a judgment to come, at which some of them almost trem-
January 20. " Rose with great peace of mind, and spent all
the morning in composing a sermon," which he began yester-
day and almost finished to-day.
Sunday, January 22. "About nine, went on board with
Captain Whiting, who is always extremely civil. Visited the
sick and read prayers in the cabin. Read prayers, preached my
sermon on Early Piety, on open deck to the soldiers ; the
officers and other gentlemen attending very seriously. After-
noon preached at Upper Deal, on Acts xxviii. 26. Many
seemed pricked to the heart, and expressed a desire to follow
me wherever I should go."
.While lying in the Downs, besides his regular labors, Mr.
Whitefield engaged much in personal religious conversation
with the soldiers and officers, and spent much time and enjoyed
much pleasure and comfort in writing and receiving letters from
his London friends. He often sat up till two or three o'clock
in the morning, writing letters to his friends. On one occasion,
he says, "the reception of letters from my London friends filled
my soul with unutterable pleasure, and caused me to shed
tears of joy."
January 24. Visited Mr. E., " who most kindly entertained
us, and offered me his boat to go or come on shore when I
pleased. After we returned from his house, we kneeled down
on the shore, and prayed for them that opposed themselves,
66 LIFE OF WHITEFIELD.
and then went to bed blessing and praising God." " When the
heart is full of God, outward things affect it little."
January 25. At Whitefield's request, the captain pardoned
a woman who was sentenced to be sent on shore. He preached
to-day at Upper Deal, to a large congregation, with great effect.
He says, "a divine fire seems to be kindling there." "All Deal
seems to be in a holy flame" And nearly all on board the
Whitaker had now become very serious, " and there were great
hopes of the captain's conversion." " Oh ! that I may catch
them by a holy guile."
Sabbath, January 29. Visited the sick, read prayers,
preached once on sea, twice on land to crowded congregations,
and spoke four hours to four companies who collected to hear
him at his lodgings,* and, says he, " I was but little, if any,
Thus he labored incessantly, and " went about doing good,"
until the winds shifted, and orders came, " Prepare yourselves
for saili?ig." He received the news with joy, but his London
friends received it with sorrow. They retired for a parting
season of prayer, but they had to be very brief. " Having
therefore commended ourselves to God, I took my leave. But
oh, what affection did the Deal people express to my un-
worthy person ! â€” for no sooner were they apprised of the wind
being fair, than they came running in droves after me to the
seashore, wishing me good luck in the name of the Lord ; and
with tears, praying for my success and safe return. I was con-
founded with a sense of God's mercies to me." "The sea
was very boisterous indeed," but he went on singing psalms
and praising God, with the water dashing in his face all the
way.' They reached the Whitaker and got aboard about five,
*When large crowds collected at his lodgings, he divided them into compa-
nies in order to be heard.
HIS FIRST VOYAGE TO AMERICA. 6j
and were received with great joy, while the ship was under sail.
Owing to the winds shifting, they were detained in the Downs
until February 2d, and the same wind that carried Whitefield
out,- brought John Wesley into the Downs. Wesley sailed in
February I, and Whitefield sailed out February 2d.*
On February 3 they made a very narrow escape, and God
wrought for them a glorious deliverance. "An East India ship
sailing very briskly," he says, " ran withki four yards of us,
and had it not been for the expertness of the captain, both
ships must inevitably have split one against another." Besides
catechising and teaching the children, Whitefield now preached
daily to the soldiers on deck, and usually on Sundays to the
officers in the great cabin. At the captain's request, he now
read prayers morning and evening in the great cabin. He
soon gave them one sermon on "Justification by Faith," and
another on "The Eternity of Hell Torments." Encouraged
with this beginning to have full public prayers, Mr. Whitefield
exclaimed, " Blessed be God ! for I hope we shall now begin to
live like Christians and call upon the name of the Lord daily.
The very thoughts of God's granting me this petition filled me
STORM AT SEA.
On February 14, "about twelve at night," he says, "a fresh
gale arose, which increased so rapidly by four in the morning,
that the waves raged horribly indeed, and broke in like a river
on many of the poor soldiers who lay near the main hatchway.
