A. R. (Arthur Reginald) Horwood.

A new British flora : British wild flowers in their natural haunts (Volume 3) online

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from the centre of the flower. The stigmas overtop the inner stamens,
but are only on a level with the outer stamens. In some plants the
anthers are ripe first. The flowers last a week. If insects touch the
stigmas and anthers with different parts of the body when they seek
for honey cross-pollination may result. Insects collecting or feeding
on pollen or honey indiscriminately cross- or self-pollinate the plant.
When the flowers are oblique pollen may fall from the taller stamens
upon the stigma. The Wild Cherry is visited by the Honey Bee,
Bombus, Osmia rufa, Andrena, Rhingia, Eristalis, and Lepidoptera,
such as Large White (Pieris brassiccz), Small White (P. rapa),
Green-veined White (P. napi).

The fruit is an edible, bright-coloured, ovary wall or drupe, with a
soft outer coat, luscious when ripe, and dispersed by birds, man, &c.

The Wild Cherry is more or less a sand plant requiring a sandy
loam, but also a lime soil and humus to a slight degree.

The Garden Cherry is subjected to numerous ravages by fungi and
insects, e.g. Exoascus^ Podosphcsra^ Gnomonia, Plowrightia, Sclerotinia,
Puccinia, Entomosporium, Corynum, Fusicladium, Cladosporium, Cerio-



WILD CHERRY



35



spora, Fusarium, Bacillus. It is attacked by the Aphis, Myzus cerasi
and by the Scolytus rugulosus, Garden Chafer, Mottled Umber Moth,
Cherry Aphis, Common Cockchafer, Weevil, Large Tortoise Shell,
Winter Moth, Cherry and Pear Sawfly, also by the beetle Magdalinus
cerasi, the Hymenoptera, Priophorus ructi, Pamphilus flaviventris,




WILD CHERRY (Prunus Cerasus, L.)



Photo. B. Hanley



the Lepidoptera Cidaria psittacata, Clouded Silver Streak, Semasia
walierana, Argyresthia pruniana; and the fly Rhagiletes cerasi feeds
on it.

Cerasus, Pliny, is the Latin for cherry-tree, so named from the
place whence it was brought to Italy.

Wild Cherry is called Agriot, Arbouses, Tulties. When seen in
dreams it was a bad omen, and to dream of it meant inconstancy.
" A cherry year, a merry year."

A person on the lookout to make use of opportunity is said " to
have a ready mouth for a ripe cherry ". And

" A woman and a cherry are painted for their own harm ".

Their awkwardness to eat caused the proverb:

" Eat pear with the king and cherries with the beggar ".



3 6 FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES

And

" Those that eat cherries with great persons shall have their eyes squinted
out with the stones ".

For fever on St. John's Day it was recommended to lie naked under
a cherry tree and shake the dew on one's back.

It was dangerous to climb a cherry tree on St. James's Day, as the
chance of breaking one's neck is great. The tree was consecrated to
the Virgin, who wished one day to refresh herself when she saw some
cherries hanging on a tree, and asked Joseph to gather some for her.
He hesitated, and, mocking her, said: "Let the father of thy child
present them to you ". No sooner had he said this than the bough
inclined itself to her. Christ gave one to St. Peter, reminding him
not to despise little things. The cuckoo must eat three meals of
cherries before it ceases to sing.

This plant is the origin of the Morello Cherry and Kentish cherries.
The fruit is small and acid when wild. In the fourteenth century
ground-up cherry stones were supposed by the Doctrine of Signatures
to cure stone.

The wood is close, and used for cabinet-work, and for making pipes
and cigarette-holders, as well as walking-sticks. A spirit is distilled
from the fruit called Kirschwasser (German for cherry-water). Noyau
and Ratafia are flavoured with the kernels, which contain prussic acid.

From a variety grown in Dalmatia Maraschino is prepared.

ESSENTIAL SPECIFIC CHARACTERS:

92. Pntnus Cerasns, L. Shrub or tree, erect, S-io ft., leaves
shortly stalked, doubly crenate, not drooping, glabrous, flowers in
sessile umbels, white, calyx-tube not constricted, petals with a claw,
fruit juicy, acid, red, round.

