles Otiorhynchus
picipes, Monochetus sulcatiis,
Magdalinus pruni, Rhynchites
auratus, the Hymenopterous
insects Andrena bucephala,
Eriocampa adumbrata, Lepi-
doptera Black Hairstreak
( Thecla pruni), Scarlet Tiger
(Callimorpha dominula), Yel-
low Tail Moth (Liparis auri-
flua), Grey Dagger (Acrony-
ata psi), White -letter Hair-
streak ( Thecla W. album ),
Brown Hairstreak (T. betulcz},
Short -cloaked Moth (No la
cucullateUa)) &c., and the
Homopterous Capsus capil-
laris, the Homoptera Psylla pruni, Trichopsylla Walkeri feed on it.

Primus, Pliny, is Latin for plum-tree, and the second Latin name
refers to the spinose character.

The names it goes by are: Blackberry, Blackthorn, Blackthorn-
May, Buckthorn, Bullens, Bullies, Bullins, Bullister, Cat's-sloes, Egg-
peg Bushes, Hedge Picks, Hedge Speaks, Heg Peg Bushes, Hep,
Winter Kecksies, May Blackthorn, Quick Scrog, Skig Slaathorn,
Slacen-bush, Slan, Slaunbush, Slea, Sloey, Slon, Slone Bloom, Sloo-
bush, Slines, Snag, Snagbush, Winter Picks.

Quick or Quicks are young black or white thorn for planting in
a hedge. The name Sloe for the fruit is extended to the plant itself,

BLACKTHORN (Prunus spinosa, L.)


and sloes are recommended for fences. Blackthorn distinguishes it
from Whitethorn or May.

Blackthorn Chats are the young shoots when they have been cut

The " Lay of Runzifal " makes a Blackthorn shoot out of the bodies
of slain heathens, a white flower by the heads of fallen Christians. It
was held antagonistic to witchcraft. In Surrey it is always cold when
the Blackthorn comes in flower.

" When the Sloe tree is as white as a sheet,
Grow your barley whether it be dry or not."

It is the origin of the Bullace and the Plum. In a wild state it has
spines. The fruit is very astringent. A conserve is made from it, and
port wine has been made from it as well as sloe gin. It has been used
for marking ink. Lye or tea used to be made from the leaves. It has
been substituted for cinchona bark for ague and fever. As a wood it
is used for the teeth of rakes.


91. Primus spinosa, L. Shrubby, stems woody, branched, twigs
zigzag, spinose, black, leaves elliptical, narrow, downy below, after the
flowers; flowers white, 1-2, peduncle glabrous, fruit globose.

Bramble (Rubus fruticosus (= rusticanus, Merc.))

This plant is known in Preglacial, Interglacial, Neolithic, and
Roman beds (at Silchester, for instance). It is a member of the
North Temperate Zone, found in Central and South Europe. Out of
1 1 2 vice-counties it is found in 74 in Great Britain, but it is not so
common in Scotland.

The Common Bramble is not only a prevalent hedgerow plant, but
it is often one of the chief mainstays of common undergrowth, and
forms wide patches on heaths and moors, being indiscriminately
common to both highland and lowland districts. It forms some part
also of the undergrowth in woods and plantations, but is not a shade-
lover like certain other brambles, of which altogether some hundred
species are now known, ranking as sub-species.

Brambles are plants which have a peculiar habit like Roses in
general, unlike any other plants in this respect. The stems are
numerous, ascending at first, or erect, growing out from a single root,
and rooting again when they have arched over and commenced to
descend afresh. They thus present a regular entanglement, which it is


U pper pafttofflou'eringpan

.y fallen, and. stigma al the 1

icle,,^vitl( recurv^i jKl

L\ Fknvermg branch, v\
curved prickle? on stem
ginnate leavefe, with fl

and pinnate sepals,

stipulws, flower-stacks,, with 5

iict:i!.s and 5 sepals alterna'-
:-tarnen-. v.itl-
e flo J*r-stalk.

No. 5. Hawthorn




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i. Hramble (tiitbus ntstit -anus, Merc.). 2. Barren Strawberry (Potentilla sterilis, (iarckc). 3. DOJJ Rose (AVwi
caniua, L.). 4. Crab Apple (/>;v/.v Mains, L.). 5. Hawthorn (Crata-giis O.\ya,-n//ia, I..). 6. Hivony (/irypnia

dioi.a, Jua).).



difficult to penetrate, like numerous croquet hoops (but larger) set here
and there, crossing each other in all directions. Those who have tried
to find a grasshopper warbler's nest know what I mean.

