Loomis Street — West Madison Street to West Van Buren,
wooden block pavement, 1S71.
Madison Street — Chicago River to Halsted Street, wooden
block pavement, 1S66 ; Halsted Street to Centre Avenue, the same,
1S69 ; Centre Avenue to Robey Street, the same, 1870 ; Robey
Street to Western Avenue, the same, 1S71 ; State Street to Chicago
River, the same, 1869.
Market Street — Kinzie Street to Chicago Avenue, wooden
block pavement, 1S70; Chicago Avenue to Division Street, the
same, 1S71 ; Randolph Street to Lake, the same, 1871 ; Randolph
Street to Madison, graveling, 1871 ; Madison Street to Van Buren,
Michigan Street — North Clark Street to Cass, wooden block
pavement, 1865 ; North Clark Street to Kingsbury, the same, 186S;
Cass Street to St. Clair, the same, 1S71.
Michigan Avenue — Randolph Street to Park Place, graveling,
1S66 ; Park Place to Twelfth Street, the same, 1S67-6S ; Twenty-
second to Twenty-ninth, the same, 1870; Twenty-ninth Street to
Egan Avenue, the same, 1S71 ; Randolph Street to South Water,
wooden block pavement, 1S6S ; South Water Street to River, the
same, 1 87 1.
Milwaukee Avenue — Division Street to North Avenue, mac-
adamizing, 1S64 ; Desplaines Street to Elston Avenue, wooden
block pavement, 1867; Elston Avenue to Division Street, the same,
Monroe Street — State Street to Michigan Avenue, wooden
block pavement, 1S67; Clark Street to Market, the same, 1S69 ;
State Street to Clark, the same, 1870; Canal Street to Halsted, the
same, 1871 ; Halsted Street to Aberdeen, the same, 1871.
BOARD OF PUBLIC WORKS.
Noble Street — North Avenue to Milwaukee Avenue, cinder-
North Avenue — Chicago River to North Wells Street, wooden
block pavement, 1870; North Wells Street to North Dearborn,
the same, 1S71.
Ohio Street— St. Clair Street to North Clark, wooden block
pavement, 1S69 ; North Clark Street to Kingsbury, the same,
Ontario Street— North Clark Street to North Dearborn,
wooden block pavement, 1 S7 r.
Park Avenue— Reuben Street to Leavitt, wooden block pave-
Pearson Street — Rush Street to east line Sub Lot 7, Lot 10,
Block 20, Section 3, wooden block pavement, 1871.
Pine Street — Michigan Street to Chicago Avenue, wooden
block pavement, 1S69; Chicago Avenue to Whitney Street, the
1869; Halsted street to Twelfth-street bridge, the same, 1870;
Halsted Street toCentre Avenue, the same, 1^71 ; Ashland Avenue
to Southwestern Avenue, macadamizing, 1-7".
Twentieth Street— stale Street to Illinois Central railroad,
Twenty-first Street— Slate Street to Calumel Avenue, wooden
block pavement, [87I.
Twenty-second Street — State Street to South Park Avenue,
wooden block pavement, 1868; Wentworth Avenue to Chicago
River, the same, 1871.
Twenty-fourth Street— Wabash Avenue to Calumet, wooden
block pavement, 1S71.
Twenty-sixth Street — Wabash Avenue to South Park Avenue,
wooden block pavement, 1871.
Twenty-seventh Street — Johnson Avenue to South Park Ave-
nue, wooden block pavement, 1S71.
Twenty-eighth Street— Wabash Avenue to Michigan, wooden
WOLF POINT IN 1S70.
Polk Street — State Street to Chicago River, wooden block
pavement, 1S69; Polk-street bridge to Halsted Street, the same,
Prairie Avenue — Sixteenth Street to Twenty-second, graveling,
186*) ; Twenty-second Street to Cottage Grove Avenue, the same.
1868; Cottage Grove Avenue to Thirtieth Street, wooden block
Quincy Street — State Street to Clark, wooden block pavement,
1870 ; LaSalle Street to Fifth Avenue, the same, 1871.
Randolph Street — Michigan Avenue to Chicago River, wooden
block pavement, 1S69; Randolph-street bridge to Halsted Street,
the same, 1S66 ; Halsted Street to Union Park, the same, 1871.
Rush Street — Kinzie Street to Chicago Avenue, graveling,
Sangamon Street — Van Buren Street to Fulton, wooden block
pavement, 1869 ; Fulton Street to Milwaukee Avenue, the same,
Sedgwick Street — Chicago Avenue to Division Street, wooden
block pavement, 1871 ; Division Street to North Avenue, the same,
Sheldon Street— West Madison Street to West Randolph,
wooden block pavement, 1871.
