and the Board of Trade,* a commission was appointed,
consisting of Mayor Francis C. Sherman and five engi-
neers, William Gooding, Roswell Bishop Mason, John
Van Nortwick, E. B. Talcott and E. S. Chesbrough.
This commission received the notification of their ap-
pointment on January 9, 1865, and on March 6, rendered
a report, whose recommendations were adopted. This
report embraced these three features :
I. Intercepting sewers, which shall receive the filth
that would otherwise flow into the river, and carry it to
the lake, to some point or points, into which it would
be pumped by machinery â€” thus keeping impurities out
of the river to as great an extent as practicable.
II. Cutting canals, or making covered sewers from
the two branches of the river to the lake, and, bypump-
ing- works erected thereon, force the filthy water out or the
lake water in, thus keeping up a constant and sufficient
current to keep the river pure. We do not believe the
necessary current can be produced by the natural action
of the waves of the lake, as has been suggested.
III. Cutting down the summit of the Illinois and
â€¢ The committee fr..m the ):<>ard of Trade were K. M. Hough and J. C.
Dore. .,nd fr..m thr Council, Aldrnnen Holdcn. Cnmiskey and Cawson. < in
January 3. f 8'^ 5 . .1 public meeting was h<-ld at Metropolitan Hall, where resolu-
tion* were passed condemnatory of the noxious condition of the city, and there-
at the following Committee of Thirty were appointed, of which J- H. Dunham
was chairman : J. II. Dunham, Wirt Dexter. Koswcll li. Mason, |..hn V. Far-
well, William F. Coolbaugh, Sidney Smith, I. I.. Hancock, P. h. Yoe, Jona-
than V. Scammon, K. M. Hom.-Ii. 1 bar].-. Walker, K. ( . I.arned, I laniel lirain-
ard, Edwin H. Sheldon, W. I 1: rurner, James L. Stark, Charles G.
Hammond, ',<â– .. r;.'.- L. Dunl i: im George Schneider, W. It.
Houghteling. P. [ohn I . Haines. II. G. Powers, F.
U. Gardner, Samuel Hoard, Ira V Munn, Martin Kycrsun and Kacon Wheeler.
Michigan canal below the level of the lake, so that a
sufficient quantity of water may be drawn from it to
create the necessary current through the main river and
South Branch v and, perhaps, to some extent, in the
North Branch also) to thoroughly purify the same at all
times. The estimated cost of this plan (III.) was
The phraseology of the fifth annual report of the
Board of Public Works concisely states the plan adopted
and the condition of the river :
" It was stated in our last report that the board, including the
special members, Messrs. Gooding and Mason, had adopted as
their plan for the permanent cleansing of the river (or, more pre-
cisely, for the cleansing of the main river and South Branch), the
deepening of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, between the Bridge-
port lock and the lock this side of Lockport, a distance of
twenty-six miles, so that there shall be a continuous movement of
the water of the river through the canal, at the rate of 24,000
cubic feet per minute, at a low stage of water in the lake. Such
arrangements were also made with the Board of Trustees of the
Canal as to enable the board to avail themselves of the pumping at
Bridgeport. The request of the board was complied with, although
we had no occasion to avail ourselves of the works last summer
(1S65), as the river was kept sufficiently clean by the frequent rains.
The pumps were set in motion in the latter part of last June(lS66),
and the river, since then, excepting the jSorth Branch, has been
kept in good condition and free from offensive smells."
In 1866, the pumping was commenced on June 19,
and discontinued on September 5. During the springs of
1867 and 1868 there were freshets, which assisted the
pumping in cleansing the river and its South Branch,
but the North Branch was especially pestilential and
offensive. In 1869,* the malodorous characteristics of
the river were dominant, and it was then found, by ex-
periment, that when there had been little or no rain-fall,
" it almost seemed as if the upward current in the main
river and South Branch, while the pumps were in opera-
tion acted as a barrier to the outlet of water from the
North Branch." The stagnation of the water in the
Ogden Slip and the Healy Slough was one continued
source of trouble, anxiety, and deodorization.
The filthy condition of the river in 1870 rendered
the service of the pumps at Bridgeport indispensable ;
but with both of them running at their full capacity it
was found almost impossible to keep the river clean.
But the new regime was on the eve of inauguration.
