A. R. (Arthur Reginald) Horwood.

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wall, but occurs throughout the Channel, Thames, Anglia, and Severn
provinces. In Wales it is found only in Glamorgan, Brecon, Denbigh,
and Flint. It is common in the whole of the Trent province, but
in the Mersey province is absent from Mid Lanes, but occurs through-



out the H umber and Tyne provinces, in Cumberland, and Ayr in
Scotland. It is thus rare in the north, and absent from Ireland.

The common Bryony is a typical hedgerow species climbing over
Hawthorn and other plants. It is associated with Brambles of different
kinds, Greater Stitchwort, Violet Tufted Vetch, Sloe, Dog Rose, Cow
Parsnip, Elder, Teasel, Great Hedge Bindweed, and other plants.
A climbing plant, Bryony is remarkable for its long, coiled tendrils
and its large mandrake-like roots. The English and Greek names

BRYONY (Bryonia dioica, Jacq.)

refer to its quick growth, a feature that one may readily observe for
oneself in spring, although it should not be restricted to this plant.

The stems are long, furrowed, dividing into one or more branches,
long lobes divided to the base, heart-shaped, with 5-lobed leaves, with
the teeth bordered with dots, rough, and pale-green.

The plants are dioecious (with flowers on different plants), the
male ones in corymbose cymes, the female, which have an ovary
below, being in umbels, and the calyx is only half as long as the
corolla. The flowers are large with green veins. When ripe the fruit
is rounded and red. The Bryony is found 8-10 ft. long. It flowers
in May up to September. It is perennial, reproduced by division.

In this flower the male flowers are a palish-yellow, and half an


inch across, and in small clusters, the female being half the size or
much smaller, and it is a dioecious plant.

Both male and female flowers contain honey, which is concealed.
The lower part of the calyx is adherent to the corolla or hemispherical
cup -shaped disk, which secretes the honey. In the male flowers
5 stamens arise on the edge of the expanded cup and incline towards
the centre, and cover over the cup. Four of the anthers unite
to form 2 pairs, and the fifth is free on both sides. The honey-
cup has 3 narrow lateral entrances, each placed between 2 stamens
fringed with long hairs, with a central entrance also above in the
middle of the upper end of the stamens. The anthers form narrow
ridges on the broad stamens, and the long narrow slits by which they
open are bent, so that the greater part of each faces one of the lateral
openings, while the upper one faces upwards. A honey-seeker, alight-
ing in the centre, may thrust its proboscis amongst the stamens, or
reach the honey by the lateral entrances, and in the former case would
be dusted on the lower surface, in the latter on the upper surface.

The pollen is sticky. The stamens touch the head or the ventral
surface of the insect before the stigma does. In female flowers the
pistil rises up in the centre and splits into 3 branches, club-shaped
with papillae. The visitors are Andrena, Halictus, Ccelioxys, Apis,
Gorytes, slmmopliila, Eumenes, Odywerus, Dasytes^ Pieris. Andrena
florca visits White Bryony only.

The berry contains numerous flat but swollen seeds, which are
dispersed by birds.

This is a humus-loving plant, living in a humus soil.

The beetle Lygria hirta, the Hymenoptera Andrena florea,
A. denticulata, A. dorsata, the moths Phytheochroa rugosana, Catoptria
fulvana, a fly Gongylomena iviedermani, feed upon it.

Bryonia, Dioscorides, is the Greek name of the plant, and the
second Latin name alludes to its dioecious nature.

Bryony is called Bryon, Red or White Bryony, Cowbind, Cow's
Lick, Cucurd, Elphamy, Fellon-berry, Grapewort, Hedge Grape,
Wild Hep, Poison Berry, Snake Berry, Tetter Berry, White, Wild,
Wood Vine. It was called Tetter Berry, and it was believed the berries
" are good against all fretting and running cankers, gangraenes and
tetters, and therefore the berries are usually called of the country
people Tetter Berries ", according to old Parkinson.

1 It has teen suggested that the small flowers, which are inconspicuous but highly attractive, have
a peculiar cxlour perceived by them, or possess an attraction not visible to man, that they emit ultra-
violet rays. They act energetically on photographic plates.


