A. R. (Arthur Reginald) Horwood.

A new British flora : British wild flowers in their natural haunts (Volume 3) online

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The honey is secreted at the base of the smooth ovary, and pro-
tected from the rain by the 4 adhering anthers, which lie close
together and are clothed with hairs. Bees insert their probosces
between the less closely aggregated filaments of the stamens to reach
the honey, and in so doing they dust themselves with pollen, and
transfer some of it to the stigma. Two or three purple spots at the
bottom of the lower lip serve as honey-guides. The stamens all but
touch below, and are clothed with sharp points inside, but just below
the anthers they are smooth and further apart. Insects use the 3-lobed
underlip as a resting place. The stigma projects some distance beyond
the anthers in open sunny spots, but in shadier spots it hardly does so.




Photo. Dr. Somerville Hastings

RED BARTSIA (Bartsta Odontiles, Huds.)



216 FLOWERS OF THE ROADSIDES AND HEDGES

The anthers open inwards. All the anthers open if one is lightly
touched Hairs at the side directed downwards prevent the scattering
of the pollen and ensure its transfer to the insect's proboscis.

The flowers are visited by the Honey Bee, Bombus lapidarius, and
B. silvarum. The capsule splits open when ripe and opens above,
and the seeds are dispersed around the parent plant.

Red Bartsia is a sand-loving plant, addicted especially to a sand soil,
but it is also a clay-loving plant, and will grow on clay soil, whilst,
being parasitic, it always requires pasture land.

Two fungi, Plasmopora densa and Coleosporium enphrasi(C, attack
the leaves.

Bartsia, Linnaeus, is named after Bartsch, a Dutch botanist, who
died in 1738, and Odontites, Pliny, is from the Greek, odous, tooth,
because it was used for the toothache.

This plant is called Red Eyebright, Eyebright Cow Wheat, Hen
Gorse, Sanctuary.

ESSENTIAL SPECIFIC CHARACTERS:

239. Bartsia Odontitcs, Huds. Stem erect, branched, leaves
linear- lanceolate, narrowed below, serrate, flowers rose colour, in
a one-sided raceme.

Wood Basil (Clinopodium vulgare, L.)

Wood Basil is a southern plant not found in early deposits. It is
confined to the Northern Temperate Zone in Europe, N. Africa,
N. and W. Asia, as far east as Japan, and the Himalayas. It is wild
in Canada, and has been introduced into the United States. In Great
Britain it is found in the Peninsula, Channel, and Thames provinces,
but not in Hunts in Anglia, occurring throughout the Severn provinces,
but in South Wales not in Cardigan; in N. Wales only in Denbigh,
Flint, and Anglesea; in the Trent, Mersey, H umber, Tyne, and Lakes
provinces, except in the Isle of Man; in the W. Lowlands; in the E.
Lowlands, except in Peebles, Selkirk, Haddington; in the E. Highlands,
except in Stirling, N. Aberdeen; and in Dumbarton in the W. High-
lands. It is found at 1000 ft. in the Highlands, but is rare in Ireland.

This plant is fairly ubiquitous in its choice of habitat, which is
always of an upland character. It is to be found chiefly in rocky dis-
tricts, being in this way more or less a rock plant. It occurs frequently
by the wayside, in ditches or on banks, in dry open pastures, and often
in woods, which last is indeed a sure place in which to search for it.

The stem is slender, wavy, usually simple, with distant, downy,



WOOD BASIL



217



close, stalked leaves, egg-shaped to heart-shaped, rather coarsely
toothed, and acute.

The flowers are pink, borne in axillary clusters, dense, and branched.



WOOD BASIL {Cttnopoatum vuigare, L.)




The calyx is bristly, striate or finely furrowed, and an involucre of fine
bristles is formed. The two upper teeth are connected below into an
upper lip. The clusters or whorls in which the flowers are borne are
equal, and the upper ones are terminal. The flowers are numerous,
and formed on slender flower-stalks.



218 FLOWERS OF THE ROADSIDES AND HEDGES

Wood Basil is usually about i ft. high. The flowers are in full
bloom in June, July, and August. The plant is perennial, propagated
by division.

