A. R. (Arthur Reginald) Horwood.

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outwards. Soon after the stigma matures the anther-stalks lengthen,
and if the stigma be still receptive, pollen falling on the stigmas, the
flower will be self- pollinated. In the ordinary course pollen is blown
upwards to another flower on the same tree. When the anthers have
withered the style lengthens and the stigma protrudes from the peri-
anth, in which it was at first included. In spite of its adaptation to
cross-pollination by the wind the Common Elm does not, in England,
set perfect seed as a rule. Personally, the writer is inclined to attribute


this to a tendency to self-pollination which seems not to have been
generally noticed, especially when proterandry occurs and is not well
marked. The fruit or samara is dispersed by aid of the wind, the
broad wing serving this end.

Though generally planted, the Elm appears to flourish best in
loamy or clayey soil, and if grown on sandy soil the horizontal roots
are often exposed to the weather and to frost, and the tree is liable
to die off in the upper part during drought, or from exposure of the

The Elm is liable to the attacks of fungi, similar to those that
infest the Wych Elm, as Taphrina ulmi, Mycosphcerella ulmi (Elm leaf
spot), Psilocybe spadicea, Hypholoma fascicularis, Flammula ulmicola,
Pholiota adiposa, Pleurotus ulmarius, Collybia velutipes, Fomes fomen-
tarius; Tinder fungus, Hydmim diversidens; Oak rot, Phleospora ulmi;
galls such as Schizoneura ulmi, Pemphigus pallidus ; the moths, Wood
Leopard, Lime Hawk-moth, Copper Underwing, Common Dagger,
Small Engraved Moth; the butterflies, Large Tortoise-shell, Comma,
White-letter Hairstreak; the beetles, Orchestes alni, Scolytus destructor,
S. multistriatus, Hylesinus vittatus, Epipeda plana, Quedius ventralis,
Ocypus fuscatus, Trichonyx sulcicollis, Symbiotes latus, Endonychus
coccineus, Dacne humeralis, Cerylon liisteroides, L&mophlcens ater,
Mycetophagus populi, Teresias serra, Dorcus parallelipedus, Iscknodes
sanguinicollis, Haplocnemits impressus, Rhagium inquisitor. The He-
miptera Heteroptera, Brachy steles parvicornis, Phytocoris ulmi, Ortho-
tylis viridinervis, O. ochrotrichus, O. prasinus, Malacocoris chlorizans,
Asciodema jieberi are found on Elm. The following Hemiptera
Homoptera, also infest the Elm: Pediopsis ulmi, Allygius commutatus,
Alebra albo-striella var. Wahlbergi, Typhlocyba ulmi, T. lethierryi. A
Hymenopterous insect, Psen pallipes, is found on it.

The names by which the Elm is known are numerous, viz.: Allom-
tree, Alme, Aum, Elem, Ellem, Elm, English Elm, Elmen, Elven,
Helm, Horse May, May, Ome Tree, Owm. The name Elm is appar-
ently cognate with the Latin Ulmus, a Plinyan name for the Elm, and
Ellum is a general name for Elm. The corky type, Ulmus suberosa,
is called All-heart.

Called in some districts Elven, the Elm seems to have been con-
sidered to have had some connection with fairies. The name May is
applied to a piece of Elm gathered early in the morning of the first
day of the month. The Elm in Devonshire is regarded as one of
those trees which are not liable to be struck by lightning, but this is
not generally the case.


Agricultural operations have been guided in the past by the time
when the tree is in leaf, as is illustrated by the following lines:

" When the Elmen leaf is as big as a mouse's ear,
Then to sow barley, never fear;
When the Elmen leaf is as big as an ox's eye,
Then say I 'Hie! boys, hie!'"

A variety with broad leaves in Cornwall is called Horse May.

The Elm is a useful timber tree. Not only is the hard wood or
brown heart used but also the sapwood. Water-pipes were once made
of hollow Elm. The wood is durable and resists the action of water
well, being employed for pumps, keels, bilge-boards on ships. It is
also used for furniture and chairs.


