A. R. (Arthur Reginald) Horwood.

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of lovers. It was called " Great Candlestick " because that was lighted
up on St. John the Baptist's Day.

When it is cultivated it sometimes becomes double. A white-
flowered form exists in a wild state.

The flower is visited by the small Elephant Hawk Moth in the
evening, being partly crepuscular.

ESSENTIAL SPECIFIC CHARACTERS:

49. Lychnis dioica, L. Dicecious, stem tall, erect, leaves lanceolate,
flowers pink, calyx teeth triangular, peduncle downy, capsule globular,
with 10 recurved teeth.



24 FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES

Lime or Linden (Tilia vulgaris, Hayne)

This tree has not been found fossil in Britain, but in the Pine and
Oak Zones in S. Sweden. It is found in the North Temperate Zone
in Europe and the Caucasus. The Common Lime, as is suggested by
its absence from any deposits where fossil seeds and fruits have been
discovered, as well as by its history, is not truly aboriginal, and its
distribution is dependent upon planting. It is, however, well dispersed.




I.i ME (Tilia vulgaris, L. ) SHOWING DROOPING FOI.IAGK



The Common Lime has been requisitioned for forming plantations
for many centuries, but was doubtless introduced here. Where it is
not found forming plantations it is planted in and around gardens and
in parks to create a landscape effect, and may be found in most country
districts, as well as in towns, where it thrives, but it is often superseded
by other species of Lime.

The Lime has the tree habit. The trunk may exceptionally reach
a height of i 20 ft. The bole is thick. The branches are spreading,
hanging down at the extremities. The twigs are hairless. The leaf
buds are drooping at first; if horizontal, they would be more exposed to
cold. The leaves are thin, membranous, light transparent green, twice
as long as the leaf-stalks, rounded to heart-shaped, unequal at the base,
hairless, except at the branching of the veins below where there are



KEY TO PLATE XIX



No. i. Lime
(Tilia iiulgaris> Hayne)
a, Part of flowering branch
with leaf, inflorescence aris-
ing from large foliose bract,
and pendulous flowers in bud
and one open, with petals,
anthers, and central pjstil. b,
Part of cyme, with hairy
capsules before dehiscing.



No. 2. Wild Strawberry
(Fragaria vcsca, L.)

, Vertical section of flower
(enlarged), showing sepals(in-
ferior), petals alternating with
them, young fruit on the
gradually convex receptacle,
and stamens, b, Plant, with
root, runner, tuft of leaves,
and flower-stalkj with flowers
and achenes \tiknbcdded in
the fleshy receptacle.



No. >3. HoUy

(Ilex, Aquifolium, L.)
a, Group of flowers in cyme,
with parts in four, 4 sepals,
4 petals, 4 stamens, and cen-
tral pistil, with subtending
leaves showing spines at the
end of the veins, b, Berrieu,
red when ripe, c, Berry cut
in section, a 4-celled stone or
drupe with 4 stones.










f^fflfc. 4.
(Prttnus (.
a, Vertical section of flower,
showing sepals, petals, and
perigyiious stamens, and cen-
tral pistil with long style, bj
Fascicle ,of flowers, showing
fugacious notched petals, and
turned-back sepals of the
gamosepalous calyx. <y A
drupe, with a leaf, showing
smooth under surface.



No. 5. Wood Sorrel
(OxatisAcetosella,L.}

a, F ive-angled capsule, wfth
2 (seeds 'in one cell, exposed.
b. Plant showing root, scales,
leaves, some "asleep", and
2 flowers, with, 5 petals
with veins or honey-guides,
anthers, and stigma.







No. 6 White Beam
(PyrusAria, Ehrh.)
<z. Three fruits (pomes;,
showing the dotted brilliantly
Coloured pericarp, and pier- J,
sistcnt calyx-lobes. ;
florescepce (c/mose), with
flowers showing the 5 petals,
and many stamens; also a
leaf with coarsely-toothed
margin.



-







(tyi-ns Ana, Ehrh.).