Sherman Street — Van Buren Street to Harrison, wooden block
pavement, 1S66 ; Harrison Street to Taylor, the same, 1869-70;
Jackson Street to Van Buren, the same, 1870.
Sixteenth Street — Michigan Avenue to Prairie, graveling,
•1866; Michigan Avenue to State Street, wooden block pavement,
South Park Avenue — Twenty-second Street to Twenty-ninth,
wooden block pavement, 1S69 ; Twenty-ninth Street to Douglas
Place, the same, 1S71.
Southwestern Avenue — West Twelfth Street to western city
limits, graveling, 1871.
State Street — Chicago River to Twelfth Street, boulder stones,
1858 ; Kinzie Street to Michigan Street, wooden block pavement,
1S65 ; Michigan Street to Chicago Avenue, the same. [867.
Superior Street — Pine Street to St. Clair, wooden block pave-
Taylor Street — Clark Street to Wells, wooden block pavement,
Twelfth Street — Michigan Avenue to State Street, wooden
block pavement, 1S69 ; State Street to Chicago River, the same,
block pavement, 1S71 ; Wabash Avenue to State Street, the same,
Union Street — Madison Street to Milwaukee avenue, wooden
block pavement, 1870.
Vanliuren Street — State Street to Michigan Avenue, wooden
block pavement, 1S66 ; State Street to Chicago River, the same,
1866; Canal Street to South Branch Chicago River, the same,
1S70 ; Canal Street to Halsted, the same, 186S ; Halsted Street to
Loomis, the same, 1870.
Wabash Avenue — Randolph Street to Twenty-second, wooden
block pavement, i860 ; South Water Street to Randolph, the
same, 1S67 ; Twenty-second Street to Twenty-ninth, the same,
South Water Street — Michigan Avenue to Wabash, wooden
block pavement, 1865 ; Clark Street to Franklin, the same, 1S65-
06; Michigan Avenue to Central Avenue, wooden block pavement,
Washington Street — State Street to Michigan Avenue, wooden
block pavement, 1S66 ; State Street to Market, the same. 1S70;
West Water Street to Elizabeth, the same, 1S69 ; Elizabeth Street
to Union Park, the same, 1S69 ; Ashland Avenue to Leavitt Street,
the same, 1S71.
Warren Avenue — Ashland Avenue to Leavitt Street, wooden
block pavement, 1S71.
Wells Street — VanBuren Street to Madison, wooden block
pavement, 1S65 ; Vanliuren Street lo Taylor, the same. [866;
Lake Street to South Water, the same. 1866 ; Pake Street to Ran-
dolph, the same, 1S67 ; Wells-street bridge to Chicago Avenue,
wooden block pavement 1869 ; Chicago Avenue to Division
Street, the same, 1S69 ; Division Street to North Clark, the same,
Western Avenue — Steele Street to Illinois & Michigan Canal,
The first ordinance establishing a grade for the
streets was passed in March, 1855. This made the
grade of Lake Street 8.62 feet above the level of low-
water of the Chicago River, as fixed by the (anal
Commissioners in 1847.
DeWitt Clinton Cregier, who for thirty wars has been
connected with the Public Works of Chicago; having tilled the
HISTORY OF CHICAGO.
position of chief and designing- engineer of the Water Works for
twenty-five years ; city engineer for three years and having entered
upon his fourth year as commissioner of Public Works, was born
in the city of New York, June I, 1829. He is the son of John
L. and Ann E. (LeFort) Cregier, his mother being the daughter
of a well-known French ship-master who was, for many years,
prominently identified with the merchant marine of New York.
She was also a cousin of Henry Inman, the famous portrait
painter, and nearly related by marriage to Daniel Tompkins, at
one time vice-president of the United States. When Mr. Cregier
was four years of age his father died, his mother surviving but
few years, and he being left an orphan at thirteen years of age.