The stamens and stigma vary considerably in structure. The
nectaries and the receptacle for honey are of the usual labiate type.
The tube of the corolla is 10-13 mm. long, and the honey fills it up to
a height of 3 mm. The inferior lobe of the style forms a broad, lance-
shaped lamina, which is turned down, and is not distinctly covered with
wart-like knobs. The upper one is narrower and shorter, and varies
in size. The stamens may all or partly be useless. The Cabbage
White Butterfly (Pien's brassicce] and Satynis visit it. The herma-
phrodite flowers may be either large, and the anthers ripe first, or
small, when the anthers ripen with the stigma.

The nutlets are free, and fall off around the parent plant, which is
thus dispersed by its own agency.

This is a rock-loving species growing on rock soil, which may be
a sand soil or a lime soil.

A fungus, Pnccinia inenthfc, attacks the leaves. Two moths,
Iladcua Chenopodii, Stepliensia bninuichclla, and a Heteropterous
insect, Jiysarcoris mclanocephalus, are found on Wood Basil.

Clinopodiuni, Dioscorides, is from the Greek dine, bed, pous, foot.
The tufted whorls have been compared to the castor of a bed, and the
second name refers to its common occurrence.

This pretty wildflower is called Field, Stone, Wood Basil, Basil-
weed, Bcd'sfoot, Horse Thyme.

It was regarded as an emblem of the devil in Crete, and placed as
a charm on window ledges. It was employed in love matters. It was
said to wither in the hands of the impure. Bacon said that if exposed
too much to the sun it changed into Wild Thyme, an incipient idea
of evolution. In Persia there is a couplet, which, translated, runs thus:

" The basil tuft that waves
Its fragrant blossom over graves ".

ESSENTIAL SPECIFIC CHARACTERS:

251. Clinopodium vulgare, L. Stem erect, slender, leaves dentate,
ovate, bracts setaceous, forming an involucre, flowers purple, in dense
whorls, branched, axillary, calyx straight.



GROUND IVY



Ground Ivy (Nepeta hederacea, Trev.)



219



The present distribution of Ground Ivy is the North Temperate
Zone in Europe, Siberia, Western Asia, as far east as the Himalayas,
and in America it is an introduced plant. It is not found with any
other plants in ancient deposits. In Great Britain it is more or less
universally distributed, but does not grow in Cardigan, Stirling, S.
Perth, North Ebudes, and in the W. Highlands in Ross only, and not







*r





GROUND IVY (Nepeta hederacea, Trev.)



in the Northern Isles. In Northumberland, moreover, it ascends to
1300 ft.

Every hedgerow is covered in spring with the trailing, creeping
Ground Ivy, which carpets the ground under the hedgerows along
highways and in fields. It grows on sloping banks, covering wide
spaces. It is also to be found in woods, though it prefers a hedge-
bank in the open facing the south and the sun.

Ground Ivy, as the second Latin (and English) name implies, has
the habit of the Ivy, the trailing habit, rooting at intervals, with suberect
flower -stalks. The stem, which is smooth or hairy, is square and
slender, and branched. The leaves are egg-shaped, opposite, on long
leaf-stalks, kidney-shaped, scalloped, veined, the leaf-stalks furrowed
below.

The flowers are purple or bluish-violet, or white or pink with spots,



220 FLOWERS OF THE ROADSIDES AND HEDGES

in whorls, three on a flower-stalk, with a general involucre of awl-like
bracts or leaflike organs. The calyx is tubular, with short curved-
back teeth. The corolla is gaping, with an erect upper lip, blunt,
notched. The lower lip is larger, spreading, in three segments, with
three purple spots. The creeping runners put forth in summer flower
the next year, and survive the winter. The nutlets (4) are oval and
contained in the calyx.

Ground Ivy is about 6 in. to i ft. high in flower. The flowers are
in bloom between March and May. The plant is perennial, propagated
by division.