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FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES



PLATE XIX




I. Lime (Tilia vnlgaris, Hayne). 2. Wild Strawberry (Fragaria vesca, L.). 3- Ho\\y (flex 4gui/0/ium, L.).
4. Wild Cherry (Prunus Cerasus, L.). 5- Wood Sorrel (Oxalis Acetosella, L.). 6. White Beam

(Pyrus Aria, Ehrh.).



LIME 25

woolly tufts, smooth above. The young leaves have stellate hairs.
The stipules are large, crimson or ruby.

On the under surface, where the nerves are spreading, are triangular
areas, enclosed by the walls of the nerves and a fringe of long hairs.
Lindstrom regards these as domatia or abodes of mites, which lay
their eggs in the fruit in special cavities. The mites remain in the
domatia by day, coming out at night, and are thought to live on the
spores of fungi which may be found on the leaves. Where the mites




LIME {Tilin vulgaris, L.) FROM BKLOW

are abundant at any rate the leaves are healthy. These domatia are
found also in the Oak, Elm, Alder, Holly. The mites do not leave the
domatia in the day, but at night travel over the leaves.

The flowers are sweet-scented, pale whitish-green, in a naked
cyme, which has a lance-shaped leaflike bract at the base of the droop-
ing flower-stalk, which bears many flowers. There are 5 deciduous
sepals, 5 petals. The stamens are numerous, free or united. The
ovary is round, 5-celled, the cells 2-seedecl. The fruit is i -celled,
leathery, woody, not ribbed, downy.

The tree is often 50 ft. high. It flowers in June, July, and August.
It is a deciduous tree.

The flowers of this Lime are exceptionally sweet, and smell like



26 FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES

honey. The scent is strongest at a distance of 30 yd., as in the case
of the Vine, and the flowers are much visited therefore by bees
though the flowers are not conspicuous for the abundant honey
which is held in the sepals at the base, and short-lipped insects can
reach it. The flowers are drooping and thus protected from the
rain, and the leaves above and the bract-like appendage also shelter
them above. The stamens are numerous, and before the stigma is
mature they shed their pollen, so that the flower cannot pollinate
itself. It is proterandrous, the anthers ripening first. The stamens
are taller than the sepals or petals, and curve outwards. Insects
are bound to settle on the space between the anthers and stigmas,
or on either of them. The stamens are bent out, away from the
pistil, which occupies the axis, and self-pollination is precluded. The
seed rarely ripens, it is said, in Britain, but it does so more than
is generally supposed.

The visitors are Hymenoptera (Apidse, Sphegidae) and Diptera
(Syrphidae, Muscidae, Tabanidae).

The Lime is adapted to wind dispersal like most trees; the stalk
bearing the cluster of nuts, which hang down below a wide scale-like
bract or leaflike organ, acts as a sort of aeroplane, and carries the
seeds to a distance, the fruit not opening.

This tree is a sand-lover or rock-lover, requiring a sand or rock soil.

The Lime is infested by many fungi.

A common fungus is Polyporus sulpkureus. Eriophyes tilice forms
nail-like outgrowths on the leaves. Cecidomyia tilicola forms galls in
the flower-stalks. Fungi of the genera Nectria, Psilocybe, Hypholoma,
Flanininla, Plcurotus, Collybia, Gleosporium, and Exosporium infest it
also. The beetles Rhynchites betuleti, Dorcus parallelepipedus, the
Hymenopterous Eriocampa, the Lepidoptera Camberwell Beauty
( / 'ancssa antiopa], Lime Hawk-moth (Smerinthus tilia), Pale Promi-
nent (Notodonta palpina), Marvel du Jour (Miselia aprilinus], the
Hemipterous Phytocoris tilia, the Homoptera Ptcrocolus tilia, As-
pidiotus tili(C, and the Diptera Cecidomyia tilicz, Sciura tilicola are
found on the Lime.

Tilia, Pliny, is the Latin for lime tree, and vulgaris denotes its
universal occurrence. Lime is a variant of the old English lind, which
is a Teutonic root. The Lime is called Lenten, Lime Tree, Lin,
Linde, Line, Teili, Til, Tile or Tilet Tree, or Tillet or Tillet-tree,
White Wood.