277. Ulnrns campestriSi L. Tree, erect, branches ascending, leaves
ovate, dentate, asperous, flowers 4-5-fid, seed above middle of samara,
near the notch.

Nettle (Urtica dioica, L.)

Ubiquitous and common, the Nettle is also ancient, being found in
Interglacial beds at Hoxne, Suffolk, and in Late Glacial beds also at
the same place. It is found in the N. Temperate and Arctic regions
in Europe, S. Africa, and the Andes. This is a ubiquitous species
throughout Great Britain, and ranges as far north as the Shetlands,
up to 2500 ft. in the Highlands.

The common Nettle is always to be found in a hedgerow, whether
it be in fields and meadows or by the roadside. It is common in waste
places, but it is erroneous to regard it as an indication of poor soil, for
it requires simply an ordinary dry sandy loam, and where this sort of
soil is exposed there it forms a clump, being a dominant species and
excelling all other competitors.

The yellow fibrous roots of the Nettle are familiar to gardeners, and
remarkable because of their interlacing habit. The habit is prostrate,
then erect. The rootstock is creeping, and the plant is stoloniferous,
with yellow, long, root fibres. The stem is downy, simple or branched,
dark-green, protected by stinging hairs, which point forwards, each
hair on a cushion of delicate tissue with an acid fluid, with a round
head, situated obliquely, with easily fractured siliceous tissue just below
the head. The point is directed forwards, and if seized from below the
plant does not sting. The protoplasm in the stinging hairs is repelled
by red light and attracted by blue. The leaves are egg-shaped to


, showing the 4-fid
th, arfa 4 staoiensr^bent back.
ate flower^wg-^rianth a

f, Fmit, or nut, with style enlarged), and
hairy jperioarp. d. Stinging hair, showing ^
base-,i;<)ntaining ppisonouL,

the s


juice, and long point! t, Upper part .of
plant showing cordate leaves, and iqfior-

ly- -N*rsz^ Black Biyony

(Ttttnus cotrt munis, L.)
/ '/, Staminate flowery
6-fid perianth, b. Pistillate flower^
inferior ovary, and >tyles/ exserted^
Raceme of pistillate Mowers. </, Stem,
'with cluster of ripe !>exries ( poisonous).

nranch witKc^date/l^aves (nfcfcVeined),

Id racemes of stj


fo. 3. Lords-and- Ladies
hArum maculatufa Ll) |
/<, |Sp4the with spadix/(puijtle)i and 2 /,
tiesAtPsbrtoda). b, A/row 7 ishapjed net- //
/ei^eU Iriaf, with spo&. /, Sedtion of^
the, showing spadix, sterile whoi; <-f

he\ s

brkcts,yhorl of stamens, whorl of IbractH,
whorl of ovaries/ Both whorls of brac//s

horizontal. ?Ues entering can passl down
' ' Av thejn^ but not out again in thib
', Tt^e barney with bracts withered,
n escape. The ovaries hiave
noy beJKn felrtliized, after pollinatlori! by
\aidlof tjie flik (See also Text.) L $ec-
fion\ of jspathey from above, showmg ^h<
\ cnev^ux-de-fr^e of bracts bejow at

of berries, with withered b
(-.. g\ One of the ovaries, or
flowers (enlarged). A, Stamin-
(enlarged), with steinens.


01 Y3>i

.:-.': . . .


iliifil A .dJOBfv..]
bn ,

/ / /

I M " \A N) / 1 ^5^- -yy / K

^ U ..,.

f\ /

I \&m i

S ^ifa^ .,
lioriw ,<uwti},
Khotfw fi)ofl ^h^vom I -;

/ h tiS m niex* o Jonj Jud

X d,hcb 6 n,Hpq"iaJ^/
( JxsT r~'- -
.rtl raworfii A

V f /2l<./4 Iv...


s_ :_ .' S




I. Nettle (Urtica dioica, L.). 2. Black Bryony ( Tawns comiiiiinis, L.). 3. Lords and Ladies {Arum inafitlatntn, L.).



Photo. B ILuilcy

NETTLE (Urtica dioica, L.), forming- a distinct association in a woodland habitat

heart-shaped, lance-shaped, deeply toothed, the leaf-stalk long or short,
with prominent impressed nerves. The stipules are linear to oblono.


