A. R. (Arthur Reginald) Horwood.

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especially as in its movement it touches the anthers and the stigma
with the legs or abdomen only. Small insects can self-pollinate it also
by crawling over the flower. Self-pollination and cross-pollination
may occur without insects, through the stigma accidentally touching
the anthers of another flower. The visitors belong to Tkalycra, Meli-
^ct lies, Byturus, Dolopius, Athoiis, Otiorhynchus, Strangalia, Grani-
moptera, Telephones, Diptera, Empis, Hymenoptera, Pompilus. The
pollen is large, rounded, and 63-75 mm. across.


The black fruit is edible, and the seeds are dispersed by animals
and birds.

It is a humus-loving plant, growing usually in a humus soil, which
it obtains in the mould in woods and hedges.

The fungi Nectria ditissima, Phyllosticta cornicola infest it, and it
is galled by Hormomyia corni, a fly. It is a food plant for Selenia
lunaria, Pcrsonia umbrana, Geleckia knineralis, Antispila Pfeifferclla,
a Homopterous insect Typhlocyba rostc, and the above gall-fly.

Cornus, Pliny, is from the Latin cornus, name (jf a tree of this
kind, and the second Latin name, meaning bloody, refers to the red
colour of the stem.

It is called Bloody Twig, Catterridge Tree, Cat Tree, Cornel
Timber, Dog's Berry-tree, Dog-tree, Dog Wood, Female Cornel-tree,
Gadrise, Gaiter-tree, Gaitre-berries, Gaten-tree, Gatten-tree, Gatter
Bush, Gatteridge, Houndberry Tree, Houndsberry Tree, Hound's


Tree, Prick Timber, Prick Tree, Prick Wood, Skewer Wood, Skiver
Wood, Widbin. Prick Timber, Prickwood, Skewer Wood, are names
given because it is used for skewers. The name Bloody Twig is in
allusion to the colour of its twigs. Of the name Dogwood, Prior says
" not so named from the animal, but from skewe /s being made of it ".

In E. Russia the sap absorbed in a handkerchief fulfils every wish.
Homer says it was given to swine. The wood was used for spear-
shafts and bows. The wood is hard and tough. Cogwheels, skewers,
and ramrods were once made of it. The charcoal from it is the best
for gunpowder. The fruit contains oil, used abroad for soap. Growing
in the shade and drip of trees, it is a valuable shrub for plantations.


135. Cornus sangidnea, L. Tree or shrub, with red bark, branches
straight, leaves ovate, flowers white, in terminal cyme, fruit a globular
black drupe.

Moschatel (Adoxa Moschatellina, L.)

Quite a modern flower, so far as is known, Moschatel is found in
the North Temperate Zone in Europe, N. Asia, Himalayas, and in
east and west North America. In Great Britain it is found in the
Peninsula, Channel, Thames, and Anglia provinces except in Hunts,
and the Severn province. It is found in Glamorgan, Brecon, Car-
marthen, Pembroke, Montgomery, Carnarvon, Denbigh, Flint, and
Anglesea in Wales. It is absent from S. Lines in the Trent province,
occurring in the Mersey, H umber, Tyne, and Lake provinces except
in the Isle of Man. In Scotland it occurs in the Lowlands in the
E. Lowlands generally, in Peebles, Selkirk, Linlithgow, in the E.
Highlands except in Fife, N. Perth; W. Highlands except Mid and
N. Ebudes; and in E. and W. Ross and W. Sutherland. It ascends
to 3300 ft. in the Highlands.

Moschatel is a clay-loving plant, loving the shade of a clay bank
overhung by the bough of a hedgerow bush, or the shelter of a wood-
land slope where it is protected from the cold blasts of the east wind.
Whilst it is a wayside plant its habitat is not so often found there as in
fields and woodland districts.

The root is tuberous, consisting of white shiny soboles on subter-
ranean stems. The radical leaves are in threes, with 3 lobes, long-
stalked. The stem is stalked, erect, with a single flower-stalk which
bears the flowers.