" ' Now tell me thy name, good fellow,' said he,
Under the leaves of lyne."



WOOD SORREL 27

This tree was held in veneration, and superstitious people might
formerly often be seen carrying sickly children to a forest for the
purpose of dragging them through the holes so commonly to be found
in this tree.

Garlands of flowers were tied with bark of the lime at banquets in
the old days to prevent intoxication.

" Nay, nay, my boy, 't is not for me
This studious pomp of Eastern luxury.
Give me no various garlands fine

With linden twine,
Nor seek where latest lingering flows

The solitary rose."

The inner bark or bast is used for matting in the garden, and,
imported from Archangel, it is called Russian. The wood was used
formerly in the days of wood engraving for wood blocks, and Holbein's
work is said to have been done with lime blocks. The box is now
very largely used in its place. Honey made by insects from this tree
is said to be the best honey. The wood is used for turned bowls
and dishes and pill -boxes. Baskets and cradles are made from the
twigs. The bark was once used for writing tablets, and also rope.
Formerly leather was cut on planks of the lime.

The Lime was formerly used largely in wood carving. Gibbons
executed much good work in it, to be seen in churches and else-
where, e.g. St. Paul's, Trinity College library, Cambridge, Chatsworth
Hall.

Sugar is made from the sap.

ESSENTIAL SPECIFIC CHARACTERS:

65. Tilia vulgaris, Hayne. Tall tree, leaves large, glabrous, with
woolly tufts in axils of veins beneath, flowers yellow, in a cyme, with
an oblong, leafy bract, fruit not ribbed, downy.

Wood Sorrel (Oxalis Acetosella, L.)

Seeds have been found in late Glacial beds at Edinburgh, and in
Neolithic beds there and in Essex. The North and Arctic Temperate
Zones describe its limit, the plant occurring in Arctic Europe, North
Africa, N. and W. Asia to the Himalayas, and N. America. It is
found in most parts of Great Britain, but not in Hunts, Cardigan,
South Lines, Mid Lanes, Shetlands, elsewhere as far north as the
Orkneys. It ascends to nearly 40x30 ft. in the Highlands. It is found
in Ireland and in the Channel Islands.



28 FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES

Woods, where there is little or no undergrowth to outgrow this
tender little wild flower, are the places in which to look for Wood
Sorrel. It is a shade-loving plant which may be found growing on the
sloping banks of little tree-sheltered ravines removed from woods, but
is most luxuriant and widespread in the latter.

This delicate, pretty, bulbous plant has no aerial stem. The leaves
are ternate or divided into 3, and consist of 3 leaflets, hairy, stalked,
three-nerved, the leaf-stalks not winged. The root is toothed and
creeping.

The scape or flowering stem is longer than the leaves, with two
bracts or leaflike organs at the top, and is single-flowered. The flowers
are white with purple veins, and of two kinds, the smaller being
cleistogamic, like the Violet. When flowering is over the scape or
flowering stem bends down, and when the seed is ripe it becomes
erect. When ripe the fruits may be opened at the angles, and the
seeds are thrown to a distance. The capsule is divided into five
chambers, with two black, smooth seeds in each attached to the central
pillar.

Three inches is the greatest height of this lowly, graceful flower,
which blooms in April and May. It is perennial, increasing by offsets.

Wood Sorrel is dimorphic, i.e. there are two or more forms, and the
flowers are cleistogamic, like those of the Violet. Here the smaller ones
are cleistogamic and bury the capsules in the ground, and the larger
ones are normal and conspicuous. The anthers and stigma mature
together. In the rain the flowers bend over. There are five fleshy
nectaries or knobs at the base of the petals. The flowers open between
9 a.m. and 6 p.m. The dimorphic characteristics, with the variations
between long- and short-styled forms, affords greater chance of cross-
pollination.