*The ship that brought Wesley back from Georgia, passed Deal while White-
field was there, but neither of the noted men knew it at the time. Whitefield
was surprised to receive a letter from Wesley saying, " When I saw God by the
wind which was carrying you out brought me in, I asked counsel of God. His
answer you have enclosed." What was it ? . "Let him (that is, Whitefield) return
68 LIFE OF WHITEFIELD.
I rose and called upon God for myself, for those sailing with
me, for absent friends, and for all mankind. After this I went
on deck, but surely a more noble, awful sight, my eyes never
beheld; for the waves rose mountain high, and sometimes
came on the quarter deck. I endeavored all the while to
magnify God for thus making His power known; and then
creeping on my knees (for I knew not how to go otherwise), I
went between decks and sung psalms and comforted the poor
wet soldiers and people. The storm raged, but God was so
good to assist me, that though things were tumbling, the ship
rocking, and persons falling down sick about me, yet I never
was more cheerful in my life, and was enabled, though in the
midst of company, to finish a sermon before I went to bed."
He observed the fourteenth as a day of fasting and prayer.
ARRIVES AT GIBRALTAR.
While busy preaching, writing sermons, and catechising the
women and children, he reached Spain, Sabbath, February 19,
and landed at Gibraltar, the " mart of nations." He preached
on board the same day they arrived. Delighted with the
pleasant sailing, and deeply impressed with the sight of the
huge promontories, the impregnable fort, and the vast, tower-
ing rocks, he says, " I could not avoid thanking God for calling
me abroad." Upon going ashore, he was delighted with the
place, and very kindly received by Governor Sabine, who
invited him to dine with him every day he was in town. The
ministers also received him very affectionately, and offered him
the use of their pulpits. He preached in one of them one day,
and was pleased to see so many officers and soldiers accom-
pany the general to church. After a gentleman had kindly
provided him comfortable private lodgings, he and Mr. Haber-
sham went to church one morning at six o'clock " to pray with
HIS FIRST VOYAGE TO AMERICA. 69
some devout soldiers, with whom," he says, " my soul was knit
immediately." "They were called 'New Lights' Another
small society were called 'Dark Lanterns! " " The former," said
Whitefield, " were 'a glorious light.' They were ' a light in
a dark place.' " They formerly met secretly in dens and caves
of the rocks for prayer and praise. For their piety they at-
tracted Whitefield's attention more than anything else in the
city. Dr. Philip called them " The Methodists of Gibraltar ?
The next Sabbath .morning, he visited them again, and sung,
prayed and expounded with them with much comfort. He
preached again the same morning in one of the churches to a
thronged congregation of officers and soldiers, with a very
deep effect. He had now been preaching or expounding daily
for some time, " and perceived the Word of God to run very
swiftly." Upon seeing several soldiers on their knees at their
private devotions as he entered the church, he exclaimed, "
happy Gibraltar, that hast such a set of praying men !" On
March 3, he preached his sermon against swearing to a very
thronged congregation in the church, and made a farewell ap-
plication to the soldiers that were about to leave for Georgia.
Many officers and soldiers wept sorely, and the effect was very
deep. The interest had now increased so greatly, that his con-
gregations numbered over one thousand hearers. One day he
went to see the " Roman Catholics at their high mass." He
said, " There needs no other argument against popery, than to
see the pageantry, superstition, and idolatry of their worship."
FAREWELL TO GIBRALTAR.
The interest had increased so greatly, that his congrega-
tions numbered over a thousand hearers; and in summing up
his labors here, he says, "Sampson's Riddle has been fulfilled
at Gibraltar. Out of the eater came forth meat; out of the
JO LIFE OF WHITEFIELD.
strong came forth sweetness. Who more unlikely to be
wrought upon than soldiers ? and yet I have not been amongst
any set of people where God has made His power more to be
known. Many that were quite stark blind, have received their
sight ; and many that have fallen back, have repented and
turned to the Lord; and many saints have had their hearts
filled with joy unspeakable. It was quite a revival. I should
have wondered if God had not sent me a thorn in the flesh,
after such abundant success." On March 6th about noon, he
"went to the church, and gave a farewell exhortation to a great
number of weeping soldiers, women, etc., and after commending
each other to God's care, I bid farewell to the generals and the
confined prisoners." About two hundred soldiers, officers, ladies,
etc., accompanied him to the ship, "who all sorrowed at his
departure, and wished him good luck in the name of the Lord."
