A. T. (Alfred Theodore) Andreas.

History of Chicago. From the earliest period to the present time (Volume 2) online

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6HICA60.



The original picturE — a copy of "which is given Dn the
oppositE page — was prESEntedj through thE propriEtors of thE
LnNEDN (England G-RAPHIC, to t±LE City of Chicago, ZlftEr
thE immEdiatE nECESsitiES of thE snffErErs by thE firE of
IB 71 had tiEEn allEviatEd, and it was annonncEd that no
morE nionEy from abroad would de nEEdEd, thErE rEmahiEd
a largE sum in thE hands of thE propriEtors of thE LDNHDN
Graphic, Being unablE to rEturn thE monEy to thE donors,
it was dEtErminEd to use thE saniE towards thE purchasE of
this picture for thE City of Chicago, Mr, Ed 5rmitagB is
the artist,



•URBS INCIKERATA.



HISTORY



OF



CHICAGO.



FROM THE



Earliest Period to the Present Time.



IN THREE VOLUMES.



VOLUME II. — FROM 1857 UNTIL THE FIRE OF 1S71.



BY A. T. ANDREAS.



CHICAGO :
THE A. T, ANDREAS COMPANY, PUBLISHERS.

1885,



R. R. DONNELLEY & SONS,
PRINTERS,

THE LAKESIDE TRESS.



A. J. COX & CO.,

BINDERS,

144 MONROE STREET.



Copyright Secured, 18S5.
THE A. T. ANDREAS COMPANY,



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.



BLOMGREN BROS. & CO.,

ELECTROTYI'ERS,

162 A 164 CLARK STREET.



HUGHES & JOHNSON,

LITHOGRAVURES,
253 KINZIE STREET.



PREFACE.



OF the general plan of the History and its specific treatment of subjects, it is requisite that
something explanatory should be said. It has already been stated, in the anterior volume,
why it was found absolutely needful to make topical essays of the various matters under consideration,
and this mode has been continued in the present volume. By this method, chronology and the
presentation of facts can be more easily conserved — which is the province of the historian, — and the
drawing of inferences avoided — which is the realm of the essayist. In furtherance of this aim, and
heeding the line of demarcation between history and essay, it has been the principle of the collaborator
to present compendia of incidents, in the particular dissertation, as they transpired, rather than a
general account of the event toward which the incidents tended. It is sufficiently easy to realize that
a certain number of acres were devastated by the Chicago fire, but without the aid of the historian
it would be difficult to acquire any knowledge of the various causes which rendered such destruction
not only practicable, but easy.

For the same reason, there are given the biographies of many of Chicago's citizens. These
give the history of the men and women who performed the actions that have made history ; their
lives and their deeds are the kevs to the marvellous progress and achievement that have made the
name of Chicago a household word throughout the habitable globe. If further advocacy were needed
for the presentation of the deeds of " common - place, every -day men" — who are those with whom we
deal in in common - place, every -day life — it would be found in these words of the historiographer,
Charles Knight : " The history of manners, of common life, is essentially dependent upon the civil,
the military, the religious history of a nation. Public events act upon the condition of a people,
and the condition of a people interchangeably acts upon public events." Hence, the biography of
an individual acts as a plane mirror in reflecting the macrocosm around it, or as the facet of a
diamond refracts the beauty of the sun. " History is philosophy teaching by example," and the
precedents of our merchants, our professional men and our artisans is worthy of all emulation — such
examples being rendered possible by the magnitude of our city's transactions and the splendor of her
commercial prosperity.

In procuring matter for the various topics of which chapters have been made, manifold courtesies
and valuable information were received from large numbers of our citizens, among them the publishers
are especially indebted to Hons. John Wentworth, William Bross, Henry Booth, and Messrs.
Joseph Medill, Joseph O. Rutter, John H. Dunham, John R. Walsh, John G. Shortall, J. Adams
Allen, William J. Onahan, Samuel H. Kerfoot, Robert Fergus, Charles C. Bonney, Elias Colbert,
Joseph P. Ross, Gil. W. Barnard, C. C. P. Holden and George P. Upton. The resources of the
Public Library and of the Chicago Historical Society have been heavily taxed by the collaborators,
but both of these Institutions, as well as their respective directors, William F. Poole and Albert D.
Hager, have furnished vast quantities of most valuable information The Press, without exception,
has been most courteous and painstaking, and from the large fund of its varied experience and
cosmopolitan knowledge has given copiously. That there are so many reproductions of ante -fire
edifices and views of parts of the city is principally ascribable to the kindness of Messrs. P. B. Greene,
Lovejoy & Foster, A. I. W. Copelin, A. Hesler and John E. Woodhead ; while to Joshua Smith the
publishers are indebted for permission to reproduce his copyrighted view of the ruins of Chicago.
In brief, whenever an individual or family, a corporation or society, was applied to for data it was
unhesitatingly furnished.



