A. R. (Arthur Reginald) Horwood.

A new British flora : British wild flowers in their natural haunts (Volume 3) online

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June. The Wayfaring Tree is a deciduous shrub, which can be multi-
plied by layers, and is worth cultivating.

In this genus the flower secretes honey, which is concealed or open



KEY TO PLATE XXI



m



No. I. Wayfaring Tree
(Viburnum Lantatia, L.)
a, Vertical section of a
flower, showing sepals, 3
petals of the rotate corolla,
3 out of 5 stamens, i oviile in
the ovary. b y Three drupes.
c, Flowering stem, with ob-
long stem -leaves, and a
corymb with flowers in dif-
ferent stages.



No. 2. Honeysuckle




ertical sec-
tion,

calyx, funnel-shaped corolla,
long epipetalous stamens/
and long fctignia. ^ Head
YjQjr/cyme* with ripe scarlet
fruits (berries), c, Flowering
stem, with opposite sessile
leaves, and ^inflorescence,
j.. -flowers in different



'



I

,:



No. 4. Primrose
(Primula vulgaris, Muds.)
a, Vertical section of long-
styled flower, with epfpetal-/
ous stamens half-way down \
the calyx, b, Vertical section /
of .short-styled fo(rin, wi^V
stamens at ; the same level
as style in long-styled form.
c, Raiioal leaf, showing de-
current lamina, d, Flower,
showing broad notched co-
rolla-lobes and orange honey -
guides in the throat, on a




rv

<, Vertical section f flower,
showing bell-shaped corolla,
epipetalous stameiis, 2 styles,
and 2-celled ovary, t
tion of fruit, showing 1:
^^piericarp, and ovules
idJcotylons embryos,
of plant, showing a
stem, leaves in whor!
terminal and axillan, <
I with 4-fid coroija.



witfr
Part

ular
and







No. 5. Wood Loosestrife
(Lysimachia nernorum, L.)

a, Vertical section of flower,
showing lobes of 5'partite ^
caly^3lobes of rotate corolla,
3 stamens, and rouiuleu
ovary, with fili/brm stigrn^j^
t>, Plant, showinj{ opposite / /
pairs of teaves, ; -.^dl^tfy -
flowers on long stalk, with
narrow calyx lobes, and
twisted flower-stalk, with
rounded capsule and per-
sistent style, 5-valved.



6. Small (

(Vinca minor, L.)

^ , x Vertical section of soli-
tary flower, showing seg-
ments of 5-partite calyx^/tube
6f~salveT-shaped cqrolla, epi-
petaious, stamens .with' shQrt
inbent filaments a: id h (
anthers, with tlie cup-shatoJKl
style and dub-sh^ped/lfairy
stigma. ^>,VTwtt ^ollicie's
opening along the sutures
showing the seeds. v FruT!
is rarely formed.)
eriny Astern, wiU>
pairelL ^hprt-st
ovatej-^hwes,
buds, alst^sin aiiilary
-shtJwing whu%/throat\\J
rolla and 5 brd bl
ments.




.









CR



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riltw galuvo bn* ,qi-



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fUil^XS.L.



wwfafel)






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qh riJrw ,s>m^D 10
dVeiitrrl






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-jib lo slaq
^'V Juo
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-do rllw
bmj
-lib ni



rili* d.rrfico









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sapimh 1 ! > .oVl



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"" T ^ ' ; ::e9tt^l-booW .? .oM

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JtiKH cI-3'^ J.t! ^f!

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^lfapq<tP v dijw/ ,md? y ^nns

. .rfe' Jw ujtq toio3 sJiAnlo aadbit^fi^

vwT OJRVO tobfliw,.. ^nc ,wt9rt^B ; f irs t

i ,: ; ''- t rfj <' .;^fivo



-Isteqtq? tin

owob Y&w4ifiil enamote eoo



In



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bfiB 8
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Jfioid^.-^trfw 8 nirorfe . , *oqqo








1



FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES



PLATE XXI




I. Wayfaring Tree ( Viburnum Lantana, L. ). 2. Honeysuckle (Lonuera Perulyineniiin, L. ). 3. \Yoodruflf (As-

perula odorata, L. ). 4. Primrose (Primula vulgaris, Huds.). 5. Wood Loosestrife (Lysimachia nfiiionim, L.)-

6. Small Periwinkle ( Vinta minor, L.).



WAYFARING TREE



61



to all insects. The flowers are gathered into a head, and the outer
flowers have a slightly more enlarged corolla, which in the Guelder
Rose is developed at the expense of both stamens and pistil, and
though not providing pollen nor seeds is useful to man. The stigma
matures first. The flowers are complete in the Wayfaring Tree.