The flowers are in axillary panicled spikes, in pairs, the males in loose
panicles, the females dense, bent back. The fruit is small, with a flat
border. It is 2-4 ft. in height. Flowers are to be met with between
July and September. The plant is perennial, propagated by cuttings.

The plant is dioecious (hence dioicd] or unisexual. The stamens
are elastic; in bud they are curled inwards. The anthers, which are
borne on kidney-shaped anther-stalks, open by the coiling of the stalks
in bud and the opening of the calyx, and when they uncoil they spring
out and disperse the pollen in a small cloud. They open in the sun,
and the discharge of pollen goes on for half an hour. The flowers are

The fruit is small, and when ripe falls to the ground or is blown
away by the wind.

Addicted to a sand soil, the Nettle is a sand-loving plant.

The first stage of a fungus, Puccinia caricis, grows on this, the
second on a sedge. Uromyces urticte, Peronospora iirtictf, also grow
on it. It is infested by Dodder (Cuscuta europcea), and galled by
Cecidomyia urtica. Several beetles, Brachypterus urticce, T/iyamis
exoleta, Demetrius atricapillus, Halyzia punctata, Meligcthes hunbaris,
Elater sanguinolentus, Longitarsus luridus, Crepidodera ferruginea;
the Lepidoptera, Small Tortoise Shell (Vanessa urticee\ Red Admiral
( V. atalantd), Peacock (V. io\ Comma (Grapta c-albuni), Ghost Swift
(Hcpialus /mmuli). Reddish Buff (Phragmatobia caliginosa), Light
Spectacle (Abrostola urticce), Burnished Brass (Plusia chrysitis), Scarlet
Tiger (Callimorpha domimild), Botys verticalis, B. urticata, Choreutis
fabriciana, &c. ; Heteroptera, Sehirus bicolor, Heterogaster urticte,
Scolopostetkns affinis, Nabis rugosiis, Lygus pabulinns, Pceciloscytus
gyllcnhalii, Capsus laniarius\ and the Homoptera, Eupteryx urticce,
E. anratns, Trioza urticcc, feed upon it.

Urtica, Pliny, is from the Latin uro, I burn, and the second Latin
name refers to its dioecious character.

This plant is called Naughty Man's Plaything, Nettle, Stinging
Nettle, Scaddie, Stingy Nettle, Tinging Nettle.

Nettles are thrown on the fire to guard against lightning. It is
called Devil's Apron because associated with the evil one, and it was
believed it could drive away evil spirits. There is a proverb for those
who in spite of every kindness are themselves the reverse: " He that
handles a nettle tenderly is soonest stung ". Peasants use nettle tea as
a remedy for nettle-rash, and the tops cut in June for a nettle broth.
When carried about the person it was said to drive away fear, and so
worn in time of danger.


The tops are cut and used as a pot-herb as spinach. This plant
was used in religious festivals, preventing disease for a year, so it was
thought. When salted it will curdle milk. The stems are fibrous as
well as the root, and have been used for hemp to make ropes and
paper. Whipping with nettles was practised for lethargy, rheumatic
pains, palsy. The Nettle is refused by cattle.


279. Urtica dioica, L. Stem erect, tall, leaves opposite, cordate,
serrate, plant dioecious, male flowers in lax panicles, female crowded,
seeds ovate.

Black Bryony (Tamus communis, L.)

The present distribution of Black Bryony is the North Temperate
Zone in Europe, south of Belgium, N. Africa, to Asia, and it is un-
known in ancient deposits. In Great Britain it is found throughout
the Peninsula, Channel, Thames, Anglia, and Severn provinces, but is
not found in Radnor in S. Wales, Montgomery or Merioneth in N.
Wales, occurring in the Trent, Mersey, H umber, Tyne, and Lakes
provinces generally, except in the Isle of Man, or from Belgium south-
wards, and in the Channel Islands.

Black Bryony is common enough in England, growing usually in
hedges, either by the roadside or in fields, scarcely a hedge in some
districts being without it, while the White Bryony is far from general.
It is also to be found in moist woods.