Shelley used the name Cowbind

" And in the warm hedge grew lush eglantine,
Green cowbind and the moonlight-coloured May ".

The name Cow's Lick is due to small quantities of it having been
given to horses in their corn to make their coats glossy, and for horned
cattle. Coles says of the name Mandrake, " The root sometimes
groweth to the highnesse of a childe of a yeere old, so that it hath
been by some cut into the form of a man and called a mandrake,
being set again into the earth".

Lupton describes how men made the counterfeit mandrake.
Gerarde also exposes this common fraud. Coles also says they
"make thereof an ugly image by which they represent the person on
whom they intend to exercise their witchcraft". It was called Devil's
Cherry. It was trained to grow into shapes and used as charms.
In Chaucer's day it was used to cure leprosy. Its juice was used
in Dwale. The root sold for Mandragora is poisonous and acrid.
It is powerfully cathartic. The red berries used for dyeing are


121. Bryonia dioica, Jacq. Stem climbing, angled, tendrils simple,
leaves palmate, 5-lobed, rough, plants dioecious, white with evergreen
veins, staminate, in a corymb, pistillate in umbels, berries scarlet,

Hemlock (Conium maculatum, L.)

Hemlock, in spite of its poisonous nature, is widely distributed,
being found (to-day) throughout the North Temperate Zone, in
Europe, N. Africa, Siberia, and it has been introduced in N. America.
It is general in Great Britain, but is not found in Cardigan, S.E. Yorks,
Main Argyle, Mid and N. Ebudes, W. Ross, E. Ross, Shetlands. In
Yorks it ascends to nearly 1000 ft.

It is a moisture-loving plant, usually growing by the sides of streams
and rivers, or away from such spots along the roadside, occasionally out-
side outhouses, and very rarely on the borders of cornfields. Its present
distribution may be partly artificial owing to its poisonous properties,
its ill effects leading in some instances to extermination. Cattle generally
avoid it. As is well known poisonous plants have usually some warning
signals which enable animals to avoid them, and in this case the fcetid
smell is accompanied by a purple spotting of the stem (at once a sus-
picious novelty), which is further covered with a blue powder.


The Hemlock is very tall, graceful, erect, bearing numerous
branches. The stem is smooth, bluish-white, shiny, hollow, and finely
furrowed. The leaves at the base are large, triangular, shining, very
much divided, the oblong leaflets having sharp coarse teeth. When
crushed, the leaves smell like mice.

The umbels of the flowerhead are terminal, those of the partial
involucres or whorls of leaflike organs on one side only lance-shaped.
The flowers are small, numerous (several hundreds in one umbel), and

so conspicuous. They are
white, and the first ones to
open are male flowers.
There are no calyx teeth.

The petals have a turned-
in point serving to protect
the honey, and are blunt,
heart-shaped, and unequal.
The umbels are axillary. The
flowers are sweet-scented.

The Hemlock grows to
a height of 5-10 ft. The
flowers open in June and
July. It is perennial, and
reproduced by seeds. In
winter the roots contract, and
the plant is drawn down into
the earth.

The flowers mature
slowly and gradually, and at
first are entirely male, and
later entirely female. When

the flower opens, the anthers open, and are covered with pollen one by
one before the styles appear. Each anther is at a distance of two-fifths
the circumference from the preceding one. The anthers elongate and
stand above the stigma. In the middle of the male period the older
anthers wither and turn outwards, while the rest are opening and take
their place, and are covered with pollen. The styles are still short and
bent in with the stigmas unripe. After all the anthers have fallen off, the
styles become erect, and stigmatic knobs form at the end of the styles.

The flowers are visited by Sargns, Calliphora, Lncilia, Scatophaga,
Meligethcs, Trichius, Nematus, Ichneumonids, Pompilus, Andrena.
The fruits are flattened or winged to aid in their dispersal by the

Photo. \V. E. Mayes

HEMLOCK (Conium maculatmit, L.)


No. I. Hemlock

(Conium nurculatum, L,)
Floret, with bracts, 5

No. 2. Cow-parsnip
( Heracleum Sfi/wndylium,'L.)

