A. R. (Arthur Reginald) Horwood.

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The plant is 1-2 ft. high. It is flowering in June up to October in
some places. The plant is a deciduous, herbaceous perennial, increased
by division. It is worthy of more attention than is given it.

Marjoram has large proterandrous hermaphrodite flowers, i.e. with
male and female organs on the same flower, and smaller female flowers.
It is like Wild Thyme in the position and secretion of the honey, and is

MARJORAM (Origaniun vulgare, L.)

ITioto. G B. Dixon

more conspicuous though less sweet-scented. The flowers have lost the
power of self-pollination, as the plant is much visited by insects. The
tube is 7 mm. long in the large complete flowers, and 4-5 mm. in
the small female flowers. A great variety of insects visit it, Bombus,
Halictus, Empis, Ascia, Eristalis, Helophilns, Sicus, Myopa, Ocyptera,
Prosena, Satyrus janira. The small female flowers are in bloom a
week before the larger ones.

The nutlets are free and fall around the plant automatically, the
plant dispersing them unaided.

Marjoram is a lime-lover, and grows especially on lime soil, being
found on the chalk, limestone formations, and oolites.


A fungus, Puccinia mentkcc, attacks the leaves.

A beetle, Meligethes lugubris, several Lepidoptera, Dark Brocade,
Hadena adusta, Tortrix dumetana, Gelechia siibocellea, Pterophoriis
tetradactylus, Pyrausta punicealis, Purple and Gold Moth, Nothris
durdhamella, Coleophora albitarsella, visit it.

Origanum, Theophrastus, is from the Greek oros, hill, and ganos,
joy, and the second Latin name indicates its general occurrence,
which is a mistake, as it is rather local.

This plant is named Argans, Marjoram, English Marjoram, Orga-
ment, Organ, Organy, Pot Marjoram.

The dried leaves have been used for tea and in fomentations. Mar-
joram yields an essential oil, which is acrid, caustic, and highly aromatic.
Marjoram has been used for toothache. The plant has also been used
by farriers. A purple dye for wool has been obtained from it, and
linen has been dyed reddish-brown with it. It has a pungent taste,
like Thyme. It was put in beer to make it intoxicating. The tea has
been used in cases of stomach weakness and breast troubles.


249. Origanum vulgare, L. Stem erect, branched, leaves serrate,
ovate, purple, bracts exceeding the purple flowers in a crowded
panicled cyme.

Wood Betony (Stachys officinalis, Trev.)

Wood Betony is found throughout the Temperate Northern Zone
in Europe, N. Africa, and W. Siberia, but has not been met with in
early deposits. In Great Britain it grows in the Peninsula, Channel,
Thames, Anglia, and Severn provinces; in S. Wales generally except
in Radnor; in N. Wales generally except in Montgomery, Merioneth;
throughout the Trent province, Mersey, Humber, Tyne, and Lakes pro-
vinces except the Isle of Man; in the West Lowlands except Peebles,
Selkirk, Haddington; and in Mid and E. Perth; in E. Highlands,
in the N. Ebudes, in the W. Highlands. It ranges thus from Skye
and Ross southwards, but it is rare in Scotland and Ireland. In
Northumberland it is found at 1200 ft.

The name Wood Betony indicates the chief habitat of this species.
It certainly loves the shade and is at home in woods, but it is frequent
by the roadside, and is also found on heaths and commons with Grassy
Stitchwort, Tormentil, Furze, &c.

The stem is erect, simple, square, with blunt angles, rough, with
rigid bristles, turned back, and bent. The radical leaves are on long



leaf-stalks, oblong, heart-shaped, scalloped, blunt, sparsely hairy, the
stem-leaves opposite, narrower, saw-like, turned back, with a turned-
back margin.

The flowers are in terminal spikes, oblong, purple, stalkless, in
whorls, and the bracts or leaflike organs are as long as the calyx,
which is shaggy within, with long teeth. The corolla has a projecting
tube, incurved below. The nutlets (4) are three-sided and smooth.
Wood Betony is 2 ft. high. The flowers bloom in July and August.