Wild Strawberry (Fragaria vesca, L.)

The soft nature of the fruits of this wild plant, in spite of the
harder seeds, has prevented them from being preserved as fossils. The
present distribution is limited to Arctic Europe, N. and W. Asia, the
Himalayas, and North America. The Wild Strawberry is general in
Great Britain, but does not occur in S. Lines, Mid Lanes, Stirling,
E. Sutherland, Hebrides, though elsewhere as far north as Shetland,
and it ascends to nearly 2000 ft. in the Highlands. It is common
also to Ireland and the Channel Islands.

The Wild Strawberry is a shade-loving plant, which is to be found



WILD STRAWBERRY



37



in shady lanes where broad banks are overhung by trees or herbage,
where moisture is uniform but not too abundant. It is seen at its
best, however, and in greatest profusion, in those natural (or may be
artificial) glades in woods where, in additional to continual moisture,
light and sunshine are regularly diffused.

The wild plant is a much smaller form of the garden type, but
closely resembling it in habit. It is freely stoloniferous, and the radical




oto. Rev. C. A. Hall



WILD STRAWBERRY (Fragaria vesca, L.)



leaves are trifoliate, with serrate margins, sessile. The stolons are a
foot or more long.

The flowering stems or scapes are clothed with down which is
made up of spreading hairs, and are borne in axils of the radical
leaves. The hairs on the pedicels are closely appressed. The calyx
is reflexed in fruit. The receptacle is large and convex, and here is
the source of the so-called berry. It is pulpy or succulent, bearing
the numerous achenes, which are hard, and usually regarded as the
seeds.

The Wild Strawberry is rarely more than 8 in. in height. The
flowers are in bloom in April and May. The Wild Strawberry is
perennial, and besides the stolons which spread it, it is propagated
by seeds.



3 8 FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES

There are three kinds of flowers: female producing much fruit,
complete less fertile flowers, and male flowers. Hermaphrodite and
female flowers may occur on the same umbel, and hermaphrodite and
female flowers on different umbels, and similar combinations with male
flowers.

As the stigmas mature before the anthers the plant is cross-
pollinated as a rule. The honey is secreted and concealed by a narrow,
fleshy ring at the base of the tube, and is protected by the stamens and
outer carpels. The petals spread out horizontally, and insects alight
on the central disk. If an insect should alight on the petals, it thrusts
its head between the stamens and touches the stigmas. It would
be self-pollinated if both were mature at once, but the stamens ripen
later, and the anthers open and expand into a flat disk, narrowing
the intervening space so that flies cannot reach the nectaries without
touching the anthers, which open at their edge, and are covered with
pollen along the latter only. Pollen falls on the stigmas if insects do not
visit the flowers. The visitors are Empis, Eristalis, Syrp/ms, Melith-
reptus, Rhingia, Syritta, Ant homy ia, Musca, Anthrcnus, Meligethes>
Dasytes, Malachins, Mordella, Grammoptera, Thrips, Prosopis,
Halictiis, Andrena, Nomada, Apis, Oxybelus.

The fruit is an edible, brightly coloured receptacle, with soft outer
coat, luscious when ripe, and dispersed by snails, birds, and man.

The Wild Strawberry is primarily a sand-loving plant, growing on
sand soil, but requires also a fair amount of humus soil, and may also
be a rocky-soil-loving species.

The fungi which infest the Strawberry are Spharotlieca humuli,
Sphcsrella fragarite, Scptoria fragarice.

The plant is galled by Aphelenchus fragarifs, one of the Eel- worms.
The flowers are attacked by the Golden Chafer; the fruit by ground
beetles, Calatlnis cisteloides, Harpalus ruficornis, and Pterostickus vul-
garis and P. madidus; the leaves by the Clay-coloured Weevil, Red-
legged Weevil, Black Vine Weevil, and Strawberry-leaf Weevil; the
roots by the small or garden Swift Moth, and Otiorhynchm picipes,
O. tenebricosns, O. sulcatus. The moths Cream Spot Tiger, Arctia
villica, Lampronia prelatella, Hesperia malvce, Marbled Carpet, Cidaria
nissata, Nepticula arcuata feed on it.