The fruit is edible, and the seeds are dispersed by animals.

This is a lime- loving plant, addicted to a lime soil on chalk or
oolite, and is also found in hedgerows along macadamized roads.

'A gall-fly, Eriophyes
tetanothrix, infests it,
and Aphis viburni lives
on it. Two beetles,
Galeruca viburni, Eus-
phalera primula?, and
the moths Peronea
ruff a na, L ith ocolletis
lantanella, Coleophora
paripennella feed on it.

Viburnum, Varro,
is the Latin name for
the plant. Lantana,
Dodonaeus, may be from
the Latin verb lento, I
make flexible.

This shrub is called
Cottoner, Cotton -tree,
Coventree, Lithewort,
Mealy-tree,Twist-wood,
Wayfaring Tree, Whip-
crop, White wood. It WaS
Called Twist- wood be- WAYFARING TREE (Viburnum Lantana, L.)

cause plough boys twisted

it into handles for whips, called " twists ". Gerarde invented the name
Wayfaring Tree. The name Cotton-tree is from its soft foliage. It
is called Mealy Tree because its leaves are white, mealy, soft, and
tomentose, or clothed with cotton, and downy. It was dedicated to
the festival on Whitsuntide. The twigs are used for making bird-lime.

ESSENTIAL SPECIFIC CHARACTERS:

138. Viburnum Lantana, L. Shrub, with mealy, flexible, branched
stems, leaves hoary below, asperous, ovate-serrate, flowers white, in a
cyme, perfect, berries scarlet, then black.




62 FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES



Honeysuckle (Lonicera Periclymenum, L.)

This aromatic, sweet-flowered climber is found in Europe, in recent
beds, not earlier, and N. Africa, its distribution being confined to the
North Temperate Zone of to-day. It is found in every part of Great
Britain, ascending to 1500 feet in Durham.

Honeysuckle is a well-known, woodland, climbing plant, which
loves the darkest depths of the forest, wood, or copse, seeking support
from a neighbouring sapling or older tree, or clambering up the over-
hanging branches of hawthorn, blackthorn, or other forms of under-
growth. By the roadside, too, it nestles amidst briers and thorns,
casting around a rich fragrant odour for the passer-by, and attracting
the long-tongued moths at night.

The climbing habit of this plant is one of its principal features. It
twines round and round the stems of thick or thin, strong or supple
trees and other plants, often forming an arbour when climbing and
scrambling irregularly in the hedgerow. The leaves are not united at
the base, and are deciduous or fall in autumn; when old, shiny and
dark green, rather light when young, and hairy. The leaves are egg-
shaped, oblong, stalkless above, and shortly stalked below. They are
bluish -white beneath.

The flowers are cream-colour, gaping, in terminal whorls on long
flower-stalks, and are reddish in colour outside. The calyx-teeth do
not fall, the corolla is glandular and smoothly downy. The berries are
red when ripe.

Honeysuckle may be as much as 20 ft. in length. Its flowers are
in bloom from May to July. It is a deciduous shrub, and can be multi-
plied by cuttings.

The stigma and the anthers are mature together. It is like L.
Caprifolium in flower but the tube is shorter, in this it is 22-25 mm<
In L. Caprifolium the tube is 30 mm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, a large
part being occupied by the style, but it is often half-full of honey.
Honey is accessible (being at the surface or in a cup at the bottom
of the tube), when collected, to many bees, e.g. Bombus hortorum,
but bees are only accidental visitors. The pollination is crepuscular,
i.e. effected principally by nocturnal moths.