The plant is perennial and
propagated by division.

The flowers are proteran-
drous, that is, the anthers ripen
first, or they may be homo-
gamous, the stigmas ripening
at the same time. The pistil
is short at first but lengthens
when the anthers have opened.
The tube of the corolla is 7 mm.
long, smooth inside where the
honey is secreted, lined above
with erect hairs. The corolla,
where included in the calyx,
is narrow, directed obliquely
upwards, but horizontal beyond
the calyx, and is constantly
2 mm. wide, the under lip is
divided into three half-way,
acting as an alighting place,
and the tip is narrowed. The
tube is short, so that the en-
trance is not wide at the mouth, and the tube is curved like a bee's
proboscis. The anthers bearing white beads on their surface open
when the flower expands, the stigmas are between them and just
behind the short anthers. The divisions of the style are widely
spreading, and covered with warts. The style lengthens the wider
the anthers spread, and overtops the shorter ones in the process, be-
coming smeared with pollen, but at length exceeds them, and is first
touched by visitors with pollen from another flower, which is prepotent
over its own pollen, though it can effectively pollinate itself.

The flowers are visited by Volucella bombylans, Eristalis horticola,
Zygccna loniceree.

Photo Dr. Some

: Hnstings

Woou BETONY (Stachys officinalis, Trev.)


The blunt-shaped nutlets fall free around the parent plant when

Wood Betony is a humus-loving plant requiring a humus soil, and
grows only on heaths or in woods where this is to be obtained.

Peronospora lamii and Puccinia betonicce attack Wood Betony.

Two moths, Coleophora wocksella, Idcea strigellaria, feed on it.

Stachys, Dioscorides, is Greek for spike or ear, and the second
name (Latin) refers to its use in medicine.

This plant is called Betayne, Betony, Wood Betony, Bidney,
Bishopswort, Wild Hop, Vetoyn.

According to superstition it averted witchcraft. It was reputed to
have great medicinal properties, and there was an old saw which
recommended a person to "sell his coat and buy betony ". It was
used to cure consumption and lung disease. It has the power of
causing intoxication, and when freshly dried the leaves cause sneezing.
The roots are bitter and nauseous, cause vomiting and purging.

Dye of a fine dark yellow colour for wool has been obtained from
Betony. The leaves have a bitter taste.


256. Stachys officinalis, Trev. Stem erect, leaves radical, ovate-
cordate, below crenate, petiolate, upper lanceolate-acute, subsessile,
flowers purple, in a terminal dense spike, calyx subglabrous. The
nuts are blunt.

Yellow Archangel (Lamium Galeobdolon, Crantz)

As with the other Dead Nettles there is no trace of this plant in
ancient deposits. It is found in the North Temperate Zone in Europe
and West Siberia. In Great Britain it is found in the Peninsula,
Channel, Thames, Anglia, Severn provinces, and in S. Wales generally
except Radnor and Cardigan. In N. Wales it is found generally
except in Montgomery and Anglesea; throughout the Trent province
except in S. Lines; in the Mersey and Humber provinces, and in
Cumberland. In Scotland it grows in Ayr and Westerness. It is
local in the E. of Ireland.

Yellow Archangel is common in damp woods under hedges, espe-
cially those that overshadow ditches either by the roadside or in open
fields. But it is most abundant under the trees in shady woods, copses,
or plantations.

The stem is simple (or there may be several), erect, slender, square,
smooth, with long lance-shaped leaves, coarsely toothed, veined, with


or without long leaf-stalks, opposite, the leaves stiffly hairy, the upper
egg-shaped, stalkless, the lower heart-shaped.

The flowers grow in whorls of from 6 to 12, and are yellow, blotched
with red or pink. The calyx is acute and rigid. The corolla has a
long, entire helmet, with the lower lip divided into 3 subequal lobes,
and entire. The tube is short and swollen at the base below. The
lower lip is spotted with red.