The deepening of the Illinois and Michigan Canal,
which was commenced in February, 1866, was completed
on Saturday, July 15, 1871. By the cutting of the tem-
porary dam across the canal at Bridgeport quite a cur-
rent was at once created, and an entire change of the
water in the main river and South Branch was effected
in about thirty-six hours. This also had a good effect
upon the North Branch, although more benefit was de-
rived by abstaining from throwing garbage, offal and
distillery filth into the Branch. The cost of deepening,
from its inception up to April 1, 1871, exclusive of in-
terest, was $2,982,437.13.1
Vital Statistics. â€” The first registration of births
was made on July 1. 1867, and the following table gives
the births in Chicago from that date until 187 1 :
July 1 to December 31, 1S67 2.SS6
January I to December 31, 1868 6,514
January 1 to December 31, iS6g - 7i955
January 1 to December 31, 1S70 $9,953
January I to December 31,1871 $11,142
* In 1S67, pumping was commenced on June in, and discontinued on No-
vember 15: in 1868, commenced July 10, and ceased September 30; in 1869,
commenced August 6, and terminated November 15.
t The amount paid lor cleansing the river by pumping is stated as â€” 1866,
$3,398.60; 1867, $17,875.21; 1868, 11.178.38. For i86 M , the amount may be
.Miniated as about $15,000 ; and for 1870, about $20,000 ; tints these temporary
alleviations may be approximated as . ..stin^- the city about $67,500.
} These figures are estimates, the records having been destroyed in the
lire of 1871. tor the last two and one-hall months of 1871, the births were
Mortality Statistics. â€” The following- table gives
the statistics of mortality, with the ratio of deaths to
the population, since 1843 â€” the earliest date at which
there are any figures approximating to accuracy :
mora . j
1843 - -
4 ( '7
1S53 â– - .
/ Cholera, 1424.
I Scarlet fever,
-, 233. Dysen-
( tery, 224.
1859 - -
Scar, fever, 253.
1 Scarlet fever,
1 125. Diphthe-
f ria, 154.
Scar fever, 335.
f Scarlet fever,
] 405 Small
j pox, 115. Ery-
\ Small pox,2S3
/ Erysipelas, 34.
Small pox, 57.
( Small pox. 1 23
| Cholera, 10.
Small pox, 146.
Boards of Health. â€” The first Board of Health
was composed of Dr. William Clark and Dr. Edmund
Stoughton Kimberly, in 1834. Its duties were specific,
and its tenure of office brief. On June 19, 1835, the
first permanent board was constituted, consisting of
Messrs. Curtis, Sweet, Morris, Peck, King, Fullerton
and Temple, to which board were, afterward, added
Samuel Jackson, Hiram Hugunin and Alanson Sweet.
No record is extant of any action by this board; and on
May 9, 1837, Dr. John W. Eldridge, Alexander N. Ful-
lerton and D. Cox were elected members of the Board
of Health, and Dr. Daniel Brainard was appointed the
health officer. Mayor William B. Ogden was, ex officio,
president. On March 16, 1838, the board comprised
Mayor Buckner S. Morris and Drs. J. W. Eldridge, John
Brinkerhoff and Daniel Brainard, Dr. E. J. Kimberly
being health officer. On March iS, 1S39, the board
consisted of Benjamin W. Raymond, mayor, Dr. Daniel
Brainard, Stephen B. Gay and Josiah T. Betts. Dr.
Charles Volney Dyer, elected health officer at the begin-
ning of the year, resigned September 30. On December
26, 1839, Dr. E. S. Kimberly was elected his successor.
On April 20, 1840, Alexander Loyd, mayor, George W.
Merrill, Dr. John Brinkerhoff and William Jones ci im-
posed the board, Dr. Kimberly still being health officer.
* Two hundred and ninety-nine deaths from small pox in the last three
months of 1S71. Inquests wert held on one hund-ed and seventeen bodies re-
sultant from the fire: Burns, ninety-six ; falling walls, five; shock and suffo-
On March 9, 1841, Francis C. Sherman, mayor, William
Jones, Henry Brown and Jeremiah Price were the board,
and Dr. John W. Eldridge was health officer. On
March 14, 1S42, the board comprised Mayor Benjamin
W. Raymond, William Jones, Henry Brown and Jere-
miah Price. The city physician was l)r. William Brad-
shaw Egan, and ( )rson Smith was health officer and city
marshal. On March 12, 1843, the board were Augustus
Garrett, mayor, William Jones, [eremiah Price and
Walter L. Newberry. Henry Brown was elected, but
declined. Orson Smith was health officer. On May 9,
1844, Augustus Garrett, mayor, Jeremiah Price, William
H. Brown and A. Peck composed the board, J. M. Un-
derwood having been elected, but declined the office.