Fragaria, Pliny, is from the Latin fraga, meaning strawberries,
which is from the Sanskrit ghra, fragrant, and the second Latin name
means small, i.e. compared with F. clatior.

The Wild Strawberry is called F" reiser, Hedge Strawberry, Straw-
berry.



WHITE BEAM 39

This useful plant was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin.

" The Strawberry grows underneath the nettle,
And wholesome berries thrive and ripen best
Neighbour'd by fruit of baser quality."

The runners were used in medicine, being called Strebery Cyses,
and used in a preparation for wounds, and a " Drynk of Antioch ".
As early as the reign of Edward I the Wild Strawberry was cultivated
in England, and may be the origin of the Hautboy type (hautbois,
high wood, of Bohemia).

ESSENTIAL SPECIFIC CHARACTERS:

97. Fragaria vesca, L. Stoloniferous, leaves green, leaflets ternate,
sessile, hairy, peduncles erect with spreading hairs, flowers small, white,
petals entire, calyx recurved in fruit, hairs on pedicels appressed, fruit
fleshy with small achenes, on a receptacle.

White Beam (Pyrus Aria, Ehrh.)

Fruits of White Beam have been found in Preglacial beds at Pake-
field in Suffolk. It grows on Roman ruins at Silchester. To-day it
is a typical member of the flora of the North Temperate Zone, found
in Europe, North Africa, N. and W. Asia. In Great Britain it is
local, and is absent from Cornwall but found in the Channel province;
and it is absent from Essex in the Thames province, and E. Norfolk,
Hunts, and Northants in Anglia; it is absent from Worcester and
Warwick in the Severn province; and in Wales occurs only in Gla-
morgan, Radnor, Carmarthen, Montgomery, Carnarvon, Denbigh. It
is absent in Flint, S. Lines, and in the Mersey district is absent
entirely, and is not found in S.E. or N.E. York, nor in Northumber-
land, nor in the Isle of Man. Elsewhere in Scotland it is found in
Edinburgh, Linlithgow, Stirling, West Perth, S. Aberdeen, Cantire,
W. Sutherland. It is found in Yorks at a height of 1500 ft.

The White Beam is a woodland tree which is found very commonly
on chalky and calcareous soils in the south of England and elsewhere,
being planted in copses in some districts where it is doubtfully
indigenous.

It is a tall, deciduous tree, with a main stem, with numerous
ascending branches, which are closely ramified. The buds are erect,
a protection against cold. The leaves are oval-elliptic, with deeply cut
unequal serratures, below entire, whilst at the end the lobes are more
marked. The leaves are downy underneath, a character of importance



4



FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES



here, and smooth above. The cottony down is a protection to the
stomata, the undersides being often turned upwards.

The flowers are white, in lax corymbs. The fruit is subglobose
and yellow.

The tree grows to a height of 40 ft. The flowers are in bloom in
May and June. The White Beam is a perennial deciduous tree, and
can be increased by grafting.

The flowers are large and conspicuous, and arranged much on the




Photo. H. Irving



WHITE BEAM (Pyrus Aria, Ehrh.)



same plan as in the Rowan, where they are proterogynous. Though
cross-pollination will normally take place, if insects are absent then the
plant will pollinate itself. The honey is half-concealed and secreted
at the base of the ovary.

The fruit, a pome, is edible, fleshy and scarlet when ripe, and is
dispersed by birds.

This tree is a lime-loving plant, and addicted to a lime soil in its
native habitats, but where it is planted it may grow on sand soil or
even on clay.

A moth, Lyonetia clerckella, feeds upon it.

Pyrus, Pliny, is from the Latin for pear tree.

White Beam is called Hen-apple, Beam Tree, Chess-apple, Cum-



MOUNTAIN ASH 41

berland Hawthorn, Hoar Withy, Lot-tree, Mulberry, Sea Ouler, Pear
Tree, Wild Cowbin, Quick Beam, White Rice, Serviceberry, Whip-
beam, Whipcrop, Whitebeam, Whiteleaf Tree.