On March 9, Whitefield married a couple on deck, and
gave them a suitable exhortation. The next day they had a
violent storm at sea, and he began to expound the Ten Com-
mandments in the great cabin. His seasickness now became
worse. But he said, " Suffering times are a Christian's best
improving times. For they break the will, wean us from the
creature, and improve the heart." His friend Habersham took
very good care of him. Besides going on with his regular
routine of duties, on the fifteenth he commenced to canvass
the hearts of his people "one by one, to see what account they
could give of their faith." Although he did not find them all
"great proficients," "yet I find they know enough to save them,
if they put it in practice." Mr. Habersham had now established
a regular School on the ship, and the children began to come at
regular hours. They made rapid progress. Whitefield exam-
ined them occasionally, and was much encouraged with the
prospect of their speedy conversion.
HIS FIRST VOYAGE TO AMERICA. 7 1
He observed the 16th as a day of fasting- and prayer, and
preached again his sermon against swearing. He says : " Sev-
eral of the soldiers wept. Blessed be God ! sin is much abated
amongst us." Whitefield now began to extend his labors to the
accompanying ships. Accompanied by Captain Whiting he
went on board the " ' Lightfoot ;" dined with the officers of the
ship ; married a couple ; preached a sermon against drunken-
ness ; distributed Bibles, Testaments and religious books, and
exchanged some books for cards, and threw the cards into the
ocean. The next day he* visited the "Amy," and performed
similar labors. On returning to the " Whitaker" he preached
his sermon against drunkenness, and Captain Mackay exhorted
his men to take heed to what they had heard.
Many of the soldiers, who did little else but curse and swear
when Mr. Whitefield came on board, now attend prayers twice
a day, and " several give good evidence of a change of heart."
Scarce an oath is heard among them. " We live in perfect har-
mony and peace, loving and beloved of one another."
" Surely, my friends," says Whitefield, " your prayers are
heard. Continue instant in them, and you shall see greater
things than these." He now exchanged some good books for
some bad ones, and threw the latter overboard with great joy.
During this voyage Whitefield says : " I was enabled to write
letters and compose sermons, as though I had been on land."
Altogether, there were about one hundred and fifty persons on
WHITEFIELD AND THE SHARK.
March 20.' " To-day, while dining, we were entertained with
a most agreeable sight. It was a shark about the length of
a man, which followed our ship attended with five little fishes
called the pilot-fish. These, I am told, always keep the shark
72 LIFE OF WHITEFIELD.
company, and, what is more surprising, though the shark is so
ravenous a creature, yet let it be never so hungry, it never
touches one of them. Nor are they less faithful to him. For,
if at any time the shark is hooked, these little creatures will not
forsake him, but cleave close to his fins, and are often taken
up with him. Go to the pilot-fish, thou that forsakest a friend
in adversity, consider his ways and be abashed, and learn how
to hold fast. Go to the pilot-fish, thou back-slider, and learn
how to persevere and 'cleave to the Lord!"
March 23. " This morning we began to have prayers at 6
o'clock, and the drum to beat to call the people. Visited twelve
or fourteen patients; and yet* such is God's mercy to me,
that though the place where they lie is much confined, and
they catch the fever from one another, yet God keeps me from
taking it. The way of duty is the way of safety. Nothing
more useful than visiting sick-beds."
WHITEFIELD " BREAKING CHILDREN'S WILLS."
March 31. " Had a good instance of the benefit of breaking
children's wills. Last night going between decks (as I do
every night) to visit the sick and to examine my people, I asked
one of the women to bid her boy that stood by her, say his
prayers ; she answered, his elder sister would, but she could
not make him. Upon this, I bid the child to kneel down before
me, but it would not until I took hold of its two feet and forced
it down. I then bid it say the Lord's Prayer (being informed
by his mother he could say it if he would), but he obstinately
refused, until at last, after I had given it several blows, it said
its prayers as well as could be expected, and I gave it some
figs for a reward. And this same child, though not above four
years of age, came to-night on deck when the other children
came to say their prayers to my friend H., and burst out into a
HIS FIRST VOYAGE TO AMERICA. 73
flood of tears, and would not go away until he said his too. I
mention this as a proof of the necessity of early correction ;
children are sensible of it sooner than parents imagine. And
if they would but have resolution to break their wills thoroughly
when young, the work of conversion would be much easier,
and they would not be so troubled with perverse children when
they are old."