The flowers are terminal, five in a head, the terminal one having
4 petals and 8 stamens, the lateral ones 5 petals and 10 stamens. The

VOL. III. 43


flowers are a delicate cream-colour, with wheel-shaped corolla. The
fruit is succulent, green at first then red. The flower-stalk is turned
back in fruit.

The plant is rarely more than 6 in. high. It flowers in April and
May, and is perennial.

The layer of honey is flat and exposed, so long-tongued insects are
discouraged; the flowers are greenish-yellow like the rest of the plant.
The visitors are chiefly Diptera and Hymenoptera, attracted by the
musky smell. A fleshy ring at the base of the stamens contains the

Photo. Dr. Soi

MOSCHATEL (Adoxa Moschatellina, L.)

honey. The stamens, which mature at the same time, stand at the
same level as the stigma and split into two, and the pollen-covered
surfaces are turned upwards in the terminal and outwards in the
4 lateral flowers, those turned outwards turning inwards afterward.
Insects crawling over the flower touch both anthers and stigma with
their feet and tongues, and may cross-pollinate the plant as in the
Guelder Rose and Elder. The visitors are Diptera, Borborus\
Hymenoptera, Etilophits; Ichneumons, Pezomachus\ Coleoptera, Apion.

The fruits are succulent drupes, green or red, and may be eaten by
birds, but are often deposited around the parent plant by an automatic
geotropic movement of the flower-stalk after flowering, whereby the
fruit is hidden beneath the leaves.

Moschatel is a clay-loving plant, loving a clay soil and some
humus in the shade of the woods or hedgerows.


Puccinia albescens, remarkable for the cluster-cup stage being white
not yellow, and P. adoxce are found upon Moschatel.

Adoxa, Linnaeus, is from the Greek, a, privative, doxa, esteem,
from its inconspicuous character, and the second Latin name refers
to its musk-like perfume. It is called Moschatel, Musk Wood Crow-
foot, the last because its leaves resemble those of a Crowfoot.


136. Adoxa Moschatellina, L. Rhizome fleshy with white soboles,
leaves radical, on long petioles, triternate, stem -leaves sessile, flowers
buff or pink, 4 below, parts in fives, in a whorl, and i above, parts in
fours, fruit deflexed on fruit-stalk, scarlet.

Elder (Sambucus nigra, L.)

Commonly associated with human dwellings and activities, Elder

occurs in deposits of Interglacial, late Glacial, Neolithic, and Roman
age. In the North Temperate Zone it is distributed to-day in Europe
and North Africa. In Great Britain, universal as it is, it is not found
in Cardigan or the Northern Isles. From Fife and Forfar, however,
it extends to the English Channel. In Yorks it grows at 1350 ft. In
Scotland, according to Watson, it is only a denizen.

The Elder is so common a tree by the side of our roads and in
hedgerows that it is difficult to consider it as introduced, in spite of its
undoubted association with houses and human dwellings generally. It
was planted here and there formerly on account of a much prevalent
superstition regarding its value as a herb, &c. It is doubtless also
much planted now in woods and plantations, and its distribution by
birds renders it a very common species in a variety of habitats.

The Elder has the tree or shrub habit. The trunk is as much as
20-30 ft. high sometimes, and the girth 2 ft. at most, but usually it is
about 10 ft. high and 6 in. to i ft. in girth. The bark is rough and
corky, light brownish-grey. The buds are scaly. 1 The branchlets are
angular, and the young shoots are light green with darker corky warts. 2
The leaves are pinnate, compound, in opposite pairs. The leaflets are
in 2-3 or 4 pairs, egg-shaped, lance-shaped, or oblong, rarely rounded,
toothed, with a terminal one. The stipules are small or absent.

The flowers are creamy-white in flat-topped, erect, terminal cymes
on radiating flower-stalks, with 5 main branches. The corolla is white,
wheel-shaped, with rounded lobes. The anther-stalks are slender.

1 With lenticles, or oval areas, with wide air-spaces in place of stomata.
" The scales which protect the buds are leaf-stalks, the first very small.


The berries are small, black (hence nigrd], with a purple interior,
rarely green or white, round. The seeds are flattened at the margin.

The Elder is often as much as 15 ft. high. It flowers in June. It
is a deciduous tree, propagated by cuttings.