Wood Sorrel disperses its seeds immediately around it. When the
capsule is mature it is stretched, and this causes it to split open and
eject the seeds, by a catapult motion, to some distance. Really the
seeds eject themselves. The cells of the inner layer are small and
swollen. The coat splits down one side, and the inner cells expand,
turn the coat inside out, the inner and outer coat changing place.

This plant is a lover of humus, and requires a humus soil, being
also to a certain extent a clay-lover, requiring a clayey soil.

The Wood Sorrel is infested by no fungi or insect pests.

Oxalis, Pliny, is derived from the Greek oxus, sharp, acid, and aceto-
sclla is from Latin acetum, sour wine, vinegar; Sorrel is derived from
sour.



WOOD SORREL



29



Wood Sorrel is known by many names: Alleluia, Allolida, Bird's
Bread-and-Cheese, Bread-and-Cheese, Bird's Clover, Sorrell, Cuckoo's,
Gowk's, or Sour Clover, Cuckoo's Bread-and-cheese, Cuckoo-flower,
Cuckoo -spice, Cuckoo's Victuals, Sour Grass, Green Sauce, God
A'mighty's Bread and Cheese, Gowk Meat, Hallelujah, Hare's Meat,
Hearts, Lady's Cakes, Lady's Clover, Lady's Meat, Laverocks, Lu-
jula, Rabbit Meat, Sham-
rock, Sheep Sorrel, Sleep-
ing Beauty, Sleeping
Clover, French or Wood
Sorrel, Sour Clover, Sour
Sals, Stabwort, Stob-
wort, Stopwort, Stub-
wort, Wood-sour, Wood-
sower.

Wood Sorrel was
called Stabwort because
it was said to be good for
wounds, punctures, stabs,
&c., and Stub- wort, from
growing at the roots of
old trees. The name
Alleluia is explained, "By
reason when it springeth
forth and flowereth Alle-
luia was wont to be sung
in churches " (i.e. between
Easter and Pentecost).

The name Hearts is
from the shape of the
leaves.

The flowers were formerly called fairy bells, and it was thought
that the fairies were summoned to their moonlight revels by these
bells. Wood Sorrel was called St. Cecilia's Flower, St. Cecilia's Day
being celebrated 22nd November, on account of the trumpet-like form
of the leaves. Another legend attributes the spotting of the leaves
to their being blood-drops from the Cross.

The foliage is extremely sharp and acid, hence some of its names.
It contains a binoxalate of potash. The juice is expressed and
evaporates, and the crystals are produced from which we obtain salts
of lemon. This is used for removing ink stains. It is poisonous and




Photo. J. H. Crabtree

WOOD SORREL (Oxalis Acetosella, L.)



30 FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES

must be used with caution. Wood Sorrel was used as a salad. It has
been endowed with cooling, antiscorbutic (remedy for skin diseases),
and diuretic properties. An infusion was given in cases of fever.

The leaves expand in wet weather and droop in dry weather, and
are sensitive also to the touch. They change their position in relation
to the light in four ways: the whole leaf may move, it may change its
angle, the chlorophyll granules in the cells may rearrange themselves,
as in Duckweed, or the grains may alter their form. The leaves close
and droop in the sun and at night. The short stalks effect these
two movements, absorption and transpiration enabling this sensitive-
ness to show itself in action.

ESSENTIAL SPECIFIC CHARACTERS:

70. Oxalis Acetosella, L. Stem a rhizome, rhizome toothed, leaves
ternate, hairy, radical, leaflets obcordate, peduncles i -flowered, flower
white with purple veins, 2 bracts in middle of scape.

Holly (Ilex Aquifolium, L.)

Interglacial beds in Sussex, Neolithic beds in Essex have yielded
evidence of the antiquity of the Holly. It is found in the Northern
Temperate Zone in Europe from South Norway to Turkey and the
Caucasus and Western Asia. It is found in 105 vice-counties of Great
Britain, but in some districts is mainly planted, and ranges from
Caithness southward, ascending to 1000 ft. in the Highlands. It is
also common to Ireland and the Channel Islands.