Orson Smith was still health officer. On April 4, 1 S 4 5 ,
the members of the board were Augustus Garrett,
mayor, William H. Brown, Jeremiah Price and Dr.
David Sheppard Smith. Dr. Philip Maxwell was city
physician, and Philip Dean health officer. In 1846,
John P. Chapin, mayor, Dr. Daniel Brainard, Jeremiah
Price and H. Brown were the board, and Ambrose Bur-
nam was health officer. In 1847, the board consisted
of James Curtiss, mayor, Dr. E. S. Kimberly, Sutton
Marsh and Dr. Stewart. On June 29, A. F. Bradley
took the place of Dr. Kimberly, and Jared Barrett that
of Mr. Marsh. J. F. Wait was health officer. In 1848,
James H. Woodworth, mayor, Sutton Marsh, S. J. Sher-
wood and F. C. Hagerman constituted the board, and
Ambrose Burnam was health officer. On January 24,
Dr. Henry S. Huber was appointed city physician. In
1849, the board was composed of J. J. Woodworth,
mayor, Flavel Moseley, William H. Brown and J. M.
Underwood. Dr. Levi D. Boone was city physician,
and Ambrose Burnam health officer. On June 4, Mr.
Moseley resigned, and Thomas Church was elected to
fill the vacancy. In 1850, James Curtiss, mayor, Flavel
Moseley, William H. Brown and Samuel Hoard were
the board, Dr. Levi D. Boone city physician, and Orson
Smith, health officer. On March 7, 185 1, C. P. Bradley
was appointed health officer, and the first meeting of
the board was held April 1, 1851, when it comprised
Walter L. Newberry, acting mayor, William H. Brown,
Samuel Hoard and Flavel Moseley. August 1, W. S.
Gurnee, mayor, became a member. On April 17, 1852,
the board comprised W. S. Gurnee, mayor, and Messrs.
Dodge, Dyer, Brinkerhoff and Carpenter. Dr. A. B.
Palmer was city physician, and C. P. Bradley health
officer. On March 22, 1853, the board was composed
of Charles M. Gray, mayor, J. C. Dodge, I. Speer, C.
Follansbee and James Andrews. Dr. Brock. McVickar
was city physician, and W. B. H. ('.ray health officer.
In 1854, the board consisted of Isaac L. Milliken, mayor,
John C. Dodge, H. Whitbeck, C. L. Harmon and Isaac
Speer. Dr. Brock. McVickar was city physician, and
W. W. Taylor health officerâ€” George P Hansen being
appointed health officer on Mr. Taylor's resignation on
July 24. On March 22, 1855, the board was constituted
by Levi D. Boone, mayor, Dr. B. McVickar, Isaac Speer,
H. Whitbeck and George W. Dole. Dr. Isaac Lynn
was city physician, and George P. Hansen health officer.
On April 2, 1856, the new board met. It was composed
of Thomas Dyer, mayor, Isaac Speer, G. W. Dole. Fred-
erick A. Bryan and Hugh Maher. Dr. Brock. McVickar
was city physician, and George I'. Hansen health officer.
On April 2, 1S57, the board met, the members being
John Wentworth, mayor, George W. Dole, Isaac Speer,
W. H. Brown, William Whitbeck, Casper Butz and
Cleveland. Dr. Gerhard Christian Paoli was city phy-
sician, anil Ambrose Burnam health officer. In 1858,
there appears to have been no board ; Dr. Gerhard C.
HISTORY OF CHICAGO.
Paoli was city physician, and Ambrose Burnani health
officer. In 1859, the board was composed of John C.
Haines, mayor, J. \V. Waughop, F. Mahla, A. J. Heald,
A. Blakie and T. B. Gardner. Dr. William Wagner was
city physician (which position was vacated by the ordi-
nance of March 27, i860), and James L. Abbott health
officer. The latter resigned May 5, i860, in consequence
of said ordinance. In i860, 1861 and 1862, there was no
Board of Health. On September 10, of the latter year,
Charles S. Perry, a policeman, was made acting health
officer, and, on December 20, was detailed for that duty.
December 1, 1862, Dr. Lucian P. Cheney was made city
physician, at a salary of $600 per annum, " he to furnish
all medicines, prescribed by him, at his own cost and
expense," which would appear to be an overt method of
discouraging the administration of remedies. On May
9, 1864, Dr. J. A. Hahn was appointed city physician,
vice Dr. L. P. Cheney, deceased. Charles S. Perry was
still acting health officer. On May 5, 1865, Dr. S. C.