,-z, Flower (enlarged), with

petals, 5 stamens, and pistil 5 petals, 5 stamens, pistil

with 2 styles. ; , Schizccarp with 2 styles. *, Sdnzocarp

from lateral aspeejt^showing ^..-^wjth furrows, and viitj: be-


Section of men-
E&iifeffibs, and com-
pressed side^ with constricted
commissure. </, Flowering
oranch, with compound del
urn! pinnate leaf and sheath-
ing petiole, spotted stem, axil-
lary and terminal compound,
many - rayed umbd, itJi
numerous small bracts and

2 styles.

i verse section of meri-
:-j.- p,v, ^iiii ribs and 2 flat mem-
branous wings, d, Flowering
bianch, with compound pin-
n^t* leaf, "i>d broad inflated
sheath of petiole, infolded
bels, and one compound

No. 3. Hedge Parsley
(Caucalis Anthriscus^ Huds.)
<?, Floret, as in Nos:./'and
2. l>, Schirocarp. witb-s'pines,
and 2 styles, i. Flowering
stem with pinnate leaf, Md
sheathing petiole, tilso ^ corn-
pound umbels, onq
one terminal.

v s~k \?^JC$\


No. fc v JMoschatel

(Cornus sanguinsa, L.) \ \f (Ado.ra mf-schaiellina, TQftffi
a, Vertical section of flower, a, Lateral, flower

with 3 (out ol 4) epigynous in fives. #, Head of fruits stamens. <S PistU with petals

T \+ t^*t i' /A^'V 4i\?rx: r / >r -v ^ ^/ r / - i_ , - T^\-^ CAV *"7->r\T f ZK

with 3 (out crt 4) epigynous in fives. #, Head of fruits stamens. , Pistil with petals
stamens, petals, g-ce^^pT-^T^), showing 4-cell^d /l ,4nip^si v y . and stamens 'remored, show-
wary, ovules (one in each 'urith persistent calyx -litnbs. ing calyx segments. /".Fruits
cell), and single ' style. ^, 'A ^( U'istii, /-jvith petals and (drupes). </ I'1ow^v:r,<; >u-n:

Berries, from part of a syrn^i^ r.iamens removed, showing with, pinnate

c, Flowering stem with ovau divided styjies, d, Plant witli /\T>,vurobeliate $-ray

leaves, and terminal dichoto- :-caly Inids/and soboles, radi- v

mous cyme, showing flowers caMevnate ieaf, involucre of

ernate biacts, and flowers

" vjut-.te.r.

wuh 4 petals and 4 stm

lr4V ^ "


(Sambncus nr^ra, L.).


ibolnwH .1
(..1 .wtftnU -

w ,trMttK t'&srtuj

v c bne

2', Mar.,-.

1 <. r , |hiq bne;^3jn^e ? ,*I
.v> qxcoosid c

mv/orii; jiasqec IsiotsI moil


\ V




uwofie ,


'***' $* i; !?

' ^nrworla .bavornw 2itti&MF^ UMmfMH .

- JIW JfUBi4,\.

ibfii ,8lodtw bni,




I. Hemlock (Coiiiiim inaatlatuni, L.). 2. Cow-parsnip (Heradeiim Spliondylhim, L.). 3- Hedge Parsley (Caitcalis
Anthrisfiis, Huds.). 4. Dogwood (Cornits sanguined, L.)- 5 Mosclintd {Aiioxa Mosfhatfllina, U). 6. Kldi-r

(Sambitfits nigra, L.).


wind, and are when ripe but slightly attached, so that a gust of wind
blows them away, or they are dispersed by a jerk from passing animals.

Hemlock is a sand-loving plant, growing in sand soil, or the allu-
vium with some humus of a stream or river.

It is attacked by two microscopic fungi, Puccinia bullata and
Plasmopora nivea.

The moths the Sword-grass (Calocampa exoleta\ Depressaria
alstrcemeriana feed on Hemlock.