The flowers, at first erect, open first at 7 p.m. and give off a strong
scent. Soon after they turn down and become horizontal. At first
the stamens project in front, and the stigma is turned down beyond the
anthers. Later, after insect visits, the pollen is exhausted, the stamens



HONEYSUCKLE 63

turn down and the stigma rises in their place. Thus an insect would
on the first night become covered with pollen, and on the second touch
the stigma. Meantime the tube becomes arched and the under and
upper lip roll up, and the flower turns yellow, a feature noticeable
in Forget-me-not, &c. The white flowers with pollen are visited first,
later the yellow. Still later the flower becomes darker orange, rolls up
and loses its scent. There is abundant pollen, but humble bees cannot
obtain the honey.

Honeysuckle is pollinated by Hawk -moths, Convolvulus Hawk-




HONEYSUCKLE (Lonicera Periclymenum , L.)



Photo. B. Hanley



moth (Sphinx convolvuli], Privet Hawk-moth (S. ligustri\ S. pinastri,
Elephant Hawk-moth (Deilephila elpenor\ Small Elephant Hawk-moth
(D.porcellus), Lime Hawk-moth (Smerinthus tilia), Shark (Diantkcecia
capsincola), Lychnis (Cucullia umbraticd], Silver Y (Plusia gamma),
Puss Moth (Dasychira piidibundd). When no insects visit the flower
it may be self-pollinated.

The fruit is edible and the seeds are dispersed by animals, chiefly
birds, e.g. the Blackbird and Thrush.

Honeysuckle is strictly sylvan in habitat, and is found where humus
abounds on various soils, being prevalent on clay soils or a sandy
loam, and is practically a clay-loving plant.



64 FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES

Upon the leaves one finds sEcidium periclymeni and Microspkcera

lonicerce, and it is galled by Siphocoryne xylostei.

A beetle, Orchestes lonicera, and various Lepidoptera, White Ad-
miral (Limenitis sibylla), Broad-bordered Bee Hawk-moth (Sesia fuci-
formis), Silver Y (Plusia iota], Boarmia repandata, Alucita polydactyla,
and many others, and a fly, Chromatomyia obscnrella, frequent Honey-
suckle.

Lonicera, Linnaeus, is from a botanist, Lonicer, and Periclymenum,
Dioscorides, was the Greek name of honeysuckle or a similar shrub.
Honeysuckle is from the A.S. hunigsuge, which was, however, applied
to the privet.

Honeysuckle is called Bearbind, Benewith Tree, Benwytre, Bind,
Bindweed, Bindwood, Binnwootl, Bynde, Caprifole, Cernoyle, Chervell,
Eglantine, Goat's Leaves, Goat-tree, Hinnisickle, Honey bind, Honey-
suckle, Honeysuck, Irish Vine, Lady's Fingers, Lily-among- thorns,
Mel-silvestre, Ood bine, Servoile, Suckle-bush, Suckling, Sycamine,
Trumpet Flower, Widbin, Woodbine, Woodbind.

\Yidbin is Scotch for Woodbine.

" The rown-tree in (and) the widd-bin
Hand the witches on cum in."

Chervell is a contraction of chevre feuille, an old French name for
it, and Goat-tree is a translation of it, so also is Goat leaves.

In one version of the story of Tristan and Ysonde we have:
" From his grave there grew an eglantine which twined about the
statue, a marvel for all men to see, and though three times they
cut it down, it grew again and ever wound its arms about the image of
fair Ysonde."

Consumptive patients were passed three times " through a circular
wreath of woodbine, cut during the increase of the March moon, and
let down over the body from head to foot ".

Honeysuckle is grown in the garden, and utilized as a climber
and for its sweet scent.

ESSENTIAL SPECIFIC CHARACTERS:

139. Lonicera Periclymenum, L. Stem climbing, twining, woody,
leaves ovate, all distinct, upper sessile, flowers cream and red, ringent,
in terminal head, berries crimson, juicy.



WOODRUFF



Woodruff (Asperula odorata, L.)

This charming flower spreads its sweet odour of new-mown hay
over the countries of the North Temperate Zone, in Europe, North
Africa, Siberia, and Western Asia. It is not known earlier than the
present day so far. In Great Britain Woodruff occurs generally, but




Photo. Flatters & Garnett

WOODRUFF (Asperula odorata, L.)

not in Hunts, Mid Lanes, Isle of Man, Stirling, Mid Perth, N. Perth,
the Hebrides, or the Orkneys. In Scotland it is found at a height
of 1 200 ft.