Black Bryony has the twining or climbing habit, the shoots re-
volving in two and a half to three hours. The rootstock is large, egg-
shaped, subterranean, black, and fleshy. The stems are very long,
slender, angular or round, branched. The leaves are undivided, egg-
shaped to heart-shaped, acute, with a long narrow point, obscurely
lobed laterally, long -stalked, glossy, 5-7 -nerved, net-veined as in
Dicotyledons, the lip bristle-like. The stipules are bent backwards.

The flowers have a bell-shaped perianth, and are small, yellowish-
green, and regular, in axillary racemes on long stalks. The plant is
dioecious. The male flowers are solitary or grouped in slender racemes,
branched at the base, with 6 stamens inserted on the base of the
perianth -segments. The female flowers are in shorter racemes, bent
back, few-flowered, with a perianth adhering to the ovary, and short
functionless stamens. The bracts are very small. The limb of the
perianth is 5-partite. There is a single style. The berry is red, ob-
long, few-seeded, imperfectly 3-celled.



Black Bryony is a perennial plant, propagated by the root, which is
fleshy and black. The plant is a climber. It flowers from May to June.

The stamens open inwards. The stigmas are bilobed and bent
backwards. Pollination by insects is a necessary precursor to fertiliza-

Photo. L. R. J. Horn

BLACK BRYONY (Tannis com munis, L.)

tion in this plant. The male flowers are in lax racemes, and solitary
or branched; the female flowers are in short racemes, which are re-
curved, and have few flowers. In the allied Dwscorea only rudimentary
flowers are produced.

The fruit is a berry, which is red when ripe, and attractive to birds,
but usually dispersed by falling to the ground around the parent plant.


Black Bryony is a clay-loving plant, and addicted to a clay soil,
or partly a sand-loving plant, and found on sand soil.

Tamus, Gesner, Pliny says, was used as asparagus, as a diuretic,
and for spleen. In Tuscany it is called tamaro, and is now eaten as
asparagus there. The second Latin name refers to its wide distribution.

The plant is called Adder's Meat, Adder's Poison, Bead Bind,
Bindweed, Broyant, Bryony, Black Bryony, Elphamy, Isle of Wight
Vine, Lady's Seal, Mandrake, Murrain Berries, Oxberry, Poison
Berry, Roberry, Rowberry, Rueberry, Rollberry, Serpent's Meat,
Snakeberry, Snake's Food, Wild Vine.

It is called Serpent's Meat where an idea prevails that snakes are
always lurking about the places where it grows, perhaps by Doctrine
of Signatures, on account of its serpentine habit. In Montgomery it is
used to rub on the joints of animals, especially of pigs, that are lame
from a disease which is there called Broyant. It is called Oxberry
because the berries are collected by the farmers as a cure for barrenness
in cattle. It was named Our Lady's Seal because of the supposed
efficacy of its roots, when spread in a plaster, and applied to heal up
a scar or bruises. It is a climbing plant, which hibernates by tubers
formed by a lateral outgrowth of the first two internodes of the stem.


299. Tamus communis, L. Stem twining, wiry, leaves shiny,
cordate, acute, plant dioecious, flowers in axillary racemes, yellowish-
green, berry red.

Lords and Ladies (Arum maculatum, L.)

This common hedgerow plant is distributed throughout the N.
Temperate Zone in Europe from Gothland southward, N. Africa,
and is not represented in early deposits. Cuckoo Pint, as it is also
widely styled, is found generally throughout England and Wales; in
the E. Lowlands only in Roxburgh, Berwick, Edinburgh; in the
Highlands only in Stirling, Mid and East Perth, Dumbarton, Clyde
Islands, S. Ebudes; or from Caithness southward, and up to 1000 ft.
in N. England. It is doubtfully wild in Scotland, and grows in Ireland
and the Channel Islands.

Lords and Ladies is a peculiar plant, having likes and dislikes, just
as Dog's Mercury, Red Campion, Greater Stitchwort, and some other
common species, for certain areas. It is a shade plant, fond of growing
in woods and under hedges, and is not a lover of sand, but rather of
mild humus.