PREFACE.

During the process of compilation it was found expedient to abolish any attempt at an
historical resume of the subject-matter of the preceding volume. Two reasons made the serial story
precedent an undesirable one to follow : first, that such a syllabus would be too brief to be valuable,
or even comprehensibly accurate, and second, that there is not a page to spare in the entire second
volume. This latter fact renders needful a quasi -apology for this work — happily the only condonation
required.

In making a synthesis of the various topics prepared by the collaborators, it was ascertained
that several matters that might have been elaborated in this volume, and whose treatment pertains to
this epoch, would have to be excluded, because their introduction and satisfactory recital would amplify
the book beyond reasonable dimensions and render it unwieldy. A dilemma was then instituted, in
the query as to what should be ignored or excised ? The narrative of the War could neither be
curtailed nor syncopated from the work, for the story of Chicago's heroism and patriotic devotion to
the Union and her soldiers constitutes one of the grandest pages in her wonderful history. The
recital of the burning of the city could not be abscinded, as that is the grand climacteric of the
volume and the apotheosis of the trials and sufferings of our people. And the introduction of these
two topics being conceded to be necessary, a review of the space they occupv will render
comprehensible the need for curtailment elsewhere. This elision, however, is only an elision from
epochal dissertation, as in the ensuing volume all the missing historical fibers will be taken up and
interwoven into a complete and harmonious termination. In fact, experience has shown that in a
number of instances continuous narration is more expedient than an interrupted recital.

In perusing this volume, some cursory idea may be formed of the enormous quantity of labor
that has been bestowed upon its authorship ; the expenditure of such work is an index to the
amount that was utilized in the construction and improvement of the city up to October 8, 187 1.
Step by step have the compilers followed the citizens of Chicago during the erection of their
habitations and commerce ; as their pencils recorded the vast amount of progress in all branches of
the arts and sciences, in mechanics and agriculture, in trade and manufacture, they realized the
unparalleled advance of the Garden City from 1S57 to 1871, and as their records were examined for
this work, it was apparent that the principal difficulty in recording it was not what to write, but
what not to write. Only fourteen years of a city's existence, and a folio volume of eight hundred
pages is inadequate to fully record it. Mirabile dictu !

Relative to the accuracy of the statements made, it is pertinent to remark that neither time,
labor nor money have been spared in gathering the material, which, after its compilation, was submitted
to competent judges of its verity ; and upon their dicta were excisions, additions or changes made.
It is not considered that perfection has been attained, but every precaution and care has been utilized
to insure accuracy. The publishers are cognizant of the fidelity and scrupulous pains that have been
taken in every process of making this book, and give it to the citizens of Chicago, confident that
everything possible has been done to make it worthy of the city of which it is the history.

THE A. T. ANDREAS COMPANY.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



CORPORATE HISTORY.

The Corporation : Municipal changes ; Wards. .49 — Elections
-.49 — Rosters, 1S58 to 1872. .49-50 — Statistics. .52.-49-56

Board of Public Works: Commissioners, 1S61 to 1872. .56 —
Street improvements; Statistics- -56-59 — Bridge building;
Statistics_.6o-62 — Bridges destroyed in "great fire"_.62 —
River tunnels. -63-65 — Sewerage system; Statistics. -65-66 —
City Hall -.66 — Water system: The Water Works; The
Lake tunnel ; Statistics- -66-70 .- ..56-70

River, Harbor and .Marine : Harbor and River improvements ;
Statistics- .70-72 — Dockage_-72 — The Marine; Statistics -
73-74 — The " Skjoldmoen". .74 — Ship building- -74 — Not-
able marine disasters. -74-77 — Vessels destroyed in 1871.-77

— Lake, etc., transportation companies. .80-82 70-S2

Police Department : Changes in organization. -83 — Uniforms

- S3-S4 — Badges-.S3-84 — Police Commissioners, 1S61 to
1S70..S4 — Precincts and Stations. -S4-S6 — The Detective