Woodruff is entirely a woodland species, luxuriating in the shade
under thickly-clustered trees or peeping from between them in the
open pathways or rides. With it we may find Sweet Violet, Wood
Sorrel, Strawberry, Honeysuckle, Primrose, Wood Loosestrife, Lung-
wort, Wood Forget-me-not, and many other plants of the woods.

VOL. III. 35



66 FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES

Like other Rubiaceae, this choice flower has its leaves (these are
sensitive to light, green in the shade, turning yellow in the strong light
in the open) arranged in verticels or whorls, the upper whorls con-
taining 6-9, the lower 2-6 leaves, which are lance-shaped, abrupt, with
a point, with rough margins, the prickles directed forward. The rough
character is indicated in the first Latin name, the scent in the second.
The stems are more or less simple, square, erect, furrowed, and
smooth.

The flowers are fairly large and sweet-scented, in terminal corymbs,
devoid of leaves, depressed, and conspicuous. The fruits are borne on
flower-stalks, are small, roughly hairy, with hooked hairs which catch
in the wool of animals and are spine-like in character.

Woodruff is usually not more than i foot high. The flowers begin
to scent the woods in May continuing right up to June. It is a
perennial herbaceous plant propagated by division.

The flowers resemble those of A. cynanchica (Squinancy Wort), in
the floral arrangement and the length of the tube. Woodruff is visited
by the hive bee, as well as by beetles, flies, and moths. Being con-
spicuous and sweet-smelling its sylvan habitat is thus counteracted by
other advantages.

The fruits are roughly hairy, and dispersed by animals, or fall
around the parent plant.

This is a woodland plant, and a humus-loving plant growing in
humus soil, of which there is a thick covering in the form of mould
in most woods.

The plant is infested by Peronospora calothcca, Pscudopeziza re-
panda, Piiccinia galii.

The moths Speckled Footman (Eurydice cribrum), Flame (Cidaria
rubidata) feed upon it.

Asperula, Dodona^us, is from the Latin aspcr, rough, and the
second name (Latin) refers to its smell. The latter part of the name
Woodruff is supposed to represent a root meaning fragrant. The plant
is called Sweet Grass, Scented or Sweet Hair-hoof, Hay Plant, Mug-
wet, Petty Mugwet, Rock-wood, Star Grass, Woodrip, Woodrowe,
Woodruff. The name Star Grass is applied on account of the whorled
leaves.

It was used for decorating churches on St. Barnabas's Day. It
was said to have formed the Virgin's bed. The name was written
and spelt as a couplet

woodde
rowffe.



PRIMROSE 67

Woodruff was used in Chaucer's day, but had no real curative
properties. It was also employed to flavour wine and as a perfume
for clothes. It was used for the liver and bile, epilepsy and palsy. It
is very acidic.

ESSENTIAL SPECIFIC CHARACTERS:

143. Asperula odorata, L. Stem erect, upper leaves 6-9, in
whorl, lower whorls of 2-6 leaves, lanceolate, margins ciliate, flowers
white, in terminal panicle, stalked, fruit with rough bristles.

Primrose (Primula vulgaris, Huds.)

A general favourite, common and widespread, its universal popu-
larity bids fair to cause its entire disappearance from some districts,
thanks to hawkers. It may be an ancient plant, but only its present
distribution is known, which is throughout the Northern Temperate
Zone, in Europe, except the north-east, and N. Africa. In Great
Britain it is found in all parts except Peebles, and it grows at a height
of 1600 ft. in Yorkshire.

The Primrose now much less widespread, as noted, than formerly,
thanks also to the vandalism of the collector, the thoughtlessness of
the householder is or was a common plant which formerly adorned
the glades in the woods, the meadows surrounding them, and the leafy
lanes and banks of many secluded districts, especially in the south and
west districts of England, where the climate is mild and moist. But
in some of these spots it is now extinct.