This Blackberry has the shrub habit. The stem is prickly, arching,
prostrate. It may be hairless, bluish-green, or have prickles, bristles,
and gland-tipped hairs. There are no suckers, the stem is round or
angular. The barren stems are more or less erect, or arch and root
from a point near the extremity, giving rise to fresh plants. The

BRAMBLE (Rubus fruticosus (= rusticanus, Merc.))

Photo. R L J. Horn

down is closely appressed. The prickles are equal, and are bent
downwards, with an enlarged, flattened base. The leaves are ternate
or quinate, with 3 or 5 leaflets. They are hairless, with fine hard felt
below, with the margins bent downwards. The leaflets are leathery,
convex, rough, stalked, overlapping or not, inversely egg-shaped,
rhomboid, coarsely irregularly toothed, dark-green above, paler below
(hence discolor]. The terminal leaflet is inversely egg-shaped, blunt-

The flowers are pink or white, in terminal racemes, with corymb-
like or long lateral branches. The panicle is long, narrow. The
petals are pink. The calyx is finely woolly-felted. The anther-stalks
and styles are purple, the stamens longer than the styles. The



anthers are green. The drupes or stone fruits are black or reddish-
purple, small, numerous, acid. The flower has a concave receptacular
tube which surrounds the base of the pistil. The pistil is made up of
numerous carpels on a conical receptacle. The cluster of drupes is an

The plant is frequently 10 ft. high. It is in flower from July to
September. It is perennial, propagated by layers, the branches arching
over and rooting again; the branch contracts and the tip is drawn into
the earth, whilst the original branch dies very frequently, and the new
plant takes its place.

The flowers are large and conspicuous, expanding widely. The
petals when outspread are nearly flat, being large, and many flowers
form a panicle. The anthers and stigma ripen together. The stamens
are numerous, but in spite of this the honey exposed on the disk is
accessible to short-lipped insects, as they spread out. The outer
anthers are the first to open, and they turn their anthers upwards.
.The stigma ripens together with these outer stamens. In spite of this
homogamous condition the flowers are cross-pollinated, as the stamens
are spreading. Insects in visiting the flower may touch either the
anthers at the border or the stigma in the centre. The inner stamens
when they open are erect, and may touch the outer stigmas and cause

The Blackberry is visited by many insects: Hymenoptera, Apis,
Bomb us, !\Iacropis, Andrena, Halictus, Calioxys, Nomada, Diphysis,
Osmia, Stelis, Prosopis, Crabro, Oxybehis, Anemophila, Cerceris,
Sargus, Chrysomyia, Empis, Ascia, Syritta, Hristalis, Hclophi/us,
Chrysotoxum, Vohicella, Rhingia, Physocephala, Tipula, Bytitrus,
DiacanthiuS) Limonius, Trichins, Telephones, Malachius, CEdenicra,
Clytus, Lcptura, Pachyta, Strangalia, Meligethes, Argynnis, Picris
crat(rgi, P. napi, Hesperia, &c.

The fruit is a drupe or drupelet, on a convex receptacle, which is
eaten and dispersed by birds, &c., and so dispersed by animal agency.

Blackberries grow on a variety of soils, but in general are most
addicted to a sandy or stony subsoil, which is derived from the older
rocks of granitic or arenaceous origin.

The fungi which infest the Blackberry and Raspberry are: Spharu-
lina intermixta, Phragmidium rubi-idai, Coniothyrium tiiijia>faciens,
(rlcospormm venetum, Cercospora rubi.

They are galled by Lasioptera rubi, Diastrophus rubi, and other
fungi infesting them are Phragmidium violaceum and Urcdo mulleri.