The flowers are proterandrous, and the larger are hermaphrodite,
the smaller female, with a tube 6^-8 mm. long, which is 15-2^ mm,
wide in front. In the former it is 9-16 mm. (or 14-16 usually), and
2 i~4i nim - wide in front. The tube is lined below with stiff hairs.
As many as 86 per cent of the flowers have been found to be female
in one locality, and 24 per cent later on; in a second year in the same
district the proportion was 50 per cent and 28 per cent. The honey
in the female flowers can be reached by all humble bees, and the
widened mouth in the longer flowers enables all but Bombus terrestris
to obtain honey. The larger flowers are visited first, and frequently
cross-pollination is ensured by the hermaphrodite flowers.

Visits are paid by Bombus, Apis mellifica, Antlwpkora, Osmia,
Noviada, Audrena, Halictus, Bombylius, Rhingia, Eristalis, Cabbage
White Butterfly (Pieris brassicce\ and the Humming-bird Hawk
Moths (Macroglossa fuciformis] and M. stellatarum.

The nutlets are smooth, and when ripe fall out around the parent
plant.

Being a sand-loving plant, Ground Ivy delights in a sand soil,
but it is also found on clay soil.

The plant is often galled by Aulax, Glechomcf and Cecidoniyia
bursuria. A fungus, Puccinia glechomatis, attacks the leaves. A
beetle, Longitarsus abdominalis, a moth, Coleophora albitarsella, and
a Homopterous insect, Eupteryx pictiis, are found upon it.

Nepeta, Pliny, is from Nepi, a town in Italy, whilst the second
Latin name refers to its ivy-like, trailing habit.

Ground Ivy is called Alehoof, Allhoove, Allhose, Alliff, Bird's-eye,
Blue Runner, Cat's-foot, Deceivers, Devil's Candlesticks, Fat Hen,
Foalfoot, F'olesfoth, Cell, Gill, Gill Hen, Gill-go-by-ground, Ground-
avey, Ground Ivy, Hayhofe, Haymaiden, Hay-maids, Hedge-maids,
Heihow, Hen and Chickens, Heyhove, Hove, Jenny-run-ith-ground,
Jill, Lion's Mouth, Lizzy-run-the-hedge, Maiden-hair, Mould, Nip,



BUGLE 221

Robin-run-the-hedge, Rob-run-up-dyke, Run-away-Jack, Runnidyke
Tudnoose, Tunhog.

Alehoof means that which will cause ale to heave or work. " The
women of our northern parts", says Gerarde, "do turn the herb ale
hovoc into their ale." Gill-ale is a beverage made from this plant.
"The leaves were formerly thrown into the vat with ale to clarify it
and to give it a flavour. This was called Gill-ale, Ground Ivy being
named Gill or Gill-crept-by-the-ground in some places." The French
quiller means to ferment beer. With Rue it was supposed to confer
fine vision. Ground Ivy was also supposed to be associated with the
evil one, and called " Devil's Candlesticks ".

The leaves are bitter and aromatic, hence their use in ale. They
have a strong, peculiar smell. This plant was considered a corroborant,
aperient, and detergent, and was used for laxity, debility, for ulcers,
the lungs, and the blood. Drawn up the nostrils, juice from an infusion
was used for headache. The white specks in horses' eyes were said to
be cured by this added to groundsel and plantain.

ESSENTIAL SPECIFIC CHARACTERS:

253. Nepeta hederacea, Trev. Stem procumbent, creeping, leaves
cordate, crenate, flowers blue, in axillary whorls, secund, 3-4, calyx-
teeth awned.

Bugle (Ajuga reptans, L.)

As a marsh plant to a great extent Bugle occurs as we should
expect in Interglacial, Late Glacial, and Neolithic deposits. It is found
to-day throughout Europe generally. In Great Britain Bugle grows
in every county except Peebles, ranging as far north as the Shetlands,
and up to 2000 ft. in the Highlands. It is found also in Ireland and
the Channel Islands.

This plant is one of the numerous species which gravitate between
a station in the open meadows, the woods, the wayside, or the hedge-
row. But in each case the habitat is moist and damp, and usually in
the shade. In the ride of a wood, where Self-heal also grows luxuri-
antly, it is especially fine, as well as along the secluded banks of a
stream.