Whitefield now frequently preached on all three of the ships,
the " Whiiaker" the " Lightfoot" and the "Amy" on the same
day, and says : " Blessed be God, we live very comfortably in
the great cabin. We talk of little else but God and Christ.
Scarce a word is to be heard but what has reference to our fall
in the first, and our new birth in the second Adam." On one
occasion " he preached with a captain on each side of him and
soldiers all around him ; and the two other ships' companies
being at times in the trade winds, drew near and joined in the
worship of God." Trembling with fear and burning with fever,
the greatest swearer on board now sent for Whitefield to go and
see him in his distress. He went, and the poor sinner freely
confessed his "grievous sins, and prayed most fervently for
repentance." Whitefield had given him an effectual warning
two days before. Late in April, from exposure in nursing the
sick, Whitefield was taken with " a violent fever." Nearly all
on board had it. He was well cared for. Captain Whiting
gave him his bed, and Mr. Habersham nursed him most ten-
derly. And what delighted him most, the sick between decks
prayed fervently for him. He said : " I was bled thrice, and
blistered and vomited once ; and blessed be God, I can say it is
good for me that I have been afflcted, for God has enabled me
to rejoice with joy unspeakable and full of glory. I thought
I was on the brink of eternity. I had heaven within me, and
thought of nothing in this world." He longed to depart.
74 LIFE OF WHITEFIELD.
On May 5th Whitefield attended the funeral of the ship cook,
who had lately boasted " that he would be wicked till two years
before he died, and then he would be good ;" but, alas ! he was
suddenly taken sick and died in about six hours after he made
the foolish resolution.
Toward the end of the voyage the religious interest became
so great, that Dr. Gillies says, " The great cabin now became a
bethel, the deck a church, and the stern a school-room. With
two captains made almost Christians, one young gentleman
and several soldiers hopefully converted, religion was now the
principal subject of conversation. In a word," says Dr. Gillies,
" there was a reformation throughout the whole soldiery. The
women exclaimed, ' What a change in the captain !' " White-
field had labored hard. " For many days and nights he had
visted between twenty and thirty sick persons, crawling upon his
knees between decks, to administer medicines and cordials and
give advice suitable to their circumstances." God gave him
such a signal success that he says, " Hitherto I have been
made to go on from conquering to conquer."
At length, " having lain about a week on the coast," he says,
"we saw Savannah River, and sent off for a pilot. Oh, what joy
appeared in every countenance! How infinitely more joyful
will the children of God be, when they arrive at the haven of
everlasting rest!" On May 7, 1738, after "a long, yet exceed-
ingly pleasant voyage," they cast anchor near Tybee Island,
about fourteen miles off Savannah. After preaching his fare-
well sermon, " at which many wept," he and Mr. Habersham
" took boat and arrived at Savannah about seven in the evening.
What shall I render to the Lord for all his mercies !"
With full confidence in God's protecting power, Whitefield now
went forth, saying, " I am now going forth as a sheep among
wolves ; but he that protected Abraham when he went out not
knowing whither he went, will also guide and protect me."
WHITEFIELD'S FIRST VISIT TO AMERICA.
AVING set his foot upon American soil, with
a heart glowing with gratitude to God, he hast-
ened to unite with his friends in prayer and
praise for his safe arrival. He landed about
seven o'clock on the evening of May 7, 1738,
and was very kindly received at the Parsonage
House, by Mr. Delamotte, the Mission School
teacher at Savannah, with whom he spent the
balance of the evening in taking sweet counsel about the affairs
of the little colony.
After receiving calls from some of Mr. Wesley's friends, he
read public prayers and expounded the scriptures in the Court
House, the next day, to 17 adults and 25 children. Out of
respect the magistrates proposed to wait upon him the next
day, but he chose rather to wait upon them. They received
him with great respect, and their conversation turned upon the
place of his settlement. It was finally agreed that they would
build him a house and tabernacle at Frederica, and have him
serve the church, at Savannah as long as convenient.
The first thing he did, after recovering from a short spell of
sickness, was to visit Timochichi, an Indian king, then lying at
the point of death on a thin blanket at a neighbor's house. His
wife, Senauki, sat by, fanning him with some Indian feathers.