The beetles Dasytes niger, Anthonomus rubi, Batophila rubi, Meli-


gethes rufipes, Byturus tomentosus, Dascillus cervinus, Dryophilus
anobioideS) Hymenoptera of the genera MutiUa, Trypoxylon, Spilomena,
Pemphredon, Passalcecus, Psen, Crabro, Odynerus, Prosopis, Halictus,
Andrena, Ceratina, Coelioxys, Bombus, and Emphytus, the Lepidoptera
Green Hairstreak (Thecla rubi\ Fox Moth (Lasiocampa rubi), Peach
Blossom (Thyatira batis), Nepticula fulvella, and many others, the
Homoptera Lecanium caprece, Pediopsis tibialis, Typhlocyba tenerrima,
the Heteroptera Palomenes prasina, Lopus gothicus, L. sulcatus,
Dicyphus constrictus, and Lasioptera rubi visit it for food in one form
or another.

Rubus, Pliny, was the Latin name for bramble, and the specific
Latin name, rusticamis, denotes its wild nature.

The Bramble is called Brimmle, Broomles, Brumble, Brumbleberries,
Brumbley-berry Bush, Brummel, Brummelkites, Brymble, Bullbeef,
Bumbleberries, Bumblekites, Bumly Kites, Bummell, Cock-bramble,
Cock-brumble, Country Lawyers, Ewe Bramble, Gaitberry, Gaiter-
tree, Garten Berries, Hawk's Bill Bramble, Lady's Garters, Land
Briars, Lawyers, Mooches, Mulberry, Mulberry Bramble, Scaldberry,
Thet-thorne, Thevethorn, Thilf.

In regard to the name Blackberry a writer says: " The fine weather
which is generally experienced at the latter end of September and the
beginning of October, when the blackberries ripen, is called in Hants
Blackberry summer." " Blake-berries that on breres growen " (William
of Palerne).

As to Garten Berries, to gartane is to bind with a garter, and the
name may mean the berries of the binding shrub, Blackberry twigs
naturally binding other shrubs together, and being, indeed, sometimes
expressly used for that purpose. This suggestion is borne out by the
Roxburghshire name, Lady's Garters. They are called Lawyers
because " When once they gets a holt an ye, ye doant easy get shut
of 'em ". The name Scaldberry was given because of their property
of giving scalds or sore heads to children, and to scare children from
eating them they were thus called. The name Brumble Kites is from
the "rumbling and bumbling caused in the bellies of children who eat
its fruit too greedily ".

But bumble is a contraction of bramble and brumble. In the
Forest of Dean to " mooche blackberries ", or simply to " mooch ",
means to pick them. The devil was supposed to put his cloven foot
on them on Michaelmas Day, 1 after which it was unlucky to eat them.

'The leaves then show a serpentine marking due to a larva which lines them. Hence perhaps the


It is said that a farmer's wife, near Arundel, used to make a quantity
of blackberry jam, and not having the usual amount brought she asked
a woman to let her children gather some more, to which the reply was,
" Ma'am, don't you know this is the i ith October?" "Yes," she said.
" Bless me, ma'am, and you ask me to let my children go out black-
berrying? Why, I thought everyone knew that the devil went round
on the loth October and spat on all the blackberries, and that if
any person were to eat on the iith he or someone belonging to him
would either die or fall into great trouble before the year was out,"
was the further reply. The devil is said to throw his cloak over
blackberries and make them unwholesome, and in Ireland to stamp
on them.

The fruit was said to drive away serpents. To dream of passing-
through places covered with brambles foretells misfortune, and if you
are pricked secret enemies will injure you in your friends' eyes, and if
blood is drawn you lose money, while if you are unhurt you will
triumph. An early harvest is predicted if brambles bloom early. Its
mode of growth made it a type for lowliness, and an emblem of remorse
from the fierceness with which a passer-by is grasped. The Black-
berry is one of the plants thought to have made up the crown of

Bramble leaves are used for scalds in Cornwall, 9 leaves being
dipped in spring water, and this charm repeated three times:

"There came three angels out of the East,
One brought fire, and two brought frost;
Out fire and in frost
In the Name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost".

In the same country warts were cured by the first blackberries of
the season.

It was said to arise thus: "The cormorant was once a wool mer-
chant. He entered into partnership with the bramble and bat, and
freighted a large ship with wool. She was wrecked, and the firm
became bankrupt. Since that disaster the bat skulks about all mid-
night to avoid his creditors, the cormorant is for ever diving into the
deep to discover its foundered vessel, while the bramble seizes hold of
every passing sheep to make up his loss by stealing the wool."