The stem is erect, with creeping, lateral stolons, or underground
shoots (hence the second Latin name), smooth or roughly hairy, or
roughly hairy on alternate faces, smooth on others, and purplish. The
leaves are opposite, inversely egg-shaped, narrowed below, the radical
leaves on long stalks, blunt, the upper stem -leaves stalkless, oblong,
and those on the stolons spoon-shaped. They are smooth and shining,



222 FLOWERS OF THE ROADSIDES AND HEDGES

and usually dark green, but may be red below, coloured by anthocyan,
which turns the light rays into heat. The red underside helps to
retain light.

The flowers are in whorls, in a dense spike which is tapering,
the flower-stalks short, with bracts or leaflike organs shorter than the
flowers, and often like the flowers purplish-blue, with a metallic tinge.
The calyx of 5 segments is blue. The corolla is gaping, with a ring
of hairs within the tube protecting the honey. The upper lip is very
short. The bracts cover the anthers and stigma.




Bl-GLK (AJuga reptans, L.)

Bugle is 6 in. to i ft. high. The plant blooms in May and June.
It is perennial and propagated by division, and quite deserves a place
in the garden.

The flowers are proterogynous, and the stigma is ripe when the
flowers open, or homogamous or proterandrous. The lobes spread out,
and are covered with wart-like knobs, but as in Tcucrimn it is protected
by the stamens. The flowers are close together, and though the upper
lip is short (or absent) the honey is protected from the rain by the
intervening bracts. The stamens later separate and the stigma is then
accessible. The tube of the corolla is 9 mm. long and 2^ mm. wide



BUGLE 223

below, at its wider part, where the honey is secreted, the honey being
on the side turned to the underlip at the base of the ovary.

The lower lobe of the style is papillose, and rests on short stamens,
when young lying close together. Small bees do not force the
stamens far apart. The anthers turn the pollen-covered sides upwards
and downwards, and are touched by all kinds of visitors. The inferior
stamens separating the style are released, and the lower lobe projecting
between the anthers is then touched first by a bee with pollen from
another flower and cross-pollinated. If bees do not visit the flowers
they are self-pollinated by pollen falling on the stigma.

Bugle flowers are visited by the Honey Bee, Bovibus, Anthophora,
Osmia, Andrena, Halictus, Rhingia, Large White Butterfly (Pieris
brassictz\ Green-veined White (P. napi), Small White (P. rapcr),
Brimstone (Rhodocera rhamni\ Papilio podalirins, Hesperia alveus,
Broad-bordered Bee Hawk Moth (Macroglossa fuciforinis\ &c.

The nutlets are dispersed by their own agency, and fall to the
ground when ripe.

Bugle is distinctly a clay-loving plant, and addicted to a clay soil,
being common on the soils of the Lias and Boulder Clay.

The radical leaves and flowerheads are galled by Eriophyes ajugce.
A beetle, Meligethes viduatus, and a Heteropterous insect, Monanthia
ampliata, are found on Bugle.

Ajuga, Pliny, is supposed to be derived from the Greek aguios t
weak in limbs, in reference to an assumed efficacy against gout. The
second Latin name refers to its creeping or stoloniferous habit.

Bugle is also called Wood Betony, Brown Bugle, Herb Carpenter,
Middle Comfrey, Middle Consound, Dead Men's Bellows, Helfring-
wort, Wild Mint, Sickle Wort.

Gerarde says: " It is put in drinks for wounds, and that is the cause
why some do commonly say that he that hath bugle and sanicle will
scarce vouchsafe the chirurgien a bugle". It was a reputed vulnerary,
astringent and cooling.

The name Bugle is said to be a corruption of the late Latin name
Bugula, which is akin to bugillo, the classical Latin name for the plant.

ESSENTIAL SPECIFIC CHARACTERS:

262. Ajuga reptans, L. Stem erect, glabrous, with creeping
stolons, leaves obovate, entire, upper sessile, lower stalked, flowers
purple, in a spike, with bracts below.



224 FLOWERS OF THE ROADSIDES AND HEDGES

Spurge Laurel (Daphne Laureola, L.)