Conium, Theophrastus, is from the Greek for hemlock. The second
Latin name indicates the spotted stem. It is called Bad Man's Oat-
meal, Herb Bennet, Bunk, Cambuck, Caxes, Heck-how, Hemlock,
Humlock, Humly, Heck, Kex, Kelk, Kous, Keish, Kewse, St. Bennet's
Herb, Wode Whistle. Cambuck is a name for the dry stalks.

" Some horses were of the brume cow frainit,

And some of the green bay tree,
But mine was made of a hemlock schaw,
And a stout stallion was he."

Shakespeare speaks of the root of the Hemlock, " digged i' the
dark", in connection with witches and witchcraft. In the Masque oj
Queens Ben Jonson speaks of it as a baleful draught.

It is poisonous, and was lately included in the British Pharma-
copoeia. Sheep are said to eat it, but cattle refuse it; when in the
dry seasons they are driven to taste it they exhibit symptoms of mad-
ness. According to an old botanical writer, Ray, who did much to
establish botany as a science in this country, the thrush feeds on the

Its action is like that of an opiate and narcotic, used for deadening
pain and assisting suppuration. It was regarded as beneficial in cases
of scrofula and cancer. A bitter, acrid juice is derived from the stem,
and it is harsh to the taste.

It has the effect of causing giddiness, nausea, headache in some,
though it has the opposite effect on others, just as tobacco has. Or, as
Lucretius says:

" Pinguescere s<zpe Cicuta
Barbigeros pecudes Jiomim quce est acre venenum "

" what is one man's meat is another man's poison ", in other words.


124. Conium maculatum, L. Stem tall, erect, branched, spotted,
smooth, hollow, leaves large, smooth, pinnate, flowers white, in uni-
lateral partial involucre, with bracts below, carpels ribbed.


Cow-parsnip (Heracleum Sphondylium, L.)

With its characteristic and conspicuous seeds it is not surprising
that the Cow Parsnip has been found in Interglacial beds at Pakefield,
Suffolk, and in Late Glacial beds at Twickenham, Middlesex; limited
to the North Temperate Zone, it is found in Europe, North Africa,
and N. Asia. Hogweed (another name for this plant) is very common,
and found in every part of Great Britain, in the Highlands ascending
to 2700 ft.

Hogweed is one of those common wayside plants that help to
enable one to picture the flora of a roadside ditch, for there is probably
not a road in the kingdom where there are boundary hedges where
this very ubiquitous species does not grow. It is fond of securing for
itself the ample shelter and space of a shelving ditch where it receives
moisture and good light, and where rich loam affords a suitable subsoil
for it. So tall and handsome a plant cannot escape notice by the way-
side. The stem is tall, hollow, furrowed, and hairy.

The second Greek name, meaning vertebra, refers to its jointed
character. The leaves are large, triangular, with lobes on either side
of a common stalk, very much divided, usually into 5 segments, oblong,
with acute teeth. They are broadly sheathed at the base, and in the
bud the sheaths form a conical cap over the young plant.

Not the least conspicuous part of this wild flower is the wide umbel
of the flower. The umbel contains general and partial involucres or
whorls of leaflike organs with many rays. It is generally flat, and
the flowers are large, white, or pink, with notched petals, with bent-in
points, and the outer florets are in a ray. The fruit is nearly round,
with a short style, and with a notch.

Hogweed is sometimes 10 ft. high, but more usually 4 to 6. It
blooms in May and June. It is a deciduous, herbaceous plant, propa-
gated by division.

The flowers are often polygamous, and the outer ones are rayed,
the whole umbel large and conspicuous. In some cases there are only
hermaphrodite flowers, elsewhere the partial umbels have male flowers
only at the ray, the other umbels being male throughout, or perhaps
female. The plant has a strong, but not altogether pleasant smell.
The petals are bent inwards. The styles are short. It is visited by
numerous insects, so that cross-pollination is the usual thing. The
visitors are numerous, Diptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, and Hemip-
terous insects, as many as 1 18 having been observed.



HOGWEED (Hernrlenm Sphondylium, L.)

Photo. Stanley Creole

The fruits split apart when ripe, and they are winged, and thus
aided in dispersal by the wind, and, being semi-cletached when ripe,
they are easily blown away.