Force. .87 ..- - - 83-90

Fire Department : Last of the Volunteers.. 90 — Paid Fire De-
partment- _go — Fire Commissioners. -91 — Fire limits in 1871
-.91 — Fire Companies in iS7i-_gi-g2 — Telegraph- -g2-g4

— Insurance Patrol. -94 — Benevolent Association. .94-95 —
Company Sketches. -95-99 — Notable fires, 1863 to 1S72 -
gg-102- go-102

Public Schools : Changes in organization. . 102-103 — City Board
of Education ; Presidents and Members of.. 102-104 — ^ ta ~
tistics..l03 — Music, Drawing, and German introduced - 106-
107 — Special funds. . 107-108 — Statistics. - 108 — Histories of
Schools. -108-1 14 — School buildings destroyed in 1871-.114-
115 — Teachers' Institute. -115 102-115

Private Schools : Location, etc., from 1857 to 1872 115-117

LOCAL TRANSPORTATION.

Omnibus Routes, 1858 to 1864 118-119

City Railways: Chicago City Railway. -119-121 — "Wabash
Horse Railroad Swindle "..120-121 — North Chicago Railway

_.I2I — ChicagoWest Division Railway. .121 II9-121

ILLINOIS AND MICHIGAN CANAL.
History of, from 1S58 to 18S4 : Trustees, 1858 to 1871 - 123 —
Commissioners, 1S71 to 1884 - 123-124 — Tolls received,

1857 to 1SS3 - 124 123-124

TELEGRAPH AND EXPRESS.

Telegraph Companies, 1858 to 1871 125

Express Companies, 1845 to 1S71 -.125-126

RAILROADS.

Histories of : Illinois Central; Statistics. . 128-133 — Chicago &
• North-Western . - 133-140 — Chicago & Alton . - 140-143 — Chi-
cago, Burlington & Quincy ; Statistics- . 143-146 — Pittsburgh,
Fort Wayne & Chicago -.146-147 — Chicago, Milwaukee &
St. Paul.. 147 — Union Depots. . 148-153 — Chicago, Rock
Island & Pacific-148-151 — Chicago & Southwestern.. 151 —
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern. .153-155 — Michigan Cen-
tral. _ 1 55-1 56 — Chicago & Eastern Illinois. _ 156 — Pittsburgh,
Cincinnati & St. Louis.- 156-157 — Chicago & Iowa.-i57 —
General Summary - 157 — Railroad legislation._i57 — Pull-
man's Palace Car Co. - 157 — Railroad traffic. -1 57-1 5S — First

regular time-table.- 158 12S-158

MILITARY HISTORY.

Awakening of the War Spirit : First War meeting- -I5g, 160

— Second War meeting. . 160 — The clergy preach patriotism
- 160 — Governor Yates calls for six regiments of militia.- 160
— Metropolitan Hall rally..i6o — General Orders (State)
Nos. I and 2.. 160 i5g-i6o

War Material in Chicago: 60th Regiment, I. S. M...i6i —
Washington Independent Regiment. No. 1..161 — Chicago
Light Dragoons.. 161 — Chicago Light Guard. . 161 — Emmet
Guards. -161 — Shields' Guards..i6i — United States Zouave
Cadets..i6i — Chicago Light Artillery. . 161 — Washington
Light Cavalry. . 162 — Washington Rifles. . 162 — Washington
Grenadiers.. 162 — Black Jaeger Rifles.- 162 — Independent
Zouaves -.162 1 60-1 62



Re-organization ok Regiments: Zouave_-i62 — Washington
Independent-. 162 — Taylor's Light Artillery - i62. - - .-i62

Action of the Citizens: War meetings.. 162-163 — Cairo gar-
risoned.- 163 - - 162-163

Recruiting in Chicago : The " Irish Brigade" - i63 — Swedish
company- -163 — "The Home Guard ".. 164 — Fourteen Chi-
cago companies received for service in the State - 164 — Ten
Chicago companies drilling — 164 — 163-164

Acceptance of Soldiers: The "Ten-regiment bill" - 164 —
Distribution of Chicago companies.- 164, 165 — " State-at-
large" Regiment -.164, 165 — "Hecker Jreger Regiment"..

165, 166— Sturges Rifle Corps.. 165 — The " Yates Phalanx "
__i6s — The " Irish Brigade "..165 — The Zouave Regiment
..166 — Chicago Dragoons. -166 — Washington Light Cav-
alry - i66 — Cos. "A" and " B," Chicago Light Artillery..
166 164-166

Aid by the Citizens: War Finance committee 165-166

Chicago's Performance of its Duty: Relief Associations..