Perhaps the most striking feature of the Cuckoo Pint is its curious
flower. There is no true stem, and the leaves all spring from the base
of the tuberous root, which is used as sago. The leaves are net-
veined (which is unusual in monocotyledons), spear- or arrow-shaped,
with long lobes behind, the surface glossy green, spotted with black
patches (hence the second Latin name), stalked, with sheaths at the
base, enclosing the spathe, triangular and channelled above.

The inflorescence of this monoecious plant, with male and female

Photo. K. Hanley

LORDS AND LADIES (Arum macidatuin, L.), with the spathes open, after pollination

flowers, consists of a spadix, club-shaped, pink or purple, narrow below,
borne on a smooth, rounded scape, and enclosed within a thin, white
spathe, often yellowish-green, swollen below; and at the base are the
oval ovaries. Below, the stamens and the stigmas are bearded with
long hairs. No styles are found. The spathe falls off when ripe.
The berries are scarlet.

Cuckoo Pint is a foot high, and flowers about April and May.
It is perennial, propagated by seeds.

Cuckoo Pint is proterogynous, and the female flowers open first
and lose the chance of being pollinated before the anthers on the same
plant, which are above, are ripe. So that it is necessary for fresh


pollen to be brought from other flowers for cross-pollination to take
place. The plant's own pollen drops to the bottom of the tube, useless,
unless carried away.

This mode of crossing is effected by flies, which creep down the
wide, conspicuous spathe, the plant attracting, by its ammonia-like
smell, small Diptera (Psyckoda) into the lower part This forms a
prison for the time being. When they reach the metamorphosed
stamens or hairs, which point downwards (and at first act as a chevaux
de frise around the lower part of the spadix), they are effectually
prevented afterwards, did they so wish, to do so at once, or until a
certain time, from returning, though entrance is easy.

The stigmas are at the base of the spadix and are mature first,
and if the flies bring pollen, from anthers, from another flower at a
later stage they cross-pollinate the plant. It is considered by Father
Gerard, S.J., that the liquor secreted by the stigmas has a stupefying
effect on the flies, which are found killed and digested in the inner
part of the spathe, so that the plant is in this sense apparently in-

During the second stage the stigmatic papillae wither, and a drop
of sweet liquid appears in the middle of each stigma as a reward, whilst
in the third stage the anthers open and pollen falls on the floor of the
chamber, and can hardly fail to dust the flies. When the palisade of
hairs withers, these helpful insects pass out and may enter another
flower in the first stage. The flowers are visited by Ceratopagon,
Chironomus, Sciara, Psyckoda, Limosina, Drosophila.

The fruit is a berry, fleshy, and red when ripe, poisonous, but eaten
sometimes by birds and man. Usually the berries fall when ripe around
the parent plant.

Cuckoo Pint is a humus-loving plant, growing in a humus soil, and
largely a clay-loving plant, preferring clay to sand.

Two fungi, Protomyces art and one stage of Puccinia phalaridis,
grow on this plant.

A moth, the Lesser Broad-border (Triph&na ianthind], is found
upon it.

Arum, Dioscorides, is from an Arabic root, and the second Latin
name refers to the spotted leaves.

This queer plant is known by a variety of names, Aaron, Adam-
and-Eve, Adder's-meat, Adder's-tongue, Aron, Arrowroot, Bloody
Man's Fingers, Bobbin-and-Joan, Bobbins, Buckrams, Bulls-and-Cows,
Bulls-and-wheys, Calf's-foot, Cocky-baby, Cow-and-calves, Cuckoo-
babies, Cuckoo, Cock, Cuckoo-flower, Cuckoo-pint, Cuckoo-pintle,