The name White Rice is given to the White Beam because of the
undersides of the leaves. It is called Whipbeam because the plough-
boy makes a horsewhip of it.

The wood is hard and close-grained, and has been used for making
yokes. When mills were more numerous the wheels were made of
White Beam wood. After there has been a frost the fruit mellows,
and is eatable.

An alcoholic spirit is yielded by it after fermentation. The berries
have been used for jam.

ESSENTIAL SPECIFIC CHARACTERS:

105. Pyrus Aria, Ehrh. Tree, leaves ovate, deeply irregularly
serrate, white, downy below, those of flower-shoot oval, lobes deepest
near end of leaf, flowers white, corymbose, fruit red, subglobose.

Mountain Ash (Pyrus Aucuparia, Ehrh.)

In Flintshire fruits have been discovered in beds of Neolithic age,
proving that this is an ancient species. The Northern Temperate
Zone is its home, and it is found in Europe, Madeira, N. and W. Asia,
eastwards to the Himalayas, and in N. America. In Great Britain
it is found everywhere, except perhaps in Hunts and N. Lincoln. It
ascends to 2600 ft. in the Highlands. It is found native in Ireland.

The Rowan Tree grows on hills and in woods, especially in the
latter, where it is associated with other woodland shrubs and trees,
such as Holly, Cherry, White Beam, Ivy, Elm, Oak, Beech, &c.
Owing to the superstitions attaching to it and the efficacy of its sup-
posed virtues, it is probably in very many localities only planted.
Rowan trees are familiar sights to the dweller in the town, where they
are much planted. They are erect trees with a thick main stem and
numerous branches, which arch overhead like those of hawthorn, &c.
The pinnate leaves are downy below, and serrate, the leaflets oval-
oblong, 1 2- 1 6, and when old glabrous below.

The flowers are white, in broad cymes, which are dense and com-
pound, and 6-12 in. across. Both the calyx and flower-stalk are
villous. The fruits are bright scarlet when ripe in August, subglobose,
and contrast strongly with the dark -green foliage, and are pomes,
containing 5 cells with 1-2 seeds in each.

Ten to twenty-five feet is the average height of the Mountain Ash.



42 FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES

May to June are the months when its flowers are at their best.
It is a perennial, deciduous tree, propagated by seeds.

When the flower opens, the stamens are not ripe. The outer are at
first erect, the inner bend inwards, so that the anthers are below the
stigmas, which are mature, and project in the centre of the flower.
The anthers opening inwards are covered with pollen. The inner ones
are bent down, when it is cold, below the stigmas. Even after they
open, the outer ones stand above the stigmas incurved toward them.
When there are no insects to visit them self-pollination takes place.
The stamens are inclined away in warm sunshine from the stigmas,
and the honey-ring is visible between and protected by hairs issuing
from the base of the style. Insects dipping into the flower for honey
touch the stamens and stigmas with the opposite sides of their heads.
The small flowers are conspicuous because they are close, and honey
is abundant and concealed at the base of the flower. The Rowan is
visited by Apis, Andrena, Halictus, Helophilus, Eristalis, Rhingia,
Echinomyia, Onesia, Scatophaga, Sepsis, Myopa, Dilopha, Epiircea,
Meligethes, By turns, Attagenus, Agriotes, Dilophus, Corymbites, Li-
monius, Cetonia, Melolontha, Malachius, Anespis, Microzoum, Phyl-
lobius, Clytus, Adimonia.

The fruit is dispersed by animal agency, being a fleshy pome,
scarlet when ripe, and readily eaten and dispersed by birds.

The Mountain Ash grows on rocky ground, being a rock-loving
species and addicted to a rock soil, growing on soils derived from
various formations, chiefly sand or older rocks.

One stage of Gymnosporangium juniperinum grows on this plant,
the second on the juniper.

Leaves are galled by Eriophyes aucuparia. The following fungi,
Tympanis conspersa var. mali, Sclerotinia frudigena, Gymnosporangium
clavaricz forme, Pleurotus atroccerulius, Coryneum beyerinckii, also
infest it.