Everyone knows the Primrose. It has no stem, except the flower-
ing stalk or scape. The leaves are all radical leaves. The Primrose
has the rosette habit. The rootstock is stout. The leaves are more
or less without a stalk (as are the umbels), inversely egg-shaped,
spoon-shaped, or oblong, tapering downwards, softly hairy below,
wrinkled, scalloped. The young leaves are rough, netted.

The flowers are pale yellow, rarely pale lilac or purplish, drying
green, in an umbel which is stalkless, so that the flower-stalks look like
scapes as long as the leaves. The bracts are linear. The flowers are
spreading or more or less erect. The radical flower-stalks are softly
hairy, and bear one flower only. The limb of the corolla is flat, with
a ring of scale-like folds at the mouth, which is narrow. The corolla
lobes are rounded, notched. The calyx is softly hairy, slightly inflated,
tubular, 5-angled, the teeth awl-like to lance-shaped, acute, long-pointed.
The capsule is as long, or half as long, as the calyx, egg-shaped, the
long, straight teeth of the fruiting calyx meeting above on prostrate



68



FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES



flower-stalks. The capsule is 5-valved, with 10 teeth, and many-
seeded.

The Primrose is about 6 in. high in flower. It blooms early in
March up to May. It is perennial, and propagated by division of the
roots. It is much scarcer than formerly.

The pollination of the Primrose is familiar from the researches of
Knight and Darwin. The flowers secrete honey at the base of the
ovary. All the species are dimorphic. In some the stigma extends




Photo. J. II. Crabtree



PRIMROSE (Primula -vulgaris, Hucls.;



to the top of the tube, and these are termed long-styled forms, when
the stamens lie half-way down the tube. There are other flowers in
which the stamens are inserted near the top of the tube, and where the
style is half as long as the tube. The flower is thus heterostylic. The
pin-eyed and thrum-eyed forms of children are the corresponding long-
and short-styled forms.

The possession of such differences is of importance to the plant in
ensuring cross-pollination. For an insect that visits a long-styled form
would thus dust its proboscis with pollen from the stamens half-way
down, at a point which, when it visited the short-styled form, would
correspond with the position of the stigma in that form, and so lead to
crossing of the two types; and in visiting a short-styled form its pro-
boscis would be dusted farther from the mouth of the flower, and this



PRIMROSE 69

part, when the insect next visited a long-styled form, would scarcely
fail to come in contact with the stigma at the same level.

The stigma in the long-styled form is round and rough, and the

pollen also is small, in. in diameter, whilst in the short-styled
7000

form the stigma is smoother and depressed, and the pollen larger,

10-1 * in. The flowers produce more fertile seed if the pollen of one
7000

form is placed on the stigma of the other form than if a flower is
pollinated by pollen of the same form, even if from a different plant.
The styles of the same form may slightly vary in length, but as a rule
the styles are all of the same length. The two forms are not found on
the same plant, but there are about equal proportions of each; and
long-styled flowers are pollinated with pollen from a short-styled flower,
and vice versa. In such a case pollination is termed legitimate, and
better and more abundant seed is formed than by self-pollination
(which may occur in the absence of insects) in the short-styled form,
or illegitimate crossing of 2 short-styled or 2 long-styled forms.

The capsule consists of 5 carpels and opens by 10 valves, the outer
cells contracting, and when dry they are the more resisting; and the seeds,
which are numerous, are shaken out when the valves open by the wind.

The Primrose is a humus-loving plant, growing in humus soil, but
is also clay-loving, and needs a clay soil as well.

The leaves are attacked by Peronospora Candida and Puccinia
primula.

Two beetles, Eusphalerum primula, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, a Thy-
sanopterous insect, Thrips primula, and several moths, Nemeobius
lucina, Clouded-bordered Brindle (Xylophasia rurea], Lesser Broad-
border ( Tryphcena janthina\ Lesser Yellow Underwing (T. orbona),
Broad-bordered Yellow Underwing (T.fimbria), Silver Ground Carpet
(Melanippe montanata], Polia polymita, visit it.

Primula, Matthiolus, is from the Latin primus, first, referring to the
early flowering, and Primrose from the earlier name Primerole. The
second name denotes its common occurrence, i.e. formerly.