Hogweed grows in different types of soil, being a sand-loving plant,
growing in a sandy soil, or a humus-loving plant, and growing in humus
in woods, and in sandy loam.

Two microscopic fungi infest Hogweed, Puccinia jrimpinellte and
Protomyces macrosporus.


The plant is galled besides by Cecidomyia corrugans and C. heraclei.
It is a food-plant or resort for the beetles Agapanthina lineato-collis,
Bruchus pcctinicornis, Plucdon tnmidulus, the Lepidoptera Dasypolia
templi, Enpithccia tripunctaria, Eucelis aurora, Depressaria depressella,
D. hcraclcana, and the fly Acidia heraclei.

Heracleum, Pliny, is from the hero Hercules (Greek form, Heracles).
Sphondylium t Dioscorides, is from sphondylos, a vertebra, because of the
jointed stem.

This plant is known by such names as Bear's Breech, Bear-skeiters,
Beggar-weed, Bilders, Billers, Broad Kelk, Bunnel, Bunnets, Bunnun,
Bunwand, Caddell, Cadweed, Camlicks, Clog-weed, Cow-cakes, Cow-
clog-weed, Cow-keeks, Cow-keep, Cow-mumble, Cow-parsnip, Cushia,
Dryland Scout, Ellrot, Ha-ho Keck, Hogweed, Kedlock, Kex, Kejlus,
Kelkkecksy, Kesh, Dry Kesh, Kewsies, Limper-scrimp, Limper-
scrump, Madnep, Meadow Parsnep, Old Rot, Pig's Bubbles, Pig's
Cole, Pig's Parsnip, Pigweed, Piskies, Rabbit Meat, Sweet Biller,
Swine Weed.

In connection with the name Cow Parsnip there is a story: "An
old woman in the parish (St. Fergus) gives her cows a cree full of this
plant in the season for supper, and she says that the milk-pail next
morning bears testimony to its virtues". Other names blended with
"Cow" have reference to its use as fodder for them, &c. In regard
to Hogweed, Coles says "hogs feed upon it with a great deal of

In Kamchatka the dry stalks are collected and stored, and yield
a sugar-like substance, like liquorice, which is eaten. A spirit is also
prepared from the stalks fermented with bilberries in Prussia. In
Poland and Lithuania ale is made from the leaves and seeds. Forty
pounds of the stalk yield i Ib. of sugar. The young shoots are eaten
as asparagus.


131. Heracleum Sphondylium, L. Stem tall, stout, furrowed, hairy,
leaves large, pinnate, rough, leaflets pinnatifid, flowers white, large, at
first pink, in a flat umbel, outer irregular, fruit glabrous.

Hedge Parsley (Caucalis Anthriscus, Huds.)

Found along every hedgerow, this common member of the Um-
belliferai is known from its present distribution (entirely) to be limited
to the North Temperate Zone, where it is found in Europe, North
Africa, West Asia, as far east as N.W. India. It is found in every


part of Great Britain, from Moray and I slay, southward, to the English
Channel. In Yorks it is found at a height of 1350 ft.

Hedge Parsley, as implied by the name, is a plant of the wayside
hedge, where it is so common as to form a regular border beneath
the hawthorn itself. It is also as common in fields, where it plays the
same part, lining each hedgerow or ditch for long distances together.
It is only ousted by such hardy plants as Hogweed, &c., or a struggling
Briar or a Hawthorn bush.

The name Hedge Parsley is often prefixed, in speaking of it, by
the word upright, and it is indeed a tall, erect, rigid plant, quite unlike
Knotted Hedge Parsley, which is trailing, often hiding under the grass.

The stems are branched, hard, and woody, not hollow, finely fur-
rowed, and covered with turned-back hairs, and have a roughish feel.
The stem is purplish toward the base, and the hairs give it a grey
appearance. The leaves are much divided, are bipinnate, with lobes
each side of a common stalk divided again, distant, spreading, with
broad coarsely-toothed leaflets, the terminal one linear -lance -shaped.
The nodes are distant.