The flowers contain no honey, but are strong-scented, and the
pollen is abundant. They are very conspicuous, forming inflorescences
sometimes a foot across. The stigma and anthers mature at the same
time. The stamens are widely spreading, and the anthers open out-
wards. Insects, chiefly flies and beetles, crawling over the flower
touch both anthers and stigma, and so may cause cross- or self-pollina-
tion. The anthers also may shed pollen upon the stigma, and the
flower is probably more usually self-pollinated than cross-pollinated.

The visitors are Sargus, Eristalis arbustorum, E. nemorum, E.
fenax, E. korticola, Volucella pelhicens; Coleoptera, Cetonia aurata,
Trichius fasciatus.

The fruit is edible, and the seeds are dispersed by animals, black-
birds and thrushes being very fond of them. Elder grows on clayey
and sandy soils.

The Jew's Ear Fungus is especially partial to growing on the Elder.
It is often infested by Aphis Sambuci. A beetle, Anthobium sorbi,
Macropteryx albicincta, a Hymenoptera insect, and the Lepidoptera,
the Privet Hawk Moth, Sphinx ligustri, Arctia Caja, Tiger Moth,
Frosted Orange (Gortyna flavago), Swallow-tailed Moth, Uropteryx
sainbucata, Botys sambucalis, Faliaria lacertinaria, Beaded Chestnut,
Ortkosia pistacina feed upon this common tree.

Samfrufus, Pliny, was the Latin name of the tree, and the second
Latin name refers to the colour of the fruit. The English name is
supposed to come from a root meaning hollow.

It is called Acte, Alderne, Arntree, Baw-tree, Bertery, Boon-tree,
Boortree, Bootry, Bore, Boretice, Borral, Bothery-tree, Bohtry, Boun-
tree, Bourtree, Boutree, Bull-tree, Bur-tree, Buttery, Devil's Wood,
Dogtree, Elder, Elderberry, Eldern, Ellar, Ellarne, Ellen-tree, Eller,
Ellern, Ellet, Elnorne, Elren, Hilder, Hillerne, Hydul-tree, Hylder,
Judas Tree, Parsley Elder, Skaw, Whitaller, Whusselwood, Winter

Because of the tradition that Judas hanged himself upon it it was
called Judas Tree. Like Bothery-tree, the toy pop-guns made from
the branches are called bothery-guns. Of Bourtree, Prior says: "It
seems to have received its name from its being hollow within, and
thence easily bored by thrusting out the pulp ".

The Elder is said to have been the tree the cross was made of. It


ELDER (Sambucus nigra, L.)


is thought to be never struck by lightning. Witches like to lurk under
it. It must not be tampered with after dark. It was used as a witch -
scarer. The green juice of its bark was used to anoint the eyes, which
could then discern witches. In Styria it was introduced into different
rites. On January 6, the devil goes about in great force. People
should make a magic circle, and stand in it themselves.

It was believed to drive away evil spirits in Germany, and after
sunset wreaths of Elder are hung up on Good Friday as charms against
lightning. Branches were used in May festivals. Sir John Maunde-
ville said it stood on Mount Sion. Lest its evil smell should contami-
nate fruit trees it is not planted near them. In Belgium, for the
toothache, they put an elder-twig in the mouth, and then, sticking it
in a well, say:

" Depart thou evil spirit ".

On the Continent it is used as a punishment. It was thought to be
a cure for warts. In Chaucer's clay it was called Hyldor or Hyllantre.

The leaves yield a volatile oil, used in poultices. The berries make
good wine. In the time of Chaucer a strong infusion was used to
destroy caterpillars. The middle bark was once used for dropsy.
The flowers are diaphoretic and expectorant. The plant is used to
flavour vinegar. It is a common ornamental shrub, cultivated in the
garden, and showing variation, &c.


137. Sambuciis nigra, L. Tree, with woody stem and furrowed
grey bark, young bark purple, pithy, leaves pinnate, leaflets ovate,
serrate, flowers creamy-white, in cyme with 5 branches, fruit black,

Cleavers (Galium Aparine, L.)