In a few days Mr. Whiter! eld went to see him again, when
Tooanoowee, his nephew, was present, who could talk English.
?6 LIFE OF WHITEFIELD.
" I desired him to ask his uncle whether he thought he should
die. He answered : ' I cannot tell.' I then asked him where
he thought he would go after death. He replied : ' To
heaven.' ' But, alas ! how can a drunkard enter there ?' I then
exhorted young Tooanoowee not to get drunk, telling him he
understood English, and, therefore, he would be punished the
more if he did not live better. I then asked him whether he
believed in a heaven. He answered : ' Yes.' I then asked
him if he believed in a hell, and described it by pointing to the
fire. He replied : ' No.' From whence we may easily gather,
how natural it is to all mankind to believe there is a place of
happiness, because they wish it may be so, and, on the con-
trary, how averse they are to believe in a place of torment,
because they wish it may not be so. But God is just ; and as
surely as the good shall go into everlasting happiness, the
wicked shall go into everlasting punishment."
Recovering his strength, and hungering for souls, he soon
went out to survey the condition of the little colony ; and in
visiting the small neighboring villages of Hampstead and High-
gate, he became deeply impressed with the wants of the
children. In devising means for their education and protec-
tion, he then and there (May 16, 1738,) determined to erect an
Orphan House, and besought the blessing of God to attend his
efforts. Meanwhile he did what he could, and established a
school at Highgate for those two villages and one at Savannah
for girls. He then visited the Saltzburgers at Ebenezer, and
found things in a more prosperous condition. There they had
two pious ministers, Mr. Boltzius and Mr. Grenaw, who (as
they have no courts of jurisdiction) decide all little differences
among the people. They have also a good Orphan House,
with which Mr. Whitefield was so much pleased that he gave
Mr. Boltzius a share of his " poor's store" for his orphans ; after
whitefield's FIRST VISIT TO AMERICA. 77
which he called them all together, catechised and exhorted
them to be thankful for the gift, prayed with them, heard them
pray, sung a psalm, and then " the little lambs came and shook
me by the hand one by one, and so we parted, and I scarce was
ever better pleased in my life." This interesting sight strength-
ened his purpose and fired his zeal to go on with his own pro-
posed Orphan House.
Early in June his dear friend Mr. Delamotte embarked for
England, which left Mr. Whitefield almost alone. And surely,
says he, " I must labor most heartily, since I come after such
worthy predecessors as Mr. Wesley and Delamotte." Although
" Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine " pronounces Mr. Wesley's
mission to' America an "entire failure," and that "he left the
American shores all but driven out," and although Mr. Tyer-
man says, "Wesley's mission to America seemed a failure," yet
Whitefield, who had a good opportunity to know, says in his
journal, "The good Mr. John Wesley has done in America is
inexpressible. His name is very precious among the people,
and he has laid such a foundation that I hope neither men nor
devils will ever be able to shake."
After laboring about five weeks in Savannah, Mr. Whitefield
says, " God has graciously visited me with a fit of sickness, but
now I am lively as a young eagle. All things have happened
better than I expected. America is not so horrid a place
as it is represented to be. The heat of the weather, lying on
the ground, etc., are mere painted lions in the way, and to a
soul filled with divine love, not worth mentioning. The
country is exceedingly pleasant. God sets his seal to my min-
istry here, as at other places. We have an excellent Christian
school, and near a hundred constantly attend at evening prayers.
The people receive me gladly into their houses, and seem to
be most kindly affected towards me. We do not want for
7 8 LIFE OF WHITEFIELD.
provisions. Blessed be God, I visit from house to house,
catechise, read prayers twice, and expound the two second
lessons every day ; read to a house full of people three times a
week ; expound the two lessons at five in the morning, read
prayers and preach twice ; and expound the catechism to ser-
vants at seven every Sunday evening. What I have most at
heart now, is the building of an Orphan House, which I trust
will be effected at my return to England. . . . Oh, dear Mr. H.,
pray for me."
The people of Savannah, although made up of different
nations, holding different opinions, heard him gladly. And in
searching for souls and exploring his new field of labor, some-
times he would go out twelve or fifteen miles to -visit a few
families. Longing for their salvation, he not only preached to
them powerfully from the pulpit, but he endeavored to set them