The plant is i foot high. It flowers in May and June, and is

quickly over. It is worth cul-
tivating, and is perennial, pro-
pagated by division.

The anthers and stigma
mature simultaneously. The
tube of the flower is 8 mm.
long, and is expanded above
for 2 mm., allowing the
entrance of a bee's head.
Where the honey is secreted
at the base of the ovary it is
smooth, but lined with hairs
above. The stigma is branched,
the lobes wart-like, and they
diverge soon after the flower
opens, but being mature they
do not enlarge, but are more
prominent afterwards. The
tip of the lower division lies
above the lower surface of the
anthers. If the bee's back only

presses lightly against the anthers, the stigma is not covered with
pollen; but if it is a large bee, and presses the anthers firmly, the
stigma gets covered with pollen from another flower. Afterwards the
end of the lower lobe projects below the anthers, and is first touched
by the bee. Pollen falls on the lower lobe of the stigma if bees do
not visit it. The plant is visited by Bombus and honey-bees.

The nutlets are free, and when ripe fall to the ground below the
parent stem, hence Yellow Archangel grows in wide patches in the
woods or hedgerows.

This is a clay-loving plant growing on clay soil.
Yellow Archangel is liable to be galled by Cecidomyia galeobdolontis.
Two beetles, Meligetkes symphyti, M. erythropus, are found on it.

Photo. Dr. Somerville Hastings

YELLOW ARCHANGEL (Lamium Galcobdolon,


Galeobdolon, Dioscorides, is from the Greek gale, weasel, and bdolos,
fetid smell.

The plant is called Yellow Archangel, Yellow Dead Nettle, Dunny
Nettle, Weasel Snout.


260. Lamium Galeobdolon, Crantz. Stem erect, leaves ovate,
acuminate, serrate, petiolate, flowers yellow, lower lip of corolla trifid,
tube curved, fringed with hairs.

Wood Sage (Teucrium Scorodonia, L.)

This is a recent species, in the absence of ancient records, found in
the North Temperate Zone to-day, in Europe generally except in
Russia, and in N. Africa. In Great Britain it grows everywhere
except in Middlesex, and in the Shetlands, ranging as far north as the
Orkneys. It is found in Northumberland at a height of 1500 ft. It
grows in Ireland and the Channel Islands.

Wood Sage is a common woodland plant growing on slopes in
woods, copses, always in natural woodland, where the ground is stony.
It is found in the same districts growing more in the open under
hedges. It is also found on heaths and commons at lower elevations.

The stem is erect, square, herbaceous, often consisting of more than
one, purplish, hairy. The leaves are heart-shaped, stalked, oblong,
scalloped, distant, paired, veined, and wrinkled. The whole plant has
a stiff or rigid habit. The leaves are mealy and glandular below.

The flowers are borne in one-sided racemes, and are yellowish,
straw-coloured, turned to one side, one terminal longer than the other
racemes. The calyx is swollen below (the lip may be absent), egg-
shaped, erect, entire, 5-lobed. The lower lip has 4 teeth. The bracts
or leaflike organs are egg-shaped, and end in a long point. The tube
of the corolla is projecting, gaping, the upper lip deeply divided. The
lip is divided into 3 nearly to the base. The nutlets (4) are blackish,
shining, in the base of the calyx.

Wood Sage is about 18 in. high at most. The flowers bloom
in July. The plant is perennial, propagated by cuttings.

The flowers are proterandrous, the anthers maturing first. When
the flower expands the stigma is not touched by an insect visiting the
flower, as it lies behind the stamens, which are projecting, and lie close
to the upper wall of the tube, afterwards bending slightly upwards, and
the stigma takes their place. The lobes of the style are already
spreading. The anthers open inferiorly by a longitudinal slit and

9 o


shower the pollen on the bee's head. The stamens afterwards bend
back, so that bees do not touch the anthers, and the 2 stigmas move
forward into the former place and become more spreading. If insects
do not visit the flower it is seldom self-pollinated, but insect visits are
frequent, though the flowers are not large, but strong- or sweet-scented.
In bending backwards the anthers may touch the stigmas. The honey
lies in the tissue at the base of the ovary, and fills the tube, which
is 9-10 mm. long, to a height of 4 mm. Wood Sage is visited by
Bombns, Antliopkora, Saropoda, and Er is tails.