In some districts whole woods are filled with an undergrowth of
Holly, while in other districts there is little or none. In most hilly
tracts it occurs sporadically lining the hedgerows at intervals along the
roadside, and in the fields, whilst in these last a few may form a small
coppice by themselves, just as Hawthorns do when allowed to grow
up from seed.

Holly is a tall tree or shrub, 10-40 feet high, with a single, upright,
main stem, branched above, or with several stems growing out together
from a common base. The young shoots are downy. The bark is
smooth, ashen-grey or black. The foliage is dense, dark, shiny,
smooth. The leaves are egg-shaped, acute, wavy, with prickly points
below, losing them higher up the tree. The borders are cartilaginous.
These spines are usually held to be a protection against browsing
cattle, but are probably adaptations (as in the Cactus) to dry -soil
conditions. The cuticle is thick, which is another feature of dry-soil
types, and a protection against cold. The smoothness of the leaf and



HOLLY 3'

its twisted form may serve to prevent the leaves being weighted with
snow, a character common to many deciduous trees and shrubs. The
tree is compact, and often makes dense bushes. There are black,
minute, leaflike organs, pointed, and functionless.

The flowers are in umbel-like cymes, many-flowered, on short
stalks, which are in the axils. The flowers are white or cream colour.
Though frequently the flowers are complete the plants may be some-




HOLLY (Ilex Aquifolium, L.)

times more or less dioecious, and are variable in the structure of the
flower. The sepals are egg-shaped, downy, 4-5-lobed, and do not
fall. The corolla is wheel-shaped, with petals united below or distinct,
inversely egg-shaped, hollow above. There are 4 stigmas which are
stalkless, free or united. The 4 stamens are attached to the corolla
with awl -like stalks and oblong anthers. The ovary is 4-6-celled.
The drupe or berry is round, and contains a 4-5 -celled stone or
4 stones. They are orange or scarlet when ripe. The seeds have
a membranous outer coat.

From i o to 30 ft. is the usual height of the tree. Flowers may be



32 FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES

found between May and August. The Holly is an evergreen tree,
increased by suckers and seed.

The flowers are small and often polygamous. The stigmas are
liable to be self-pollinated, being stalkless or nearly so, and the awl-
shaped anther-stalks therefore hang above them, and self-pollination can
easily ensue. Moreover, the male and female flowers are in other
cases on different trees or generally so, and in the larger female flowers
the sterile stamens are so large that the plant might be both male and
female, examples of which type actually exist. The male flowers have
a rudimentary pistil. There is little honey, which is exposed.

The Holly is dispersed by animals. The fruit is edible, and the
seeds are dispersed by animals.

The soil required is a humus soil, the tree being a humus-lover,
but it is also a rock plant, and will grow on very barren formations on
dry soil.

The leaves are mined by larvae of Phytomyza ilicis. The beetles
Luc anus cemus, Sinodendron cylindricum, Trip lax anea, and Epunea
angustula visit it. It is also infested by Aspidiotus britannicus, Pce-
disca ophthalmicana, Chromatomyia ilicis. The Privet Hawk -moth
feeds upon it, also the Azure Blue Butterfly, and the moth Steganop-
tycha Havana.

I lex, Pliny, is Latin for Holm Oak; and aqui folium, Pliny, alludes
to the sharp-pointed leaf. Holly is A.S. holegn.

Holly goes by the name of Aunt Mary's Tree, Christmas, Croco-
dile, Free Holly, He Holly, Helver, Holieverd, Hollin, Hollond,
Holyn, Holly, She Holly, Holm, Hull, Hulver, Poison berry, Prick
Hollin, Spark Holm. He and She Holly are names given to trees
with or without prickles.

In connection with Holly there is a Holly Dance at Holly time or
Christmas, when the Holly-bough is a decoration.

Formerly in Northumberland Holly leaves were used in divining.
They were plucked late on a Friday by persons who keep silence from
the time they go out till dawn next day, the leaves were collected in a
three-cornered handkerchief, and nine were selected when brought home,
tied with nine knots in the handkerchief, and placed under the pillow.