Cuckoo-point, Cuckoo-spit, Dead Man's Fingers, Devil's Ladies-and-
Gentlemen, Devil's Men-and-Women, Dog-bobbins, Dog's Spear,
Dog's Dibble, Dog's Tansle, Great or Small Dragon, Dragon's
Fingers, Lords and Ladies' Fingers, Friar's Cowl, Gentlemen-and-
Ladies, Gethsemane, Jack-in- Box, Kings and Queens, Lady's Fingers,
Lamb-in-a-pulpit, Lamb Lakins, Lily-grass, Lords and Ladies, Man-
drake, Nightingales, Parson and Clerk or Parson- in- the- Pulpit, Parson,
Pillicods, Pintle Wort, Priest's Pintle, Quaker's Rampe, Ramps, Ram's
Horn, Schoolmaster, Snake's Food or Snake's Meat, Snake's Victuals,
Starch-root, Starch Wort, Wake Pintle, Wake Robin, Wild Lily.

The red berries are men and the green women, hence Devil's
Men-and-Women. Holme says: "This is of some called Frier's
Cowle because of the hooding of the pestle, when it is springing
forth." The light spadices represent ladies, the dark gentlemen, hence
Ladies-and-Gentlemen and Lords and Ladies, Adam-and-Eve, Bulls-
and-Cows; but as to the first, Holloway quaintly says: "So called, I
presume, from the stately appearance the blossom has by being
partially enclosed and protected by the sheath, so that the flower
appears as though it were a kind of state chair or carriage."

The spadices are like bobbins in use formerly in Bucks, hence the
name Bobbins.

" Where peep the gaping speckled Cuckoo flowers,
Prizes to rambling schoolboys' vacant hours."

As it was supposed to be associated with the evil one it was also
called Devil's Ladies-and-Gentlemen. The spots were ascribed to
drops of blood from the Cross. Half-starved bears, after hibernating,
are said to be restored by eating it, and its juice was thought to be
good for the plague.

The root is insipid and mucilaginous, but pungent afterwards. It
loses the bitter taste when dry, and the roots are farinaceous, and were
formerly used as Portland Starch, but it is difficult to remove the
poisonous principle and is not much used. It is stimulating and dia-
phoretic. The root has been used for soap and juice for cosmetics,
cypress powder. It has been applied for asthma and dropsy.


311. Arum maculatum, L. Scape with leaves sheathed at the
base on long petioles, leaves sagittate, spotted, flower in spathe twice
as long as the spadix, which is clavate, berries scarlet.




The Density of the Woods. An outstanding
feature of a wood or forest, especially in its
natural state, is its dense character. It is for
this reason that one resorts to it, for its cool
and shady character in summer is at once
a pleasing contrast to the open fields where
the full blaze of the sun is felt. But the
density of a wood has a more particular bear-
ing on the component parts of the woodland
flora. In the first place, it is the density
of the wood that makes the habit of the tree
zone. The close ranks of the tree-trunks
themselves cause each to have a particular
habit, and regulate the mode of branching
above. This is well shown where different
degrees of closeness are exhibited, as in
natural glades or clearings, or where arti-
ficial thinning or coppicing is carried out.

The density of a wood also regulates the
extent and character of all the lower strata,
e.g. scrub and ground flora. Where a wood
is dense the scrub may be absent, or as in
case of the trees, attenuated, and growth con-
fined mainly to upward extension. In the
case of the ground flora the density of a
wood will cause the societies to be large or
small proportionally, or even absent in many
cases, as in a Beech woodland. Apart from
this effect on habit, a dense woodland is far
moister, darker, and more liable to fungal

The Darkness of Woods. The darkness of
a wood has less effect upon habit than upon
the character of the lower zones, when the
absence of light is due to the density of the
tree zone. Since plants depend for the forma-
tion of starch very largely upon light, it is
obvious that this factor is of very great
importance. In a dense wood one may see
numerous instances of complete etiolation or
bleaching, and partial etiolation or variega-

tion. The vigour of plants is also corre-
spondingly affected in other directions, in the
size and extent of their parts, the absence of
flowering or successful fruiting. Many trees
even may not succeed in flowering or maturing
seeds in a dark wood.

The prevalence of fungi, which obtain their
carbohydrates ready made, is a feature of
woodlands, and their existence in a dark wood
is due to their ability to adapt themselves in
this way. The kindred groups of phanero-
gamic saprophytes or parasites, such as Broom-

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