The beetles Phyllobius maculicornis, Apion sorbi, Ptinella denti-
collis, Epuraa florea, Byturus tomentosus, Phytodecta pallida, the
Hymenoptera Crassus septentrionalis, Trichiosmia scolleri, and the
Lepidoptera Hedya ocellana, Nepticula oxyacanthella, Semioscopis
stemkelleriana, Gelechia leucatella, Argyresthia conjugella, A. sorbi-
ella, Ornix scoticella feed upon it.

The second Latin name is from auceps, a fowler. Rowan is from
the Norse raun.

This plant is called Mountain Ash, Wild Ash, Caers, Care, Cock-
drunks, Dogberry, Field Ash, Fowler's Service, Witch Hazel, Hen-




Photo. Flatters & Garnett



MOUNTAIN ASH (Fyrus Aucuparia, Ehrh.)



KEY TO PLATE XX






,

No. i. Mountain Ash
(Pyrus Axcuparia, Ehrh.)
, Inflorescence (cymose),
with flowers expanded or
half open, anthers in various
stages, and part of the pin-
nate stem -leaves. ^, A
cyme with scarlet fruits, the
calyx-lobes persisting at the
top of each, pomes not punc-

'"



No. 2. Rosebay
(Epilobiumaftgusttfolium^
Part of plant showing lan-
ceolate stem -leaves below,
and a spike with axillary
flowers and bracts below,
open below, and in bud above,
in various stages, showing the
inferior ovary, the 4 petals, al-
ternating sepals, the stamens,
and 4-tid stigma (long-styled
form).






!



No. 3. Enchanter's

Nightshade
Circcea Lutetiana, L.)

a t Vertical section of flower,
showing inferior 2 -celled
ovary, 2 petals, 2 stamens
(enlarged). , Fruit, with
recurved hooked bristles, f,
Part of plant r showing ovate
rounded leaves, and raceme
with flowers in bud at the
tip, open in the centre, and
fruits belovr.




No. 4. Sanicle
(Sanicula europ&a, L.)



a, Floret, showing 5 in-
curved petals, gamosepalous
calyx, and 5 stamens ex-
serted. A, Fruit with hooked
bristles. <:, Part of plant,
showing palmate leaves, with
sheathing petiole, and umbel
of flowers with bracieoles
forming involuceis below the
partial umbels.



No. 5. Angelica
(Angelica sylvestris, L.)
a, Flower, showing 5 petals,
5 stamens, and pistil. /V Sec-
tion of mericarp. c, Schizo-
carpfrom lateral aspect, with
persistent styles, d, Sheath-
ing petiole and part of del-
toid lea e, Umbel (terminal)
with flowers and fruit, and
umbel in fruit below in axil
of leaf





,



No. 6.

'/?/ (Hedera HeKx, L.)
- a, Vertical section of
flower, with ovary and ovoid
seed in cell, 2 petals reflexed,
and 3 of the 5 stamens, and
the swollen disk and short
stigma. <*, Drupe with disk,
and remains of style. c,
Five-lobed climbing leaves
and adhesive aerial rootlets.
d, Terminal panicle of flowers
in umbel, and buds on axillary C
umbels below.




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**"-*



FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES



PLATE XX




I. Mountain Ash (Pyrus Aucuparia, Elirh.). 2. Rosebay (Epilobinm angusti folium, L.). 3- Enchanter's Night-
shade (Ciraea Lutetiana, L.). 4- Sanicle (Sanicttla euro/xea, L. ). 5. Angelica (Angelica sylvestris, L.). 6. Ivy

(Hedera Helix, L.).



MOUNTAIN ASH 45

drunks, Keer, Quickbeam, Quicken, Rantree, Ranty Berries, Rawn,
Roantree, Roddin Tree, Wicken or Wicen Tree, Wickey, Wiggin,
Witchwood, Witchen or Witchin, Witty-tree, Wychen, Rowan, Rown-
tree, Roynetree, Sap-tree, Wild Service, Quickband, Twickbine,
Whicken, Whistle Wood, White Ash, Whitty-tree.

The Rowan was called Witchwood from a virtue it was supposed
to possess against witchcraft. It is named Mountain Ash from a
resemblance between its leaves and those of the Ash. It was called
Cock-drunks because it was supposed to intoxicate fowls. The name
Fowler's Service was given because the berries were used to bait
blackbirds.