Until he was in his sixteenth year he lived with relatives, attend-
ing the public schools of New York City, and conducting himself
as an industrious, ambitious, sensible lad should. He next tried a
clerkship for a time, but mercantile pursuits being evidently dis-
tasteful to him, he connected himself with the engineer's depart-
ment of the steamer "Oregon," running on Long Island Sound,
in which position he remained until 1S47. Next he entered the
machinerv department of what subsequently became the famous
-Morgan Iron Works of New York. Before he abandoned this
vocation he had thoroughly mastered the principles of mechanical
engineering, and, in 1851, he connected himself with the engineer
corps of the United States mail steamers plying between New
York, Havana and New Orleans. During the summer of 1853,
Mr. Cregier came to Chicago to superintend the erection of the
first pumping machinery for the water works, and has had active
or general charge of them ever since. During his term of service
he superintended the erection of all the machinery now in use at
the North-side works, including the magnificent double pumping-
engine which has no superior in the world. Since his connection
with the water w-orks there has never been an accident which inter-
fered seriously with their operation, with the exception, of course,
of the stoppage occasioned by that grand "set back" to all city
departments, the great fire of 1871. Mr. Cregier is of a very
inventive turn of mind, and is the patentee of a large number of
well-known and valued appliances used in connection with the
public works. All of the fire hydrants used in the city are of his
design. For these, and other improvements, he holds patents
which the city uses free of charge. It is certain that few officials
in the country can boast of a larger or a more meritorious connec-
tion with public works than Commissioner Cregier. Mr Cregier
was married August 2, 1S53, to Miss Mary S. Foggin, of New
York City. The same day the young couple started for Chicago,
where they arrived on the 6th of the same month. They have had
ten children, of whom six sons and one daughter are living, viz. :
Mary Florence, Nathaniel Banks, DeVVitt Clinton, Washington
Rogers, Edward LeFort, Charles Knap and Frederick Quintard.
As a Mason, Mr. Cregier is of high standing. His first service
was with Blaney Lodge, in 1S60. Shortly after he joined it he
was elected Senior Warden, which office he held for one year,
when he was elected to preside over that body, which he continued
to do for six years. He was elected to the office of Senior Grand
Warden of the Grand Lodge of Illinois, held the office for one
term and was afterward elected Deputy Grand Master for two con-
secutive terms. In 1870, the fraternity conferred the highest
honors in their power to bestow, by electing him Grand Master of
the Grand Lodge of the State of Illinois. At the annual commu-
nication held in Chicago, in 1871, the Brotherhood further evinced
their appreciation of his worth by unanimously re-electing him.
lie was also a member of the Triennial Committee of the Conclave
of Knights Templar in 1880. He is at present a life member and
Master of Blaney Lodge, member of LaFayette Chapter, Siloam
Council, Apollo Commandery and Oriental Consistory, and an
honorary member of twelve other lodges and commanderies. In
many of these he has held the highest official positions. He
is also a member of the Supreme Council — 33 A. A. S. Rite — for
the .Northern Masonic Jurisdiction of the United States and of
the Royal Order of Scotland. In addition he is representative of
the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia, Michigan, Missis-
sippi, Connecticut and Indiana near the Grand Lodge of Illinois,
and of the Grand Chapter of the State of New York near the
Grand Chapter of Illinois. He is also president of the Illinois
Masonic Benevolent Society, president of the Western Society of
Engineers, and a member of the American Society for the Encour-
agement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce. Soon after the
great tire Mr. Cregier, as Grand Master of the State, took charge
of the relief fund amounting to over $90,000, in conjunction with
the committee organized to distribute the money and supplies.
The subsequent report of the auditing commission, composed of
Grand Masters from Pennsylvania, Iowa and the District of
Columbia, in connection with the disbursement of the relief fund,
was a just tribute to the faithfulness and ability with which the
committee, at whose head was Mr. Cregier, administered the trust
i to them by the Fraternity abroad. In fact, both as a
public official and as a broad-minded, broad-hearted man, Mr.
Cregier has been continually honored and has steadfastly retained
the general confidence in his ability and honesty.
Bridge Building. — In 1857 the Madison-street
bridge, South Branch, was built by Gaylord & Co. It
was of iron, one hundred and fifty-five feet long, and
cost $42,000. The Clark-street bridge was constructed
in 1858. In i860 a structure was thrown across the
river at South Halsted Street, by Fox & Howard, con-
tractors. The bridge was one hundred and fifty feet
long, composed of wooden braces and iron chords,
costing $8,500. A bridge similar to the one at South
Halsted was built, in 1862, at Clybourn Avenue, North
Branch, by the same parties, and also one at Wells
Street, over the main river. In November, 1863, the
iron bridge at Rush Street, built in 1856, was accident-
ally destroyed. A drove of cattle were crossing it, when
the structure was crushed down on one side, and fell
into the river, two of the turn-table wheels being broken
and three trusses thrown down laterally. The cost
of the ruined bridge, with piers and abutments, was
$50,000. Another bridge at this point was commenced
in November, 1863, and completed in January, 1864,
by Messrs. Fox & Howard. It was what is known as
the wooden-truss bridge, and was two hundred and
eleven feet in length. During 1864, also, the State-
street bridge was finished. The city had a right of
way on the South Side to the river front, but did not
obtain the land to extend Wolcott Street (North State)
until May, 1864. It was then purchased of the Galena
& Chicago Union Railroad Company, and the work of
constructing the bridge was placed in the hands of Fox
& Howard. The city accepted the bridge in January,
1865. It was one hundred and eighty-four feet in
length, and cost $32,000, and was composed of wooden
braces and chords. The piers and abutments were after-
ward built, and the line of communication between the
North and South sides opened for traffic. The via-
ducts over the railroad formed, with the bridge, one of
the most useful improvements of the time. In 1S65,
the following bridges were built : North Avenue, North
Branch, by N. Chapin & Co. ; Fuller Street by the same
contractors ; Randolph Street, South Branch, by L. B.