This common well-known hedge plant can boast of some antiquity,
for it is found in Neolithic beds at Casewick. It is found in the
North Temperate and Arctic Zones, moreover, at the present time, in
Arctic Europe, N. Asia, W. Asia to India, and Temperate N. and S.
America. It is found in every part of Great Britain, ascending to
1200 ft. in Yorkshire.

Cleavers is one of the commonest hedgerow plants, growing freely
along the wayside, where it runs rampant to the exclusion of all else.
It is also common in the hedgerows and fields, growing side by side
with Hedge Parsley. It grows too in cornfields, and in stack-yards,
as well as on waste ground.

Tall and clustered, numerous branches spread out from a single


root, seeking support from the surrounding herbage. The stems are
angular, four-sided, and rough, both the margins of the leaves and
angles of the stems being rough. The leaves are 6-8 in a whorl,
lance-shaped, coarsely hairy, and the midrib or central vein is also
rough below, and the prickles are more or less general and turned
back. The joints are finely hairy. The plant is a hook-climber.

The flowers, which very quickly fall, are minute and white. The
cymes are axillary, and contain up to nine flowers, borne on spread-
ing flower-stalks. The flower-stalks are turned back in fruit. The
rounded fruits are very rough and roughly hairy, purple in tint, and
very clinging, a character implied by the second Greek name and the
English one.

The stem may reach a length of 3 ft. or more. It is in flower from
May to August. The plant is annual and propagated by seeds.

Here, as in other Galia, the flowers are white, but they are small,
and, though they have honey, which is unconcealed, they are less
likely to be visited by insects than any of the others. Usually the
flowers are hidden away in a tangle of herbage, and the flower must
rely on self-pollination for the perfection of its large and numerous
fruits. The anthers and stigma are close together, when pollinated
probably pollen is carried by the insects' feet.

The fruits are hooked and catch in the coats of animals and are
thus dispersed, being distributed by the agency of animals.

A sand soil suits Cleavers or Goose-grass best, and it is mainly a
sand-loving plant, but it will grow also on clay and is a clay-loving
plant, or more frequently on sandy loam.

Three little fungi, Puccinia Galii, Peronospora calotkeca, Pse^^do-
pc~iza rcpanda, grow on it. It is also galled by Eriophyes galii. The
Humming-bird Hawk Moth, Macroglossa stellatarum, feeds upon it.

It is called Airess, Airif, Airup, Aparine, Bedstraw, Beggar Lice,
Beggar Weed, Bleedy Tongues, Blind Tongue, Bur, Bur-head, Bur-
weed, Catch-rogue, Catch-weed, Chickweed, Claiton, Claver-grass,
Cleavers, Cleden, Cleeiton, Cleggers, Clever-grass, Glider, Cling-rascal,
Clitch Buttons, Clite, Clitheren, Clits, Cliver, Cly, Clyders, Errif,
Geckdor, Gux Grass, Gentleman's Tormentors, Goosebill, Goose-
grass, Goose-heiriffe, Gooseshare, Goose Tongue, Gosling Grass,
Gosling Scrotch, Gosling Weed, Grip-grass, Gull-grass, Gye, Hair-
weed, Harif, Haritch, Harvest Lice, Hedge-burs, Jack-in-the-hedge,
Lizzy-run-up-the-hedge, Robin-in-the-hedge, Robin-run-up-the-dyke,
Soldiers' Buttons, Stick-a-back, Stickle Back, Sweethearts' Tivers,
Tongue Bleeder, Withers Pail, Willy-run-hedge.



with 4 petals, 4
i and pistil with 2
styles. , Two prickly fruits
(didymous), showing 2 styles
and capitate stigmas. c,
Flowering' stem, with leaves
in whorH
in cyme i i

No. 2. Teasel
(Dipsacus sylvcstfai Hyds.) n

a, Corolla-tube, bowjny 4
stamens inserted on it. i-.
Fruit (achetie), with cup
shaped calyx-limb. <y Floret
with calyx-limb below, show-
ing anthers exsertecl from thr
tubular corolla, with .\ !./.