WOOD SAGE (Teucrium Scorodonia, L.)

When the lower flowers have reached the female condition those
above are still male. Thus a bee first visiting male flowers carries
the pollen away to a second plant.

The nutlets, as in other Labiates, are free, and when ripe fall out
to the ground.

Wood Sage is a rock plant growing on rock soil, or a sand-lover
and addicted to a sand soil. It is common on granitic, schistose, and
slate rocks.

The leaves are attacked by a fungus Puccinia annularis.

Beetles have a predilection for \Vood Sage, e.g. Apion rubens, Jlfeli-
gethcs bidens, M. obscurus, By rrkiis pilule, Longitarsiis pulex, L. distin-


No. i. Wood Sage
( Teucrium Scoroilonia, L.)

a, Flower showing the 2
small lateral lobes and trun-
cate upper lip.and large lower
lip ; exterior $>f corQJ3a hairy,
and 4 exserted stainens, 2
long, 2 short., ^, Calyx, per-
sistent, bell-shaped, ,-lobed,
with broader upper lip bent
back, ajid persistent bifid
stigma, and long style. c t
Inflorescence, with paired
ste'm-leaves below, forming
unilateral raceme with nu-
rous whorls. of 2-3 fiowers,
md bracts at thejr base.


i i a*- F lower with bracts re-
moved, showing crescentic
glands, stamens, and pistil
(drooping), c, Capsule (2-
lobed). c, Inflorescence,
with stem-leaves at base,
and made up of flowei heads
with many male and i female
flowers, subtended by con-
nate bracts, in 3 many-rayed
umbels, with the cuspidate
glAnds within each involucre
of* sepals.

-N-^j f

No. 3. Dog's Merctfijy 'j,

(Mercurialis pertnnis, L.)

a, Male flower, with 9

stamens, with 3 sepals. ,

Female, flower, with centra!

pistil, with. 2 hairy ovaries,

and long bent-back styles.

c, Didymous, hairy capsules.

d, Raceme, with male flowers
in the axils of bracts on iong
stalks. e, Flowering stem
with lance -shaped leaves,
shortly-stalked opposite, de-
cussate, and female flowers
iny' -short spikes, showing
ovaries and stigmas.

No. 4. Wych Elm
(Ulmus glabra, ttuds.)

a, Staminate flower, show-
ing bell-shaped Snd Calyx,
and exserted purple anthers
on long filaments, b, Hori-
zontal section of winged
fruit, with i seed in the
, centre of the samara. r,
Part of branch, with leaf
unequal at the base, with
notched margin, and a cluster
of -lateral fruits, showing the
broad wing, and central seed
of the samara, d, Flowering
twig, with several clusters of
flowers, showing the flowers
with anthers exserted, and
scales below which

lly drop off.

/T^o. 5. Oak
1 (Q#er$us Robur, L.) J
a, Stamina^e flower, with [
8 stamens and deeply divided
calyx. b< Pistillate flowe*i
with imbricate bracts enclos-
ing pistil, 3 styles above, 'c, .
Twig with lobed leaves, with .

\^ no auricle at the base, stip-
; \ules, and mak- tlov-.ets in
Scatkins, feninle flowers in
a spike. </, Acorn, or fruit,
one developed with cupule,
me undeveloped on long
flower -vjjtalk (peduxiculate
/type)./ _

No. 6. Beech

(Fagulsylvatica, L.)

, Pistillate flower will*

ovary, and 3 styles above

*, Fruit (beech-:

angled, c, FOUJ -fid involucre

or cupule of fem.Ue, flower.