The fruit is largely utilized for making jams, tarts, pies, and even
wine, and is quite a regular autumn industry in the country districts.
The stems are also used in thatching for binding the roof together, and
making straw articles and mats.



95. Riibus fruticosiis ( = nisticamis, Merc.). Stem prostrate, arched,
angular, prickly, with stellate hairs, leaves quinate, downy, white below,
flowers pink, calyx downy, in terminal panicle, fruit a drupe, small, tart.

Barren Strawberry (Potentilla sterilis, Garcke)

The present distribution in the North Temperate Zone of Europe
and N. Africa is all we know of this plant. In England and Wales it
is generally distributed, but it does not occur in South Lines, Mid

Photo. Flatters & Garnett

BARREN STRAWBERRY (Potentilla sterilis, Garcke)

Lanes, Roxburgh, Mid and N. Ebudes, E. Sutherland, Caithness,
Orkney, Shetland. It is found at a height of 2100 ft. in Wales. It
is common to Ireland and the Channel Islands.

The Barren Strawberry is more fond of the open than the Wild
Strawberry. It is a common roadside flower growing amongst the
sward at the side of the macadam. It is also to be found in woods,
where it forms wide patches. Banks are again a favourite habitat of
this pretty wild flower. By the wayside its white flowers contrast with
the yellow blooms of the Silverweed, which, however, flowers later as a
general rule.

This little gem of a flower is, as its former second Latin name,
fragariastrum, implies, like the strawberry in habit, that is to say,


dwarf, trailing, or prostrate, rising at the tip, with numerous brownish
thick stems, which bear many inversely egg-shaped leaflets, in threes,
coarsely-toothed, and softly downy on the sides. From the Wild
Strawberry this plant differs in having no erect flower-stalks, and it
has generally smaller flowers, with distant (not overlapping) petals,
which are not notched as in the latter.

The calyx is as long as the corolla, and the achenes are hairy on
the scar, and wrinkled transversely. The receptacle is not, as in the
Wild Strawberry, fleshy.

The Barren Strawberry is not more than 6 in. in height. It is in
flower in March up to May. It is perennial, and reproduced by achenes,
which are numerous.

It is an early-flowering plant, with many flowers, which are white
but inconspicuous. It is consequently not much visited by insects,
and is probably in the majority of cases self- pollinated. The honey
is secreted as a thin layer, and not in drops as in Fragaria, with which
otherwise it largely agrees. The anthers and stigma are ripe at the
same time.

The fruit consists of a group of achenes, which are dispersed when
dry by falling away from the disk, and partly by the wind.

Barren Strawberry is a sand-loving plant, and addicted to a sand
soil, flourishing also on barren stony ground, derived from granite
or older harder siliceous rock soils.

Two fungi are liable to be found on the Barren Strawberry, Septoria
fragarice and Phragmidium fragariastri.

A beetle, Galeruca tenella, frequents it, and a moth, Nepticula
arc uat a.

Potentilla, Brunfels, is from the Latin potens, powerful, in allusion
to its powerful astringent nature, and the second Latin name refers
to its barren nature.

This plant is called Barren Strawberry, Strawberry Plant. It was
assigned to St. Hilary.


98. Potentilla sterilis, Garcke. Stem prostrate, leaves obovate,
ternate, serrate, silky, flowers white, petals as long as sepals, notched,

Dog Rose (Rosa canina, L.)

The forms found in early deposits do not approach R. canina, but a
species with nearly round fruits. The present distribution is Europe,
N. Africa, Siberia, or part of the North Temperate Zone. The


Common Dog Rose is found in every part of Great Britain, N. to
the Orkneys, and ascends to 1350 ft. in Yorkshire. It is native in
Ireland and the Channel Islands.

The Dog Rose is one of those flowers that help to call up memories
of pleasant rambles along the highway, and is one of the greatest
ornaments of our wayside hedges, in fields removed from the roads,
and in isolated bushes, as well as on commons and heaths.

It forms a certain proportion of the undergrowth in brakes and
thickets or woods.

A prickly climbing shrub, the Dog Rose is a tall, arching bush,
with a green or purple stem, armed with strong, equal, curved -back
prickles, which serve as a protection and for climbing, smooth, shiny,
with simply or doubly coarsely-toothed, rigid leaflets, the leaves being
arranged each side of a stalk, egg-shaped, coarsely-toothed, the upper
surface shining, the lower mostly smooth or hairy.