166, 167 — Union Defense Committee.. 167 166-167

The Draft of 1864 : Cook County quota. . 167, 168 — Men fur-
nished; Tables; Amounts paid as bounties and as relief.. 16S

Chicago Regiments, Histories of : 12th Illinois Infantry. -i6g

— igth Illinois Infantry - 179 — Ellsworth's Chicago Zouaves
- IS7 — 23d Illinois Infantry. .190— 24th Illinois Infantry..
195 — 371I1 Illinois Infantry. . 199 — 3gth Illinois Infantry..
203 — 42d Illinois Infantry. .208 — 51st Illinois Infantry. .
213 — 57th Illinois Infantry.. 21S— 58th Illinois Infantry..
221 — 65th Illinois Infantry__225— Three-months Regiments
of 1S62 227 — 72d Illinois Infantry- -227 — 82d Illinois In-
fantry. .231 — 88th Illinois Infantry. .235 — 89th Illinois In-
fantry -.244— 90th Illinois Infantry.. 24g — 113th Illinois
Infantry - 252— 127th Illinois Infantry_.257 — One Hundred-
Day Regiments of 1864.-258 — Sturges Rifles..258 — Cav-
alry Regiments. .258 — 8th Illinois Cavalry. .259 — 9th Illi-
nois Cavalry. -261 — 12th Illinois Cavalry. .263 — 13th Illinois
Cavalrv-.265 — 16th Illinois Cavalry. .267 — 17th Illinois
Cavalry- .268 — Artillery : Old Batterv "A," Chicago Light
Artillery. -269 — Old Battery "B," Chicago Light Artillery..
271 — Battery "B," 1st Illinois Light Artillery. .274 — Co.
"I," 1st Illinois Artillery- . 275 — Colvin's Battery - 276 —
Co. "L," 2d Illinois Light Arti!lery_-276 — Co. " M," 2d
Illinois Light Artillery- -277 — Chicago Board-of-Trade Bat-
tery. .278 — Chicago Mercantile Battery.. 282 169-287

Tabular Record of Chicago Officers 2SS-2gg

Camp D0UGLAS - 300 — The Chicago Conspiracy. .307. ..300-310

Soldiers' Homes: Chicago_-3io — Cairo.-3i3 3 IO_ 3i4

Relief Work in Chicago: The First Nurses-_3i4 — Inception
and Organization of Chicago Sanitary Commission. .314-31 5

— Active Work of the Commission.. 315 — Early Difficulties
-.315 — Field Work. -316 — Depot at Paducah.. 316 — Con-
tributions to the Work- -31 7 — Labors of Nurses_-3I7 — The
Woman's Council. .318 — Work in the Front. .318 — First
Chicago Sanitarv Fair. .320 — Change in Officers. .321 — Sec-
ond Sanitary Fair. .322 — Last Work of the Commission- .323

— Northwestern Branch of Christian Commission. -323 —
Camp Douglas Aid Society. .324— Ladies' Relief Society..

324 — Ladies' Loyal League.-324 - 3M~324

THE BOARD OF TRADE.
Introductory. -325— The Year iSjS-jg : Inspection of Wheat..

325 — Telegraphic reports. .325 — First Stock Transactions. .
325 — Reciprocity Treaty. . 326 — Charter of Board.. 326 —
The Year iSjQ-60 : Repair of the North Pier.. 333 — New
Rooms occupied- -333— The Year iSbo-bi : Sustentation of
Reciprocity Treaty- -336 — The Year 1861-62 : The War Pe-
riod-. 336— The Board-of-Trade flag.. 336 — War Finances
..336 — Depreciation of Securities.. 337 — News of First Vic-
tory.. 337 — Reproving Southern Sympathizers. -33S — 7 he

Year 1862-63 : Grain Inspection. .342 — Alleged Warehouse
frauds. -343 — Further War Annals. . 343 — Oath of Allegi-
ance.-343 — Raising of Troops. .345 — Still-hunt for Trai-
tors. .346 — Arrival of the " Sleipner "-.347 — Miscellaneous
War \York-_347 — The Mercantile Association.. 34S — Cur-
rencv reforms. .34S — The Ship CanaL-349 — The Year 1863-