Bract. f, Flowerhead,
with long outer involucral
spinose flora! hrarts. -:vi
florets forming a capitulum,
with bracts between, is>suinj!
ic sux?rior calyx-limb.

Hoary Ragwort

frua/o/tus, L.)

a, Tabular disk floret (com-
plete), b, Lignlate or ray ;
floret I'staminate). c, Fldwer-
mg stem, with pinnate leaves,
hoary below, and a corym
w/tfi 6 f Ifloivettiead&v an
' n ' gen

a, Liguli

florets are ligulate a
plete). f>, Involucre
ing achefces. It, Ac:
fruit, without ribs, w
pappus, d, Flowering stem
with leaf, and corymb with
several florets.

ter ~

minal -4obCT -^r^Twig with
terminal *ud, -wltfe^lack/tx-
ternal-^aUw,^-atiKl infl^rts-
certce. c ^iirt.of cyme iwth ,'
2 si^rnara^/ vl&ama.ra., with/
one x^Jf of the ^chizocarpi
detached, e, Hermapr^roditex^"



3TAJ1 OT Y3*


I *

(.J .l*U


im ? .

(J f -
.ofuac}o h^i : x ^ ,:








I. Cleavers (Galitun a faring, L.). 2. Teasel (Dipsacus sylvtstris, Huds.). 3. Hoary Kagworl (Sen?fii> frun-

folitts, 1^). 4. Nipplewort (Lapsana cominunis, L.)- 5- Ash (Fraxfnus excelsior, L.). 6. Clreat Hindvveed

(Calystegia septum, Br.).



It is called Stick-a-back because of its hooked fruits. Children
placed stems upon each other's backs with the fruits hanging on them.
Goose Grass was conferred as a name because it was used as food for
young geese. The fruits are called Beggar's Lice. In regard to the
name Blind Tongue, Wilkinson writes: "Children with the leaves
practise Phlebotomy upon the tongue of those playmates who are
simple enough to endure
it." The name Catch-
rogue was given because it
generally grows in hedges,
and adheres to the clothes
of those who attempt to
break through. Cleavers,
Clever, Grip -grass refer
to its cleaving or clinging
habit. Goosebill was given
because the leaves have
coarsely-toothed margins,
like a goose's bill. Harif
is from the French keriffe,
standing up like bristles.

Galium is from the
Greek^Wtf, meaning milk,
and is applied to the genus
because another species
is used in curdling milk.
The second name is the
Greek word for the plant,
probably from apairo, lay
hold of.

The fruits are given to

poultry, and both cattle and horses eat it. In Sweden the fruits are
used for coffee. Dioscorides tells us that the stems were used as a
sieve, and the same use is applied to them in Sweden to-day. An oint-
ment for scalds and burns has been made from it. Being astringent, it
has also been used for colds and swellings. A kind of beer is made
from it in some districts. It is a blood-purifier, and young shoots are
used in spring to make a broth. The juice was used for scorbutic
complaints. A red dye is prepared from the roots. The juice has also
been used for earache and for bites from poisonous snakes and spiders.
Gravel was said to be cured by the use of a strong dose of it.

CLEAVERS (Galium Aparine, L.)



142. Gatium Aparine, L. Stem straggly, matted, rough, leaves
6-8 in a whorl, rough with reflexed bristles, flowers white, small, in
axillary cymes, 3-9, fruit covered with hooked bristles.

Teasel (Dipsacus sylvestris, Huds.)

This handsome plant is found to-day and not earlier in the North
Temperate Zone in Europe and West Asia. In Great Britain it
occurs in the Peninsula, Channel, Thames, Anglia, and Severn pro-
vinces, and in Glamorgan, Pembroke, Cardigan, Montgomery, Car-
narvon, Denbigh, Flint, and Anglesea, throughout the Severn provinces
and Mersey except Mid Lanes, in the Humber and Tyne provinces,
and in Westmorland, Dumfries, Wigtown, Ayr, Renfrew, Lanark,
Dumbarton, and Clyde Isles. In England and Ireland it is rare, and
local in Scotland.