The Dog Rose has the shrub habit. It is a large bush, with long,
spreading, arching branches. The prickles are scattered, uniform,
stout, broad, equal -hooked, the base thickened. The leaves are
pinnate. The leaflets are hairless, simply -toothed, the secondary
nerves not glandular, acute, flat, or keeled.

The leaf-buds consist of scales with 3 projections at the tip, which
are the leaf bases, and the stipules and upper part of the leaf are the
3 projecting points. The outer scale is the shortest.

Everyone welcomes the appearance of the first Dog Rose in flower
in summer. The flower varies from white to pink. In this it is a
whitish-pink. The sepals are unequal, owing perhaps to the arrange-
ment of the leaves in the bud. The edges of two are covered, two are
not, and in the fifth, one side is and the other not covered, and the
uncovered edges are bearded.

The sepals are naked, bent back, pinnate, falling, 5, free, on the
rim of an egg-shaped receptacular tube. The disk is flat, the mouth
conspicuous. The flower-stalks are usually naked. The styles are
distinctly hairy, free, or nearly free. The fruit is egg-shaped to
pitcher-shaped, roundish, the numerous achenes being included in the
scarlet hip or receptacular tube which serves in the place of a pericarp.

There are numerous i -seeded carpels, which are clothed in long
hairs, sunk in the receptacle, which is globular, open at the apex.

The Dog Rose attains a height of 8-10 ft. It begins to flower in
June and continues in July. It is a perennial, deciduous shrub.

The flowers are conspicuous, wide open, and scented, and there is
abundant pollen, but no honey. The flowers are homogamous, the


anthers and stigma ripening together. The stigma serves as an
alighting place for insects which bear pollen from other flowers.
When they do not visit the flower, and in wet weather, the flowers
are self-pollinated.

There is a fleshy ring surrounding the styles on the upper margin
of the calyx tube, within the point where the stamens are inserted, so
that the stigmas only are visible. The numerous stamens with yellow

DOG ROSE (ffosa canina, L.)

Photo. J. Holmes

anthers add to the attractiveness of the flower. The stamens first
bend outwards, while the petals are erect, the ring and stigmas serving
as the only alighting place for insects, and pollen is deposited on the
stigma, so that the flower is cross-pollinated. The oblique position of
the flowers turned to the sun makes self-pollination possible in wet
weather, and when insects do not visit the flower.

The Dog Rose is visited by Heleophilm, Syritta, Mcligethes,
Antkrenus, Anthocomus, Cetonia, Phyllopertha, Mordella, Rkagium,
Strangalia, Luperus.


The fruit is edible, and the seeds are dispersed by animals and
birds, &c., and do not fall.

The Dog Rose is more or less a humus -loving plant, growing in
humus soil, but is also largely a sand plant, requiring a sandy loam.

The fungi which affect roses are Peronospora rosa, Sphtzrulina
intermixta, Sclerotinia fructigena, Phragmidium subcorticatum, Conio-
thyrium fuckelii, Asteroma roses. The large mossy galls common on
this plant, and popularly known as the Robin's Pincushions, are formed
by Rhodites roscz.

The plant is galled by Cecidomyia rosarum, Rhodites eglanterice,
R. nervos^ts, and Aulacaspis roses. The beetles, Clytus arietis, Lucon
murinus, Meligethes lumbaris\ the Hymenoptera, Hylotoma rosce,
Pemphilius stramineipes, Aulax broadlii, Crabro tibialis, Andrena
bimaculatus, A. rosce; the Lepidoptera, Buff- tip (Pygara bucephald],
Grey Dagger (A crony eta psi), The Streamer (Cidaria derivata], Nep-
ticula angustifasciella, Spilonota rosce-collana, &c. ; the Heteropterous
insect Capsus capillaris, the Homopteron Typhlocyba rosce, and the fly
Spilographa alternata, feed on it.

Rosa, Pliny, is Latin for rose, and the second Latin name is an
adjective from canis, dog. The rose was so named because the root
was supposed to cure the bite of a dog.

It is called Bird Brier, Brear, Briar, Briar Rose, Briar Tree, Hep
Brier, Brier Bush, Brimmle, Buck Breer, Buckie- berries, Buckie

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