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



bi: The War record -.351 — Recruiting Agency.-35i — The
Chamber of Commerce- - 35 2 — /'tie )'e,ir 1864-65 : Currency
s ion.-354 — Close of the War Period-. 355 — The Year
/SPi-00 : The Chamber of Commerce. .357 — The Year 1866-
V Law against Short selling - 359 — The Year 1S67-6S :
The Warehouse Bill.. 360 — Convention. .361 — The Year/868-
60 .• Soldiers' Monument- -362 — The Year 1869-70 : Cornerin
Corn. -365 — The Elevator difficulty. -366 — The Year iSyo-
7/. .366 — The Year 187 t-J2 : National Board of Trade- -367

— The Warehouse Law. .367 — The Munn & Scott difficul-
ties -367— The Kire.-36S — List of Officers, etc., 1858 to

- -369 325-373

ELEVATORS: Destroyed and Remaining in 1S7I - 373 — Estab-
lished. 1856 to [872.-374-376 — Cram Warehousing- .376 —

Warehouse Law.. 377 — Grain-weighing- -378 373-379

Pork-Packing: The first summer packing .379

Board of Trade Statistics 379-382

FEDERAL INSTITUTIONS.

Military Division of the Missouri : Its Organization and

Change of territory 383

JUDICIARY : Change of Districts -3S4

SECRET Service : Chicago Branch -3S4

CUSTOM House: History of__3S5 — Collectors and Deputies. _
385-86 — Statistics- -385-S7 — The Appraiser's Office. -3S7 —

Special Agents of the Treasury. -3S7 _ 3S5— 387

The Internal Revenue Department: Collectors, Assesssors

and Statistics 3S7-3S8

The Pension Agency ..388

The United States Sub-Treasury : Receiving and disbursing

officers _ - .388-389

The Post-office: Sketch of, 1857101873.-389 — Postmasters
- 3S9-90 — Locations of office. .389-90 — Chicago as a distri-
buting center.. 3S9 — Burning of. .3S9 — The letter-carrier sys-
tem. -3S9-90 — Statistics- .390 — Routes. .390-91 - . -3S9-391
Harbor Improvements: North Pier.-3gi-92 — Light-house. .
391-92 — Federal appropriations. .392 — U. S. Engineers in
charge, 1S33 to 1874.-391-92 — Light-house Keepers, 1833 to

I - I - 39 2 - - - 39 r -392

Life-Saving Service: Sketch of _ 392

UNITED States Marine Hospital: History of 392-394

Diplomatic Relations: History of Consulates at Chicago, 1864

toiSS5 - 394 — Consuls, Vice-Consuls, and Consular Agents

-394-95 394-39°

RELIGIOUS HISTORY.

Catholic Church: Diocesan History, iSjj to /<?7/_ -397-98 — Rt.
Rev. James Duggan.-397-gS — Rt. Rev. Thomas Foley - 3g8

— Society of Jesus -.397 — Franciscan Order.. 397 — Redemp-
torist Fathers.-397 — Benedictine Fathers__3g7 — Ladies of
the Sacred Heart- 397 397-398

Churches, Sketches of: St. Mary's.-3g8 — St. Louis'.-399 — Notre
Dame.. 400 — St. Patrick's. .400 — St. PeterV-400 — St.
James' -400 — Holy Family.. 401 — Holy Name 404 — St.
Michael's. -405 — St. John's. .405 — Immaculate Conception
..406 — St. Joseph's. -406 — 'St. Boniface- .406 — St. Paul's
..406 — St. Francis Xavier's Academy. .407 398-407

Protestant Episcopal Church : Diocesan History, 1852 to 1874
-407-8 — Rt. Rev. II. J. Whitehouse. .407-9 407-409

Churches, Sketches of: Atonement, Church of the. .408 — St.
James. .409 — Grace.-4lo — St. John's. .411 — Holy Com-
munion. .411 — Ascension- -411 — Christ. .412 — Trinity. .41 5

— St. Stephen's- .416 — St. Mark's. -416 408-416

I ; i.RiAN CHURCH: First. 416 — Second. .417 — Third. -

41- — South. .419 — Central. 420 — North.. 420 — First
•<h.-42o — Calvary. .421 — Associate Reform. .421 — First
United -421 — Edwards. .422 — Seventh.-422 — Westminis-
ter. .422 — F:ighth..422 — Fifth. -422 — Thirty-first Street. .