The Common Teasel is a conspicuous plant, growing in clumps by
the side of the road upon the rising banks of some ditch just under the
hedge, because it prefers the moist side of some stream along the
banks of which it forms a long line as if for protection with its bristling
heads of bloom. It is usually exterminated by farmers, hence this
linear arrangement. The Teasel is erect in habit. The plant is hair-
less, and the stem is stout, rigid, with prickly ribs, leafy, branched.
The leaves are opposite, simple, inversely egg-shaped to lance-shaped,
stalkless. The radical leaves of the first year are spreading. The
stem-leaves are oblong to lance-shaped, entire, scalloped, with a prickly
midrib, united below. 1

The flowerheads are large, conical, oblong. The florets are pale
lilac. Each floret has a separate bract and an involucre. The ascend-
ing slender involucre overtops the flowerhead with upwardly curved
bracts. The calyx limb is not persistent. The corolla tube is un-
equally 4-lobed with 4 stamens. The scales of the receptacle are
straight and exceed the florets. The floral bracts are long, rigid, awl-
like, fringed with hairs. The partial involucre or involucel is downy.
The fruit is 4-sided with 8 depressions.

Forming a head of numerous florets the flowerhead is conspicuous.
The anthers ripen first. The corolla tube is narrow, 9-11 mm. long.
One of the branches of the style is wanting or nearly so, for the

1 Water collects in the axils, and insects drowned in it are absorbed, and thus small flies do not reach
the flowers and rob them of honey. The water serves as a reservoir, and is of use to the plant in dry


tube is not wide enough for an insect to insert its head if there were
two stigmas. The inner surface of the stigma is covered with papillse.
The floral bracts overtop the anthers and stigmas, and insects do not
touch the last with the ventral surface in creeping over the flower, but
with the head when inserting the proboscis. Hence it is of advantage
that the second stigma is rudimentary, as if both were present the
inner surfaces, which alone are receptive, might not be rubbed by the
bee in its effort to penetrate the tube. Honey is secreted in the upper
part of the ovary, and the corolla tube by its length helps to contain

Photo. Flatters * Garnett

TEASEL (Dipsacus sylvestris, Huds.)

and conceal it. The divisions get into each other's way, an instance in
which nature can afford to improve the present arrangement.

The Teasel is visited by Bombus rupestris, B. lapidarius, B.

The fruits are provided with a parachute arrangement which aids
in wind-dispersal, in the form of persistent bracts or leaf-like organs.

The Teasel is a sand-loving plant growing on a sand soil, but
requires also some proportion of humus.

Only moths feed on it, as the Burnished Brass Plusia chrysitis,
Square-spot Rustic Agrotis xanthographa, Eiipoecilia roseana, Auti-
thena Gentianana.

Dipsacus, Dioscorides, is from the Greek dipsao, I thirst, because
of the water collected in the base of the leaves. Teasel is from


A.S. tfesan, from its use in teasing wool. The second name denotes a
woodland habitat.

It is called Adam's Flannel, Barber's Brushes, Brushes, Sweep's
Brushes, Card Teazel, Card Thistle, Churchbrooms, Gipsy's Combs,
Pricky Back, Tazzel, Teasel, Venus Bath or Basin. The last name
is explained thus by Lyte: " It is termed Labrum Veneris and Laver
Lavacrum of the forme of the leaves, made up in fashion of a bason,
which is never without water." The name Carde Thistle is explained
by Gerarde thus: " In some of our Northern Counties large quantities
of the Teazel are planted that there heads may be used in Carding
wool ". This may refer to the Fuller's Teazel.

It was named Church Brooms from the resemblance of the flower-
heads in shape to the long " turk's head brooms used for sweeping
high places ".

" Tezils or Fuller's thistle, being gathered and hanged up in house,
where the air may come freely to it, upon the alteration of cold and
windy weather will grow smoother and against rain will close up its

In the old days it was held to have healing virtues, the water
caught up in the connate leaf-base being said to be good for bad eye-
sight, and called virga pastoris in Chaucer's day. It formed part of the
remedy " Save " also.


147. Dipsacus sylvestris, Huds. Stem tall, stout, erect, prickly,
leaves prickly along the midrib, lanceolate, connate, opposite, flowers

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