Good dreams accompany the observance of this rite.

" Get ivye and hull, woman deck up thyne house."
And

" Save hulver and thorne thereof flaile for to make ".

In the time of Pliny, Holly was planted near houses to ward off



WILD CHERRY 33

lightning. The name so resembles holy that it was said to cause
witches to be afraid of the tree. It was thought to possess virtues as
a dream plant, and was used on Christmas Eve, New Year's Day,
Midsummer, and Hallowe'en. An anxious lover would place three
pails of water in her bedchamber and pin three leaves of Holly to her
nightdress, near the heart, and then go to sleep. She thinks she will
be roused from sleep by three yells, as though from three bears, and
three hoarse laughs. When they have died away her future husband
appears and changes the position of the pails.

Wreaths of Holly were sent for congratulation at a wedding in
Rome. The ancients regarded it as a sign of the life which preserved
nature, through winter, and it was brought into temples to comfort
sylvan spirits.

A cure for chilblains is to thresh them with Holly. It was held that
its flowers formed water and drove off lightning. According to an old
tradition if a Holly stick is thrown at an animal, even without hitting
it, it would return and lie down by it. It has been used in feasts of
purification of savage people. In Germany it was the Christ thorn.
It is universally grown as an ornamental shrub, and hedges are made
of it and kept clipped like box. Bird-lime is prepared by boiling it.
The bark is used in place of cinchona. In the Black Forest the
natives use it to make tea. Paraguay tea or mate is derived from
an Ilex (/. paraguayensis].

Tunbridge ware is made from Holly. The wood is white and
hard, and used for inlay work.

Holly is very long-lived, and is ubiquitous, preferring a dry soil,
but is slow-growing, and never reaches a great size.

Evelyn had a hedge at Deptford 400 ft. long, 9 ft. high, and
15 ft. broad.

ESSENTIAL SPECIFIC CHARACTERS:

72. Ilex Aquifolium, L. Tree, with ovate leaves, spinose below,
evergreen, shining, glabrous, peduncles many-flowered, flowers white,
umbelled corolla rotate, berry red, poisonous.

Wild Cherry (Prunus Cerasus, L.)

There is no trace of this in early Glacial beds. It is found in the
Northern Temperate Zone in Europe, eastward to the Himalayas, in
the Azores, and Canaries. In Great Britain it is found in Cornwall,
Somerset, N. Devon, Wilts, Dorset, Isle of Wight, West Sussex,
throughout the Thames province except West Kent, in Anglia every-



34 FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES

where except in East Norfolk, Hunts, and only in Hereford, Warwick,
and Salop in the Severn district; in Wales in Brecon, Pembroke,
Cardigan, Carnarvon, Denbigh, and Anglesea. Elsewhere it is found
in Leicester, Chester, Mid, West, and N.W. Yorks, Westmorland, and
Cumberland. It is wild or well-established south of Yorkshire. It is
rare in Ireland and the Channel Islands. Watson regards this with
some hesitation as indigenous. The Wild Cherry, however, is a feature
in some woodlands, notably in the south, where it occurs with other
sylvan trees, such as Lime, Holly, White Beam, Mountain Ash, Way-
faring Tree, Elm, Oak, Beech, Aspen, and others.

This is an erect, branched tree, with shortly stalked, egg-shaped,
lancelike leaves, which are smooth, dark bluish-green, spreading in two
series in bud, scalloped, and toothed. The flowers are in shortly
stalked umbels or clusters, the buds having rough outer margins,
white, the petals blunt above, nearly erect, and the corolla is cup-
shaped, the calyx-tube not narrowed from side to side.

The petals have a short claw, and have a slight notch at the end.
The fruit is globose, black or red, acidic and staining.

The Wild Cherry Tree is distinguished by its lesser stature. The
height is rarely more than 5-8 ft. The tree flowers in April and May.
It is a deciduous tree, increased by grafting. It is evergreen in Ceylon,
and in S. Europe retains its leaves some time.

Anthers and stigmas ripen together, and spread far apart away


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