Boomer & Co. The latter was opened for traffic in
July. A continuation of the bridge building by years,
up to and including 1871, is as follows :
1866 — North Halsted Street, North Branch, wooden braces
and chords, Fox & Howard, 140 feet, $7,000 ; Clark Street, Main
River, wooden braces and iron chords, Thomas Mackin, 1S0 feet,
1S67 — Chicago Avenue, North Branch, wooden braces and
iron chords, Fox & Howard, 175 feet, $26,700; Yan Buren Street,
South Branch, wooden braces and iron chords, Fox & Howard,
163 feet, $18,270.
1868 — Lake Street, South Branch, wooden braces and iron
chords, Fox & Howard, 1S5 feet, $11,450; Twelfth Street, South
Branch, wooden braces and iron chords, Fox & Howard, 202 feet,
$44,949.40 ; Eighteenth Street, South Branch, wooden braces and
iron chords, Fox & Howard, 175 feet, $28,500; Main Street,
South Branch, wooden braces and iron chords, Fox & Howard, 152
1869-70 — Division Street, North Branch, wooden braces and
iron chords, Fox & Howard, 176 feet, $15,794.84 ; Indiana Street,
North Branch, wooden braces and iron chords, Fox & Howard,
163 feet, $48,800; Polk Street, wooden braces and iron chords,
Fox & Howard, 154 feet, $29,450; Western Avenue, West Fork
HISTORY OF CHICAGO.
of South Branch, wooden braces and iron chords. F. E. Canda,
125 feet. $13,000 ; Throop-street bridge, Fox & Howard, $12,649.
The Wells-street viaduct was constructed during this year.
1S70 — Rinzie Street. North Branch, wooden braces and chords,
Fox & Howard, 170 feet, $15,850; Adams Street, South Branch,
wooden braces and iron chords. Fox & Howard, 160 feet, $37,S6o;
Archer Avenue, South Branch, wooden braces and iron chords,
Fox & Howard. 152 feet, $11,500.
1S71 — Erie Street, North Branch, wooden braces and iron
chords. Fox & Howard. 200 feet, $30,000 (not then in use) ;
Twenty-second Street, South Branch, wooden braces and iron
chords, Fox & Howard, 210 feet, $26,900 ; Reuben Street, West
Fork of South Branch, wooden braces and chords, Fox & Howard,
152 feet, $11,500. Total original cost, $511,154.84.
CLARK STREET BRIDGE.
The great fire destroyed the bridges across the main
river at Rush, State, Clark and Wells streets, across the
North Branch at Chicago Avenue, and across the South
Branch at Adams, Van Buren and Polk streets ; also
the viaducts over the railway tracks at Wells and
State streets. The Adams-street viaduct was partially
destroyed. The damage to bridges and viaducts, includ-
ing abutments, center-piers and protections, is estimated
Contracts were at once entered into to rebuild the
bridges destroyed. '1 he following table gives a clear
idea of the stupendous work undertaken by the city in
the matter of the construction of bridges alone, the
date of the report being July r, 1872 :
Samuel George Artingstall, acting engineer of the city
of Chicago, was born on November 26, 1846, in Manchester,
England. His parents were John and Ellen (Hall) Artingstall,
his father being an architect and civil engineer in high standing.