The Primrose is known by several common names: Beef-and-
Greens, Butter Rose, Jack-in-Box, Jack-in-the-Green, King-Charles-
in-the-Oak, Lady's Frills, Milk Maid, Petty Mullein, Oxlip, Plimrose,
Plimrocks, Primet, Primrose, Primorole, St. Peter's Wort, Summeren,
Spink, May Spink, Spring Flower, Summerlocks.

A legend relates how Bertha enticed a child by means of primroses
to the door of an enchanted castle, and the " key-flower " touching it



7 o FLOWERS OF THE WOODS AND COPSES

opened the door. The child entered a room covered with primroses
where gold and jewels were deposited, and when they had been taken
the primroses had to be put back or else the favoured person would be
followed by a " black dog ".

The Primrose is described as a flower which "maidens as a true-
love in their bosoms place ". The Primrose was used in the bridal
bouquet. It was the famous "key-flower" which revealed hidden
recesses in mountains where treasure was concealed. It is necessary
to give a full handful of primroses and violets as a gift, or the chickens
and ducklings will be affected, according to ancient superstition.

The Primrose has been used as an emetic. In Chaucer's time it
was one of the components of the all-powerful " save ". With Water-
Violet and the Avens it was supposed to be a remedy in liver com-
plaints, for "schaking of hede and of handes ", and for a person "who
cannot speak well ".

It has long been cultivated as a garden flower, and many varieties
have been derived from it differing in colour and form.

ESSENTIAL SPECIFIC CHARACTERS:

199. Primula vulgaris, Huds. Flowering stem a scape, leaves
ovate, oblong, dentate, wrinkled, flowers yellow, calyx tubular, with
subulate teeth, capsule ovate, calyx exceeding it by a half, corolla limb
flat.

Wood Loosestrife (Lysimachia nemorum, L.)

This little woodland flower is local but widespread, and known
throughout the Northern Temperate Zone in Europe, but not in
Prussia, Greece, and Turkey. No early records are extant. The
Wood Loosestrife grows in every part of Great Britain except Hunts,
S. Lines, and the Shetlands. In the Highlands it ascends to 2500 ft.

\Vatson regards it as a frequent but not quite common plant, and
possibly occurring everywhere except in Huntingdon, being local in
Bedford and Cambridge. Thus it is not common in the more low-
lying damp districts of the central plain. Generally it occurs in woods,
loving a shady habitat, and under hedges in wooded districts.

The stems of the Wood Loosestrife are usually lying on the ground,
numerous, furrowed each side, reddish, rooting at intervals. The
leaves are opposite, stalked, egg-shaped, acute, glossy, yellowish-green,
with marked veins. The flowers are yellow, small, on flower-stalks in
the axils, longer than the leaves, i -flowered and slender. The calyx
is deeply divided into 5 or 6 segments, which are narrow and awl-like,
sub-triangular, and do not fall. The corolla, which is wheel-shaped,



WOOD LOOSESTRIFE 71

has no limb, and is divided into 5 or 6 egg-shaped segments, with
small yellow glands in the mouth, between the anther-stalks, which are
distinct, not united, and smooth. The capsule is 5-valved, globular,
and contains numerous round, flat seeds.

The plant is rarely more than 3 in. in height. The flowers are in
bloom from May till July. Wood Loosestrife is a perennial, which can
be propagated by division, and is worth cultivating.

In this the stamens and style are included, as in Yellow Loosestrife.
The yellow monopetalous or tubular corolla has no limb, but glands




Photo. J. H. Crabtree

WOOD LOOSESTRIFE (Lysimachia nemorum, L.)

between the anther-stalks at the base, where it is brighter yellow.
The stamens are erect and thicker in the middle, the anthers are
oblong and rather prostrate, rising up at the end, the whole flower is
less campanulate or bell-shaped, and more like that of a pimpernel. The
style is club-shaped and threadlike, and the stigmas simple. Growing
in woods it is little visited by insects, as there is no honey, and if so it is
easily accessible, while self-pollination can readily occur without insects.

The capsule splits open by 5 valves, and the seeds are numerous,
and dispersed by the shaking of the capsule by the wind.

This is a clay-loving plant, and addicted to a clayey soil, but it also
requires some amount of humus.

The first botanical name is the Greek for loosestrife, and the


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