A southern type, Spurge Laurel is not represented in fossil seed-
bearing deposits. It is found to-day in Europe in the N. Temperate
Zone, south of Belgium, except in Russia and Greece, and in N. Africa
and W. Asia. In Great Britain, Spurge Laurel is generally dis-
tributed, but does not grow in Cornwall in the Peninsula province; in
the Channel province generally, except in S. Sussex; in the Thames




Spi'RGE LAUREL (Daphne Laureola, L.)



Photo. Flatters & Garnctt



province, except in W. Kent; in N. Wales, only in Carnarvon and
Anglesea; throughout the Trent provinces, except in S. Lines; in the
Mersey province, only in Chester; in the Humber province; and in
Scotland, only in Stirling; or generally from Durham to Devon and
Kent, and in the Channel Isles.

Spurge Laurel grows in many shaded, secluded spots under hedges,
especially in fields and by the roadside. Here and there it is obviously
planted, but in woods and plantations and along some highways con-
tiguous to woods it may be truly native.

It is a medium-sized shrub, with an erect, woody stem, which
seldom branches, and the leaves are mainly at the end of each stem,



SPURGE LAUREL 225

falling off below. They are lance-shaped, shiny, and smooth, the ter-
minal buds being near the leaves, the lateral ones near the flowers.

The flowers are green (5), drooping, in cymes, axillary, with oblong
bracts below, and funnel-shaped. The stamens are inserted on the
upper part of the tube. The lobes of the calyx are as long as the
tube. The fruit is a berry, which is blue or black, and egg-shaped.

It is an evergreen shrub, quite suited to the garden or shrubbery,
where one may frequently find it. In height it varies from 2-4 ft.
Flowers may be found between February and April.

In Daphne Mezereum the corolla tube is 6 mm. long and 2 mm.

* o

wide. The flower is suited to bees with a long proboscis, butterflies,
Apis, Anthophora, Osmia, Halictus, Eristalis, Small Tortoise-shell
Butterfly (Vanessa urticce). The stigma and anthers ripen together.
The honey is secreted at the base of the ovary. An insect rubs its
proboscis against the anthers, in 2 whorls of 4 stamens each, in the
upper part of the tube, but does not dust it with pollen, which is only
slightly sticky, and then touches at a lower level the stigma before
it reaches the honey, so that it cross-pollinates it with pollen from a
previous and different flower; and its proboscis is not dusted with
pollen till it is withdrawn. If insects are absent pollen falls from
the anthers upon the stigma.

The drupe is edible, black in colour, and dispersed largely by birds.

Spurge Laurel grows on a clayey or sandy soil.

Daphne, Dioscorides, is from Daphne, the name of a nymph
changed by the gods into a bay tree. Laureola, Dodonseus, is from
the Latin, laurus, laurel.

Dwarf Bay, Fox Poison, Laurel, Copse Laurel, Spurge and Wood
Laurel, Sturdy Lowries are the names that have been bestowed
upon the Spurge Laurel.

It is a useful, ornamental shrub, which grows in the shade and
drip of trees. It is acrid and highly irritant. The juice causes in-
flammation, and has been used for blistering, and the bark and berries
for ulcers and sores. The roots have been used for toothache. For
irritation it is employed externally.

ESSENTIAL SPECIFIC CHARACTERS:

272. Daphne La^lreola, L. Evergreen shrub, little branched,
leaves smooth, entire, tufted, flowers green, in axillary racemes, berries
black.



226 FLOWERS OF THE ROADSIDES AND HEDGES



Common Elm (Ulmus campestris, L. = U. sativa, Mill.
= U. surculosa, Stokes)

No trace of the Common Elm has been found in ancient plant
beds, though this cannot be said of the Wych Elm. The latter is
thought to be native, the former not. The Common Elm does not
usually set perfect seed, and is considered to be usually propagated by
suckers. The roots reach a long way underground, 40 or 50 yds., and
from these suckers are produced. The Wych Elm, however, is ob-
tained from seedlings. The Common Elm is found as a native on
the Continent, however, and is generally distributed throughout the
Northern Temperate Zone in Central, Southern, and Eastern Europe,
and West Asia, Siberia, and in N. Africa. In the British Isles the
Common Elm is generally distributed, but it is not so widespread in
Scotland, where it is usually planted, as indeed it is in England. It
is found also in Ireland and the Channel Islands as a denizen. In
Derbyshire it is found at an altitude of 1500 ft.