At first purple or red, the flowers become white ultimately, like
those of many other Umbellifers, and are contained in moderate
umbels, with nearly equal petals, the general involucre containing
numerous leaves. The fruit is short and prickly, but the prickles
are straight

When not hidden under the hedge and dwarfed, this plant may
reach a height of 4 ft. It is in bloom during July and August. It
is annual, dispersed by seeds.

The flowers are polygamous, white, and the outer rayed, and very
small. The petals are turned inwards at the point. The styles are
short and erect. Occasionally it is andromoncecious, i.e. with herma-
phrodite and male flowers on the same plant, and complete flowers
with anthers ripening first in the centre.

The 5 anthers are hair-like, the filaments project, and the anthers
are double, longer than the 2 stigmas, ultimately turned backwards.
The plant is more likely to be cross-pollinated than self-pollinated.

The visitors are few, as Diptera, Gymnosoma\ Hymenoptera, Ten-
thredo, Ceropales, Odynerus, Prosopis\ Lepidoptera, Pieris rapes.

The fruits are curved inwards, adapted for dispersal by catching
in the fur of passing animals.

This is a sand-loving plant, growing in a sand soil in which there
is some amount of humus soil, or in a sandy loam with a little clay
mixed with the sand.


A beetle Lixus pariplecticus, a Hymenopterous insect Trukichampus
morio, and the Lepidoptera Agrotis festiva, Depressaria Applana,
D. purpurea, Exapate congelatella, feed on it.

HEDGE PARSLEY (Caucalis Anfhriscus, Huds.^

Photo. J. Holmes

Caucalis, Hippocrates, is the Greek name of an umbelliferous plant
like this one, and Anthriscus of another one. It is called Hemlock
or Rough Chervil, Rough Cicely, Hedge Parsley, Hogweed, Lady's
Needlework, Mother Dere. The first name was given because the
stem is spotted like the Hemlock.



133. Caucalis Anthriscus, Huds. Stem tall, slender, rigid, purplish,
rough, leaves hairy, bipinnate, flowers purplish then white, in umbel,
with general involucre of many leaves, fruit hooked with incurved

Dogwood or Cornel (Cornus sanguinea, L.)

A familiar tree or shrub along our waysides, Cornel occurs in
Preglacial, Interglacial, and Neolithic deposits. It is distributed to-
day throughout Europe, Siberia, and Western Asia, in the Temperate
Zone. It is found throughout the Peninsula, Channel, Thames, Anglia
and Severn provinces in this country. In Wales it is found in Gla-
morgan, Brecon, Pembroke, Montgomery, Carnarvon, Denbigh, Flint,
Anglesea, and in the Trent, Mersey, Humber, Tyne, and Lakes
provinces, except in the Isle of Man. It is a native in N. and W.

Cornel or Dogwood is a common hedgerow shrub, taking the place
of Hawthorn in some places, and is associated with Spindle Tree,
Field Maple, Sloe, Crab, Brambles, Dog Rose, Elder, Ash, Spurge,
Laurel, Elm and other hedgerow shrubs and trees. It is also found
in woods, plantations, and copses, being frequently planted there, and
in gardens. No shrub is more characteristic of the hedgerow than
Cornel, with its red stems and deeply-veined egg-shapecl leaves.

The wood is very hard. The plant is bushy, with erect branches,
with acute egg-shaped, opposite leaves, cuspidate, tapered gradually
to a sharp point, nearly heart-shaped below, and stalked.

The flowers are yellowish or creamy-white, and are arranged in
flattened naked cymes, without any leaf-like organs. There is no
involucre. The 4 calyx-teeth are minute, the petals in bud valvate.
The fruit is purple.

Cornel reaches a height of 8 ft. It is flowering usually in June
and July. It is a deciduous shrub, which can be multiplied by means
of layers.

A fleshy ring at the base of the style secretes the honey, which
lies exposed on a flat surface, and is more easily reached by short-
lipped insects, e.g. Diptera, than by bees. The anthers and stigma
develop together and open inwards, and are level with the centre or
stigma at a little distance. An insect that alights on the flowers, and
bends its head down to the fleshy disk, usually touches the stigma
with one side of the head or body and one or two anthers with the
other. In passing from flower to flower it cross-pollinates them,

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