When the son was nineteen years of age Mr. Artingstall died, and he
was thrown completely upon his own resources. But even at this
early period of his life, his ability was recognized by the appoint-
ment which he received of general superintendent of the viaduct,
then being built over the canal and London & Northwestern Rail-
road, at St. Helen's, near Liverpool. The engineer of the work-
was William Fairburn, and the contractors, Robert Neil & Sons,
of Manchester. Mr. Artingstall was in the service of the latter
firm, with whom he remained for a number of years, having in
charge, during that period, such important enterprises as the con-
struction of the bridge at Manchester, and the building of the
Bolton Cotton Mills, situated in the same county. In 1S69, he
left Manchester, and came to Chicago, obtaining employment at
once as a draughtsman in the city sewerage department. After the
fire, he was actively engaged in designing plans for the bridges,
especially of those first constructed, such as at North Halsted,
Madison, and Randolph streets. The engine and station houses
for the accommodation of the Fire and Police departments were
also erected from his plans, and under his immediate supervision.
William Bryson, who had been connected with the Department of
Public W r orks for nineteen years, and who had the active superin-
tendence in the construction of the tunnels, under City Engineer
Chesbrough. died in October, 1S75. He had also drawn plans for
the West-side pumping-works, from whose drawings they had been
but partially constructed at the time of his death. 1 he work thus
left uncompleted was taken up by Mr. Artingstall, and he has since,
in reality, been the acting engineer for the public works of the citv.
His formal appointment, however, dates from Februarv, 1S82.
With the exception of Max Hjortsborough, chief engineer of the
Chicago, Burlington & Qujncy Railroad, who was run over and
killed near Rensington, town of Hyde Park, in 1SS1, Mr. Arting-
stall is the only member of the Institution of Civil Engineers
(London) who has ever lived in Chicago. Since coming to this
country, and since the formation of the association in 1S69, he
has also been connected with the Western Society of Engineers.
Mr. Artingstall was married November 1. 1873. to Susan Archer,
formerly a resident of Milwaukee. They have five living children,
one son and four daughters.
A. M. Hiksch, principal assistant engineer, and one of the
oldest officials of continuous service connected with any depart-
ment of public works, was born February 6, 1S27, in W 7 ormdit.
near Rcenigsberg, East Prussia. He received his early education
at the gymnasium of Ronitz, his design from the first being to
prepare himself as a royal officer in the engineering corps of the
Prussian government. After graduating from the gymnasium at
Ronitz, he studied surveying, and, in 1S47, successfully passed his
examination as a royal surveyor. He was then employed by the
government in building railroads, macadamizing highways and
constructing water-works. In 1S50, he entered the Architectural
Academy at Berlin, where he remained two years and a half. Early
in 1S53, he passed his examination, having, during this period,
served as a volunteer in the Prussian army, and immediately after-
ward emigrated to New York City. For a short time he found
remunerative employment among the architects and surveyors of
that city, but, meeting some friends from the Old Country who
were on their way to the ambitious city of the West, he was
induced to join them and pass on to Chicago. More fortunate
than some of his comrades, he immediately obtained a situation
Van Buren Street.
S. Halsted Street
Rush Street. . .
Adams Street.. . .
1 Substrui ture
( Substrui I
Wood & Iron
Wood .V Iri. u
Wood & Iron
Fox lV Howard
Fox <.V Howard
E. Sweet, Jr., & Co
Fox \ Howard
Fox & Howard
Ring Iron Brdg.& Mnfg.Co
O. II. Green
Detroit Bridge & Iron Wks
E. Sweet. Jr., & Co
King Iron Brdg.&Mnfg.Co
Fox & I toward.
Keystone Bridge Co
Fox ,v I loward
Keystone Bridge Co
Fox & Howard
Fox & I loward
Keystone Bridge I !o
t Keystone Bridge 1
1 Robert Stuart
Keystone Bridge Co
Date of Contrac
!8 7 I
1 1 1 1 n-
January 9. 1S72.
January 12, 1872.
June 15, 1872.
Februarv I, 1S72.
May '17, 1872.
June I, 1872.
June 17. 1S72.
June iS, 1872.
1 11 progress.
HOARD OF PUBLIC: WORKS.
under Roswell B. Mason, chief engineer in charge of the construc-
tion of the Illinois Central Railroad. A few months thereafter,
he received an appointment as engineer under Colonel J. D. Graham,
United States Topographical Engineer, in charge of the Lake
Michigan harbor improvements. In this capacity he remained
until the spring of 1856, when he entered the service of the city
of Chicago as assistant engineer in the street department, lie
had the honor of drawing the first cross section of a Chicago
street, and among other radical improvements which he introduced
in early times, was the substitution of the old proportion of grades
in bridge approaches (1:10) to the modern and accepted figures of
1:40. For many years Mr. Hirsch has had the active management
of this important branch of the Department of Public Works, his