This tree is said in Iceland to spring up when the innocent are put to
death. It was thought to be a powerful check on the works of darkness.

" The spells were vain, the hag returned

To the green in sorrowful mood,
Crying that witches have no power
Where there is a rown tree wood."

People even carry a twig of Rowan in the pocket in Yorkshire as
a sort of talisman. A tale runs as follows:

" A woman was lately in my shop, and pulling out her purse
brought out also a piece of stick a few inches long. I asked her why
she carried that in her pocket. ' Oh!' she replied, ' I must not lose that
or I shall be done for.' 'Why so?' I enquired. 'Well,' she answered,
' I carry that to keep off the witches; while I have that about me they
cannot hurt me.' On my adding that there were no witches nowadays,
she instantly replied : ' Oh, yes, there are thirteen at this very time in
the town, but so long as I have my rowan tree safe in my pocket they
cannot hurt me.' "

If a dairymaid could not quickly make butter she stirred the churn
with a rowan twig, and beat the cow with another to break the witch's
spell. Herd boys also drive cattle with a mountain ash twig.

Rowans often grow near houses. In Norway and Sweden branches
were put over the stable to drive away witches.

" Many rains, many rowans ;
Many rowans, many yawns."

An ash leaf was invoked for good luck in Cornwall. The Iceland
people think it the enemy of the juniper.

This plant was held to be the embodiment of lightning, from which
it was supposed to have sprung. The scarlet berries have added
to its mystic charm, red being sacred to Thor.



46 FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES

ESSENTIAL SPECIFIC CHARACTERS:

1 06. Pyrus Aucuparia, Ehrh. Tree, leaflets pinnate, serrate, hairy
below, green, 6-8 pairs, flowers white, in corymb, berries red, sub-
globose.

Rosebay (Epilobium angustifolium, L.)

The charming Rosebay, known in our gardens as well as the fields,
is found in the Temperate and Arctic parts of Europe at the present
day (there are no earlier records), in N. and W. Asia, as far east as the
Himalayas, and in America. In Great Britain it has not been found
in Cornwall, but in the rest of the Peninsula, and the whole of the
Channel and Thames provinces. In Anglia it is not found in West
Suffolk and Cambridge nor in Hunts or Northants, but throughout
the Severn province; in Wales only in Glamorgan, Brecon, Cardigan,
Merioneth, Carnarvon, Denbigh, Anglesea, and Flint. It is not found
in S. Lines or Notts in the Trent province, but throughout the Mersey
and Humber provinces except in S.E. Yorks, and throughout the
Tyne and Lakes provinces. In Scotland it is found throughout the
W. Lowlands, except in Wigtown and Renfrew; in the S. Lowlands,
except in Peebles, Selkirk, Haddington; the whole of E. Highlands,
West Highlands, except Mid Ebudes; and in the North Highlands
everywhere except in E. Sutherland. It is found in the Highlands at
2700 ft., and in N. and E. Ireland.

The Rosebay is a woodland plant, delighting in a rocky upland
clearing, but growing as frequently on the loose rubble of a quarry side
or wherever natural scars and crags are exposed, in the neighbourhood
of woods. One of our handsomest wild flowers, held also in admira-
tion in the garden, Rosebay is tall, erect, much branched, with
numerous long, narrow, lance-shaped, veined, scattered leaves, alter-
nate, with a white midrib and whitish under side, the margin minutely
and finely toothed. The stems are downy. The bracts or leaf-like
organs are like the leaves connected with the flower. The second
Latin name explains the shape of the leaves.

The first Latin name refers to the inferior position of the ovary
below the perianth, the flowers apparently resting on a lobe or pod
(later). The flowers are purple, unequal or irregular, in a spike. The
calyx is spreading and free, the stigma is bent.

The plant is 3-4 ft. high. It flowers in July and August. It is
perennial, increasing by division, and often cultivated.

Sprengel, as long ago as 1790, showed that the flowers, which open
soon after sunrise, are proterandrous, i.e. the anthers ripen first, though


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