'd, Twig with lo.ng- stalked

hairy leaves, scale-like stipule,

and nMUiinar-.: fas^el-like

flower^' with many stam,eus

and ove? lapping bracts be-





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I. Wood Sage ( Teitcriitm Scorodom'a, L.). 3- Wood Spurge (Euphorbia amygdaloides, L.). 3- Dog's Mercury
(Alercnrialts perennis, L.). 4- Wych Elm (Ulmtts glakra, Muds.)- 5- Oak (Qturcus Robin; L.). 6. Beech (Feign s

sylvatica, L.).


guendiis, L. membranaceiis, Aphthona abratula, a butterfly, Melittis ar-
temis, a moth, Ebulia verbascalis, and several Homoptera, Tettigometra
impressopunctata, Thamnotettix cruentata, Eupteryx stachydearum.

Teucrium, Dioscorides, is from Teucer, an ancient king of Troy,
reported to have first used this plant as a medicine. Scorodonia,
Cordus, is from the Greek, scorodon, garlic.

Wood Sage is called Ambrose, Ambroise, Garlick Sage, Wood
Germander, Mountain Sage, Rock Mint.

The people of Jersey are said to make use of it in brewing, and call
it Ambroise according to Withering. Wood Sage is highly aromatic,
and used as a tonic. It imparted too strong a colour to beer to be
much used in place of hops.


261. Teiicrium Scorodonia, L. Stem erect, leaves ovate, cordate
below, crenate, flowers yellowish-white, in terminal and lateral racemes,
upper lip of calyx ovate.

Wood Spurge (Euphorbia amygdaloides, L.)

Southern plant as it is, this Spurge is found in Preglacial beds in
Norfolk and Suffolk. It ranges to-day in the North Temperate Zone
from Holland southwards, and in West Asia. In Great Britain it is
found in the Peninsula, Channel, Thames, and Anglia provinces, ex-
cept in Hunts; throughout the Severn province; in S. Wales, except
in Glamorgan, Carmarthen, Pembroke; in N. Wales, in Montgomery,
Carnarvon; in the Trent province, except in Lines; in West Yorks,
Durham, Cheviotland from Northumberland southward, and is local
generally. It is found in Bandon and Donegal in Ireland, and in the
Channel Islands.

The Wood Spurge is a southern chalk and limestone species, which
is most plentiful on such soils, but is fairly widespread in England. It
is abundant in some woods and copses, and is also a common wayside
flower in the south of England, growing in clusters in the hedgerows.

It has an erect habit, with a more or less simple stem, with milky
acrid juice, with numerous leaves, which are lance-shaped to egg-shaped
or almond-shaped (hence the second Latin name), the lower stalked,
the upper stalkless. The stem forms a branched umbel above with
5-10 rays, with a rounded united ring of bracts, nearly round, the
flower-stalks slender, with glands tapering to a sudden point. The
capsules are smooth, with small warts or tubercles, with smooth seeds.

The stem is 1-2 ft. high. The flowers may be found in March and


June, and the plant is a deciduous undershrub, perennial, propagated
by division.

The flowerheads are bisexual, i.e. there are stamens and pistil on

Photo. H. Irving

WOOD SPURGE (Euphorbia amygdaloides, L.)

the same flowerhead. 1 The honey is exposed, and is sought by flies,
beetles, Hymenoptera, and the former especially cause cross-pollin-
ation. The cup-like whorl has 4-5 round glands. There are 10-15

1 Several male flowers, with single anthers, surround one female flower.


stamens, jointed, and equal to a stalk bearing a flower reduced to a
single stamen. In the centre is a single female flower, with a 3-celled
ovary and 3 styles and 2 stigmas. The stigma ripens first. The
anthers close in wet weather.

The capsule has rounded valves, and contains smooth, nearly
round seeds, slightly acute, which are expelled from the capsule by an
explosive motion, the carpels opening ventrally and letting the seeds
fall out. The capsule opens by partitions and loculi as well.

Wood Spurge is a lime-loving plant, found on lime soil, on the
chalk, limestone, or oolites.