422 416-422

METHODIS1 CHURCH: First - 423 — Trinity.-424 — Clark-street
M ission .424 — Grace . . 424 — Park-avenue . . 426 — Wabash-
avenue. .426 — Haisted-street .426 — Ada-street- .426 — West-
ern-avenue. .426 — Indiana-avenue 427 — Langley-avenue. .
427 — Oakland. 427 — Portland-Avenue German 428 —
Tyng Mission. .428 423-428

Congregational Church : First .428 — New England 429 —

Plymouth 429 — South.. 430 — Edwards 431 — Union Park

.431 — Tabernacle -.43 1 — Bethany. 431 428-431

Oil' \<,', I HEOLOGICAL Seminary: Condensed history of. .432 —
Proposed union with Oberlin College.. 432 — The Seminary's

funds. .432 — Endowments- .432 432-433

Baptisi Church: first 434 — North Star Mission. .435 — Sec-
ond-. 435 — I diversity Place .436 — Wabash-avenue. .436 —

Hen Will 438 414-438

■•> Baiii 1 Theological Seminary 138 \y>



Unitarian Church : First. -439 — Unity.. 439 439-440

UNIVERSALIS'!' CHURCH : First - 440 — Second. .441 140-442

Evangelical Churches: F'irst German Emanuel. -442 — Second
..442 — German United Zion's Church.. 442 — Third German
Salem's Church._442 — Fourth German St. Peter's Church- -
443 — Salem's Church of the Evangelical Association. .443 —
St. Ansgarius'. -443 — Our Savior's Norwegian Lutheran
Church: Knud Iverson's drowning. .444 — Railroad Chapel. .
445— The Bethel.. 445 142-445

Chicago Bible Society : History 1S58-71..445 — General work
and Statistics. .446 _ 445-446

Jewish Congregations: Early Congregations. .446 — Kehilath-
Anshe Maarab._446 — Sinai Congregation. .446 446-447

Miscellaneous: Western Hebrew Christian Brotherhood. .447 —
The Brethren of the United Faith__447 — The International

Church- - 447 — The Spiritualists. -44S 147-448

CHICAGO CEMETERIES.

Introduction- .448 — RosehilL -449 — Graceland. .449 — Oakwoods
. -449 — Forest Home. .449 — Waldheim.-450 — Wonder. .450

— St. Boniface- .450 — Calvary. .450 — Hebrew. 450 — Kehi-
lath Anshe Maarev.-446 446; 448-450

THE BENCH AND BAR.
Introduction _ . - 451

United States Courts: Circuit. -451 — District.. 452 — Location

-.453 — Officers. -453 451-453

State Courts : Circuit.-454 — Superior.-456 — Recorder's- -457

— County- -458 454-45S

Miscellanea: Lincoln's last case.-458 — Rock Island Bridge

case. .458 — First decision of the legal-tender question. 45S

— Government licenses-_45g — The Stamp Act.-45g — The
City Cemetery case_-45g — Bar dinner.. 459 — Application of
Statutes _- 459 — Case extraordinary .. 459 45S-460

Chicago Law Institute. 4 fj °

Union College of Law 460-461

State's Attorneys 461

The Bar: Sketches of prominent lawyers 461-483

THE LITERATURE OF CHICAGO.

Introductory: Publishers-. 483, 485, 4S6 — Authors - 4S4 —
Printers, book-binders, etc. - 485-4go — Statistics of Trade
- 49° - ■ - 483-49°

History of the Press : Leading newspapers in 185S - 490 —
Evening Journal.. 4gi — Tribune.. 4g2 — Times. .495 — Re-
publican. .497 — Illinois Staats-Zeitung. -499 490-500

Western Associated Press: Organization of 500

Western News Company... 500

hotel history.
Prominent Hotels: Tremont.-5oi — Sherman - 502 — Clifton
503 — Matteson.-504 — Massasoit._505 — Cleveland- .505 —
Revere.-505 — Hatch's.-505 — Barnes__505 — Metropolitan
..506 — Richmond. .506 — Orient- .506 — Hamilton -.506 —
Boardman.-5o6 — City. .506 — Briggs. .507 — Bigelow.-507
Wright's- - 508 — Burlington . . 508 — Central. . 508 — Anderson
..508 — St. James.-5o8 — Minor hotels, 1860-71-.508 —
Michigan-Avenue Hotel. .508 — Palmer - 5og — Grand Pacific

- 5°9 ■ 5°i-5°9

Restaurants 509, 510

SOCIAL PROGRESS.

Introductory 510

Societies: Young Men's Christian Association. .511 — Farwell
Hall. .511 — Young Men's Association. .513 — Historical So-
ciety.-5i3 — Academy of Sciences.. 514 — Astronomical So-