Blake was appointed city physician, and T. B. Bridges
was elected health officer, on May 19, by the Board of
Police. In 1866, Dr. Blake and Mr. Bridges still occu-
pied the offices of city physician and health officer,
respectively. On March 31, 1867, the Board of Health
comprised J. B. Rice, mayor, Dr. William Wagner, Dr.
Hosmer A. Johnson, Dr. John H. Rauch, William
Giles, A. B. Reynolds and Samuel Hoard â€” all matters
and things connected with the health department being
transferred to this board by the Board of Police on April
3, at which date Dr. John H. Rauch was made sanitary
superintendent. Dr. N. T. Quales was city physician,
and Ambrose Burnam health officer. The same board
and officers held office in 1868. On March 31, 1869,
the board was composed of J. B. Rice, mayor, Dr.
George Schloetzer, Dr. Hosmer A. Johnson, Dr. John
H. Rauch, William Giles, A. B. Reynolds and Samuel
Hoard â€” the sanitary superintendent, city physician and
health officer being the same. In 1S70, these officials
were the same, with the exception of the health officer
and city physician. The city physician was H. S. Hahn.
Ambrose Burnam died October 21, 1870, and was suc-
ceeded by Joseph Lane. In 187 1, the board consisted
of Roswell B. Mason, mayor, Dr. John H. Rauch (san-
itary superintendent), Dr. H. A. Johnson, Dr. George
Schloetzer, Samuel Hoard, A. B. Reynolds and George
Von Hollen. The city physician was H. S. Hahn, and
George H. Germain was health officer.
Ambrose Burnam, one of Chicago's early settlers, and for
many years one of its most trustworthy and public-spirited citizens,
was a native of New York, born near Watertowruin 1812. He was
reared on a farm, and his early education consisted of only such
learning as he could get by attending at odd times the common
schools of his vicinity. In 1835, he came West and located in
Chicago, which city was his home for nearly forty years. On his
arrival here, he obtained employment as a clerk with Charles Fol-
lansbee, who then kept a general store on Lake Street, near Wa-
bash Avenue. A year or two later he went to Joliet, and engaged
for a while in the drug trade on his own account ; he, however,
soon returned to Chicago and became connected, in a clerical way,
with the Board of Canal Commissioners. In 1846, he was elected
health officer, which position he held until his election as the third
city marshal, in 1S48. At that time, the police force of Chicago had
not that system of organization that it had in later years, or that it
now has ; and from 1842 to 1855, the city marshals were practi-
cally the official heads of the Police Department. In June, 1855,
the ordinance was passed creating the Poiice Department, and, in
that year, Cyrus P. Bradley was elected captain or chief of police.
Mr. Burnam held the office of city marshal from 184S to 1S52, be-
ing succeeded in the latter year by James L. Howe. His greatest
services to the city were, however, in connection with its sanitary
affairs. As has already been noted, his first connection with the
Board of Health was in 1S46, when he was elected health officer.
He was again elected to this position in 1856, serving with signal
ability for three years. In 1S67, the Board of Health, remem-
bering his valuable services during his former administration of
the office, again chose him health officer, which position he con-
tinued to hold until his death, which occurred in October, 1870.
Mr. Burnam married Miss Rhoda B. Reynolds, whose parents
lived near Laporte, Ind. To them was born five sons, all but one
of whom are still living. Alston, the eldest, died in 1843. Two
others, Arthur and Frank, are residents of this city, and Lisle and
Miles are in business in Iowa and Colorado, respectively.
ART AND ARCHITECTURE.
The year 1858 found Chicago too deeply engaged
in commercial enterprises of every description to bestow
more than a passing thought upon Art. The struggle
for wealth engrossed alike the mental and physical ac-
tivities of its citizens. Few were found at this period
who were not contented to leave the entire subject of
Art for future consideration. We can not bestow too
much praise upon those earnest, hopeful artists who,
with firm faith in the city's future, looked forward to a
day when Chicago should become one of the leading
Art centers of America, and were content to offer to the
public, however unappreciative, the best productions of
their genius. Among the artists of that time were L. W.
Yolk,* G. I'. A. Healy, S. P. Tracy, Howard Strong,
George S. Collis, and Daniel F. Bigelow.
To such men as E. V,. McCagg, Horace White, J. Y.