The habitat is hedges, hedgerows, woods, and fields. The Elm
is often used as a boundary mark, and for avenues and parks in the
country or town. To the writer are known lines of Elms called "The
Twelve Apostles", and in many districts there are ancient Elms planted
like Coronation Oaks and other trees to commemorate some national
or local event of importance. The Common Elm, though frequently
found in more upland habitats, occurs in the marsh formation in the
Alcler-Willow association. More frequent south of the Trent, it is
more characteristic of the Lowlands than the Highlands.

The Elm has a characteristic habit. The main trunk is generally
erect, branching at some distance from the base. But lateral boughs
commence at half its height, and there are thus two crowns, as it were,
one above the other, with a gap between. There are many forms and
varieties of the Common Elm, however, which differ in their habit.
The species U. glabra has drooping branches like the Wych Elm.
The trunk is, when full-grown, sometimes 125 ft. in height, and the
girth as much as 20 ft., or even 30-40 ft.

The bark is grey, rugged, and often corky (U. snbcrosa, Ehrh.).
The young branches are sometimes corky, The lower horizontal
branches are often very large and as much as 30-40 ft. long, sometimes
becoming too bulky and snapping asunder. They may spring from
the bole at about 10 ft. from the ground, or at a height of 15-20 ft.
The leaves are oblique, unequal at the base, smaller than in the Wych



COMMON ELM



227




COMMON ELM (Ulmtts campestris, L. = U. saliva, Mill.



Photo H Irvine

U, surculosa, Stokes)



Elm, not much longer than broad, rough above, stellately downy in
the axils of the veins below. The margin is coarsely toothed, and
the leaf ends in a long, blunt point.

The veins form a fork at the margin, and are deeply impressed on
the upper surface, prominent below. The main branches ramify into
numerous smaller branches, and these into twigs turned up at the end,



228 FLOWERS OF THE ROADSIDES AND HEDGES

lace-like in outline. The bole is stout and erect, with stout buttresses
in old trees. The buds are dull brown, with many scales, each being
really a pair of stipules, the lowest pair not lengthening in spring,
There are several enclosing the leaf-bud within. The outermost scales
serve to protect the inner from cold in winter. A pair of scales protects
the leaves, and they are united to the base of the stem each side of the
leaf-stalk. The scales fall at length. The leaf is folded up in bud upon
the midrib. It is closed up in a fan-like manner on the lateral veins.

The flowers are not borne in catkins as in the other trees which
belong to the Amentiferse, but are in tufted clusters. The perianth is
cup-like, 4-5-fid, the lobes fringed with hairs, and contains five or four
stamens with purple anthers, and a central pistil. There are two
chambers in the ovary, but only one develops, and that rarely matures.
The flower-stalk is short. The flowers appear before the leaves.
They are vinous-red in colour. The fruit is an inversely ovate, or
elliptic -oblong samara, notched, with the seed above the centre and
near the notch. There is a wing all round the seed except at the
notched apex, the lobes of the notch being incurved. The samara is
greenish-brown or brown.

The Common Elm flowers in March, and is a deciduous tree.

Most trees are pollinated by the wind, and it is supposed that this
mode of pollination is the most primitive. However this may be, the
trees usually flower before the leaves are in bud, and have the parts
of the flower especially modified to this end.

The Elm has usually hermaphrodite or complete flowers, but may
be sometimes monoecious. The perianth is a bell-shaped structure with
a variable number of teeth, or segments, and tubular below. It is hairy
on the lower part, and the teeth are sparingly glandular. The pistil lies
in the centre surmounted by a bifid stigma, with papillae on the inner
face and pectinate glandular structures or hairs. There are as many
stamens as perianth-lobes. The stigma is usually said to ripen before
the anthers, as is usually the case in wind-pollinated flowers, but some-
times the anthers ripen first. There are 2 anther-cells, and they open


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