It is attacked by a fungus, Endophyllum Euphorbia.

A beetle, Aphthona venustula, a Hymenopterous insect, Prosopis
masoni, and a moth, Sericoris euphorbiana, are found on the Wood

Euphorbia, Dioscorides, is from Euphorbus, physician to Juba,
King of Mauretania, and the second Latin name refers to the almond-
shaped leaves.

This plant is called Deer's Milk, Devil's Milk, Mare's Tail, and
Wood Spurge. It is known as Devil's Milk because it was supposed
to be associated with the Evil One.

The juice is acrid, causing ulceration wherever applied. It has
been applied externally to warts or corns, and to hollow teeth, to
remove the pain and destroy the nerve, or in earache behind the ears,
causing blistering.


274. Euphorbia amygdaloides, L. Stem erect, leafy, glabrous,
purple below, leaves obovate, entire, alternate, flowers in umbels, with
rounded connate bracts.

Dog's Mercury (Mercurialis perennis, L.)

This common hedgerow plant is found in Interglacial beds in
Sussex, and Neolithic beds in Essex and Edinburgh. To-day it is
found in the N. Temperate Zone in Europe and N. Africa. In Great
Britain it is absent in Hunts, Cardigan, S. Lines, Mid Lanes, Isle of
Man, E. Sutherland, Hebrides, Shetlands, but elsewhere general north-
wards to the Orkneys, up to 1700 ft. in the Highlands. It is native
in Ireland and the Channel Islands.

What exactly are the requirements of this plant are somewhat
puzzling, for it is absent in the same district from large areas which
possess the same characteristics of shade which it requires; but it is


apparently not fond of some sandy districts, but rather of a humus
subsoil, which it obtains in the dry woods and hedge-banks, which
are its natural habitat. In some districts such surface may be leached
out, causing it to disappear.

The root-stock is creeping, and from it the stems issue more or less
in an erect manner, being simple, with many leaves, but leafless below,
rounded, with wings. The leaves vary and may be rough, smooth, or
hairy, oval, acute, stalked, with saw -like teeth, in pairs, with white
glands on the margin. At the base of the leaf- stalks are 2 small
acute stipules or leaflike organs. They form a cup to catch rain, and
a rounded ridge in it with a row of hairs occurs and absorbs moisture.

The flowers are in loose spikes in the axils of the upper leaves,
greenish, with no corolla. The female flowers are hidden among the
leaves, more or less stalkless, the male on long flower-stalks very
slender, with acute sepals. Male flowers may occur on the female
rarely. The capsule is rounded, double, with 2 cavities with white
cuticle, and there are 2 carpels.

Dog's Mercury is about i ft. in height. It flowers in April and
May, and is perennial, as the second name implies, and reproduced by

The plant is dioecious, the stamens and carpels being on different
plants, the males in axillary spikes, and the females clustered in a short
raceme of 3 flowers. The styles are long and bent back, stigmatic in
front. There is no corolla, and 2 carpels. The flowers are pollinated
by the wind. The pollen is dust-like. The stigmas are said to be ripe
at least two days before the anthers are ripe. On some female plants
there may be a few male flowers capable of pollination.

When ripe the seeds fall out of the capsule around the parent plant.

Dog's Mercury is more or less a humus plant, requiring a humus

The fungus Cteoma mercurialis attacks it.

Several beetles are found on Dog's Mercury, Hermceophaga mer-
curialis, Apion gcrmari, A. pallipes, Trophiphorits mercurialis, Meli-
gcthcs kunzci, and a moth, Phlogophora meticulosa.

Mercurialis, Pliny, was so called after the god Mercury, who is
said to have discovered its virtues, and the second Latin name indicates
its perennial character.

This plant is called Adder's-meat, Boggard-flower, Bristol-weed,
Cheadle, Dog's Mercury, Dog's Cole, Kentish Balsam, Maiden Mer-
cury, Wild Mercury, Leaf Mercury, Sapwort, Snake's Bit, Snake

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