Scammon, S. IJ. Kerfoot, U. H. Crosby, Daniel Braiiiard,
Walter L. Newberry, B. !â€¢'. Culver, Thomas Hoyne and
others, belong the distinction of having co-operated
with the artists in educating the public taste to a point
* To l.eonard W. Volk. th<- iculptor, who generously proffered tin use â– â– (
hi* extensive and uniriii.- < -,11- rt ton of newsparxr art ir Irs, catalogues and other
pamphlet* relating to art matters, preserved by him with great care for many
year*, the compiler iÂ» indebted for much valuable matter.
where genuine love for Art created a demand for its
finest productions. To this union of effort, on the part
of artists and connoisseurs, is due a progress in this
direction which is absolutely without parallel in any
city in the country.
On March 22, 1859, a meeting was called, to be held
at the rooms of the Historical Society in the Newberry
Block, the object of which was
"To devise a plan for an Art Exposition, to consist of such
select and approved paintings and sculptures as are in possession
of our citizens, in order to afford to the public, and especially all
persons interested in the Fine Arts, an opportunity to gratify and
improve their taste in Art matters."
As a result of the deliberations of this meeting, an
invitation to contributors was announced on April 12;
and on May 9 the first Art Exposition in Chicago was
formally opened to the public in Burch's Building,
corner of Lake Street and Wabash Avenue. The num-
ber of contributors was about seventy; the catalogue
showed the presence of about three hundred and sixty-
nine works of art, consisting of twenty specimens of
statuary, over three hundred and twenty paintings in oil,
and some twenty in crayon and water colors. The
entire number of visitors registered was twelve thou-
sand; gross receipts from admission fees and sales of
ART AND ARCHITECTURE.
catalogues amounted to $1,942.99; and the total dis-
bursements were $1,123.55.
Encouraged by the success attending this exhibition,
some of the artists and art connoisseurs formed an or-
ganization known as the Chicago Art Union, having for
its object the encouragement of Fine Art in the West.
The first exhibition of this society was given in the
gallery of Mr. Hesler, at No. 113 Lake Street, and in-
cluded works of Volk, Healy, Strong and Tracy. The
MASK OF LINCOLN.
exhibition was opened on December 5, 1859, and closed,
on or about January 1, i860, with a distribution of forty-
seven specimens of paintings and statuary, valued at
$2,400, among the holders of eight hundred tickets.
One of the most noteworthy events connected with
the history of art in this city, during the period covered
by the present sketch, was the execution by L. W. Volk,
of a bust of Abraham Lincoln, from a mask cast in
plaster from the features of the original, shortly before
his nomination for the presidency in i860. This bust,
on account of its fidelity and delicacy of execution, ex-
cited much interest not only in art circles but also in
every grade of society througout the land. The
original was presented by Mr. Volk to the Crosby Opera
House Art Association in 1866, and was exhibited at
the Paris Exposition of the succeeding year.
No other Art Exposition worthy of mention occurred
in Chicago until December, 1862, when L. W. Volk,
sculptor, and John Antrobus, painter, opened a gallery
in the brick building at the northeast corner of State
and Washington streets. This building, formerly a pri-
vate residence, was remodeled with special reference
to the new use for which it was designed, and was then
known as the Art Building. This gallery was intended
for the reception and free exhibition of specimens of the
fine arts, by local and foreign artists of repute. The
enterprise met with much favor; and while it afforded
to artists a convenient method of bringing before the
public works which they offered for sale, it was of great
value as an educator of the public taste.
During the last week of October and the first week
of November, 1863, the Ladies' Northwestern Fair for
the benefit of the Sanitary Commission was held.
One of the departments which attracted most atten-
tion from visitors was the Art Callery, which was
opened at McVicker's Theatre, under the manage-
ment of the following committee: Mrs. J. S. Colt, of
Milwaukee; Mrs. D. P. Livermore, of Chicago; Mrs
Doctor Carr, of Madison; and Miss Valeria Camp-
bell, of Detroit. Leonard W. Volk was the manager
of the gallery. Among the contributors from Chi-
cago were W. L. Newberry, E. B. McCagg, U. H.
Crosby, G. P. A. Healy, Dr. Rogers, Dr. Daniel
Brainard, M. D. Ogden, W. B. Ogden, Bishops White-
house and Duggan, William Bross, George Stevens,
L. W. Volk, Mark Skinner, H. C. Ford, Joseph
Medill, Thomas Hoyne, S. H. Kerfoot, J. Y. Scam-
mon and E. Peck. Three hundred and twenty-three
works of art were catalogued, and a comparison witli
the Exhibition of 1859 shows a marked growth in
culture and the refinements of civilized life. Not
more than two of the owners of private galleries
declined to loan some of their choicest works to the
exhibition, and many artists exhibited some of the
finest specimens of their work. The interest shown